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  • 1
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    Tübingen: Mohr | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wirtschaftspolitische Wirkungsanalyse ; EU-Staaten ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:book
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  • 2
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    Tübingen: Mohr | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Deregulierung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 3
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    Kiel: Institut für Weltwirtschaft (IfW) | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Description: There are only few estimates of the returns on contributions to the German public pension System (GPPS). Those that are published ränge between nominal rates of future returns between about 4,5 % and 48 %, indicating that GPPS treats different groups of people differently. The authors develop a methodology of calculating rates of return of GPPS contributions and apply it to a standardised retiree and to the average retiree, both male and female. The outcome is that the present System implies negative real rates of return for future retirees. It is argued that the returns on contributions have nothing to do with investment returns prevailing on the capital market and that the currently discussed plans for reforming the German social-security System will lead to a further deterioration of the whole system.
    Keywords: G23 ; H55 ; ddc:330 ; Gesetzliche Rentenversicherung ; Kapitalertrag ; Sozialhilfeempfänger ; Rentenfinanzierung ; Sozialtransfer ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Kiel: Institut für Weltwirtschaft (IfW) | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Description: Economic theory and empirical evidence suggest that governments might usefully intervene in high-technology competition in two ways: First, they could act as a neutral agent that creates the necessary credibility, commitment and mutual trust among private companies so as to facilitate cooperation in high-risk, high-volume R&D. Second, if — in view of the externalities involved — an element of subsidization is to be added, this could be done in a nondiscriminatory fashion. A favourable tax treatment of R&D expenditures may be the most appropriate tool to achieve this task. In practice, governments do engage in targeted industrial and technology policies, whether justified on economic grounds or not. As a consequence, the string of trade conflicts in hightech industries that began in the 1980s is unlikely to end in the near future, unless substantial reforms are undertaken in some crucial areas of the international trade order. Above all, appropriate reform steps should be made with a view to the regulations on (i) subsidies, (ii) structural impediments, and (iii) dumping and anti-dumping. To mitigate the frictions that arise from a subsidization of domestic firms, a new set of rules should be established. The rules should provide that all plans to grant or to alter existing subsidies are to be notified to and approved by the WTO. Moreover, all subsidies should be ranked according to their potential distortional effects on competition and trade. For each category, quantitative limits that constrain the provision of subsidies to a certain fraction of the subsidy base should be set. To facilitate further liberalization steps, a country should be allowed to exceed these limits, if a national subsidy program offers an open access to firms located in third markets. Besides restrictive business practices of private firms, government regulations and technical standards are the most important structural impediments to trade. Existing GATT Articles already offer a multilateral route to conflict resolution in cases of structural impediments. However, this route has not been used by complainants up to now. The so-called "non-violation" clause of Article 23 GATT provides access to a multilateral dispute settlement even if the defending country has not explicitly violated GATT rules. This route should be tested and, if necessary, improved. To reduce the potential for a protectionist abuse of existing anti-dumping regulations, explicit reference to the state of competition in the relevant exporting and importing country markets should be made in anti-dumping investigations. To meet specific anti-trust concerns in hightech competition — notably with respect to network externalities, systems leverage, standardization, and innovation cartels — one might consider adopting the Draft International Antitrust Code (DIAC) that has recently been proposed by an international group of legal experts.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Kiel: Institut für Weltwirtschaft (IfW) | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Description: Die "Politik des sozialen Wachstums", mit der die jetzige französische Regierung angetreten war, hat nicht die erhofften Früchte getragen. Die kräftige Erhöhung von Mindestlöhnen und Mindestrenten, die Verkürzung der Wochen- und Lebensarbeitszeit sowie eine schärfere Besteuerung gingen einher mit einem weiteren Anstieg der Arbeitslosigkeit. Das außenwirtschaftliche Ungleichgewicht der letzten Jahre spiegelt weniger einen fundamentalen Mangel an internationaler Wettbewerbsfähigkeit wider als vielmehr die Ergebnisse einer verfehlten Globalsteuerung. Die neue Planification Francaise hat vor allem zum Ziel, die französische Wirtschaft bei Schlüsseltechnologien stärker autark zu machen und die Einfuhr generell zurückzudrängen. Zu diesem Zweck ist das Instrumentarium der Planifikation ausgebaut und verschärft worden: Die "Kommandohöhen" der Wirtschaft sind jetzt durchweg in staatlicher Hand, die zudem auch den Kredithahn kontrolliert. Eine bewußte Konzentrationspolitik soll die Kontrolle erleichtern. Die französische Regierung verfügt somit über ein Instrumentarium, das - über die Maßen angewendet - geeignet ist, die Rückeroberung des Binnenmarktes zu erreichen. Die Importsubstitutionspolitik der französischen Regierung droht die Grundlage des gemeinsamen Marktes zu gefährden. Bislang bemühte sich die französische Regierung um eine Erhöhung der EG-Protektion gegenüber Drittländern, sie scheute dabei vor nationalen Alleingängen nicht zurück. Aber wie man die Dinge auch wendet: Eine Verwirklichung der französischen Pläne zur Rückeroberung des heimischen Marktes bedroht auch den Kern der westeuropäischen Zollunion, den freien innergemeinschaftlichen Warenverkehr. Dies gilt unabhängig davon, ob es um Beschränkungen der Einfuhren aus dem, Subventionen für französische Produzenten oder sonstige Eingriffe mit d eines "geordneten" freien Handels geht.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Description: Table of Contents: I. External Challenges 12 1. The Transformation of Central and Eastern Europe 12 a. Trends in Central and Eastern Europe's Emerging Market Economies (EMEs) 12 b. The Impact on Germany 14 c. Political Consequences 14 2. Migration Pressures 16 a. The European Perspective 16 b. The German Perspective 18 c. Some Policy Issues 21 3. The Multilateral Trading System 22 a. Rising Tide of Protectionism 22 b. The German Trade Policy Stance 23 c. Perspectives 24 4. Industrial Policy 25 a. The Recent Controversy 25 b. The Record of Interventions 27 c. Future Prospects 28 5. The Adjustment of Agriculture 29 a. Global Prospects 29 b. The Reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 30 6. European Integration 32 a. Monetary Union 32 b. Financial Markets 34 c. EC Initiatives on Social Policy 36 II. Internal Challenges 40 1. German Unification 40 a. The Rising Fiscal Burden 40 b. Economic Dualization 41 c. Digression: The "Treuhand" Record and Prospects 42 d. New Regional Growth Patterns 43 e. Political Pragmatism 45 2. Demography and the Welfare State 46 a. Facts and Forecasts 46 b. Implications for the Welfare State 50 3. Labour Markets and Collective Bargaining 52 a. Trends and Developments 52 b. The Future of Unionism 53 HI. Resources and Infrastructure 55 1. Energy and the Environment 55 a. Energy and Environmental Policy in the EC and in Germany 55 b. The Eastern German Energy Market and Environmental Targets 57 2. Transport 57 a. General Trends in Europe 57 b. The German Situation 59 c. Policy: Consensus and Controversies 60 d. Supranational Matter: The Role of the EC 61
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wirtschaftspolitik ; Wirtschaftsprognose ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Kiel: Institut für Weltwirtschaft (IfW) | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Description: This paper is concerned with establishing the data base that is necessary to analyse the double bürden argument which has been used to reject a sweeping reform of the German old-age pension System. We show that this argument does not hold if the existing pay-as-you-go system were to be replaced with a System of tax-funded flat-rate payments for the old. We provide some 80 tables containing estimates of Claims on the public-pension System in the year 2000 (the postulated year of transition) and projections of Claims on a future system of flat-rate old-age payments.
    Keywords: H55 ; ddc:330 ; Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung ; Rentenreform ; Mindestrente ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Rentenfinanzierung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 8
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    Kiel: Institut für Weltwirtschaft (IfW) | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Gesetzliche Rentenversicherung ; Sozialreform ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 9
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    Kiel: Institut für Weltwirtschaft (IfW) | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Internationaler Finanzmarkt ; Bankenpolitik ; Finanzdienstleistung ; Globalisierung ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Kiel: Institut für Weltwirtschaft (IfW) | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Description: It is a well-established tradition to define the subject before embarking on an investigation. In our case, definition is to be concerned with economic development and scientific-technical progress. The former poses no problem in the economist's profession. According to Mirabeau, every moral or physical advance can be grasped by one indicator, which he called the net product. Today, Mirabeau would probably encounter objections as far as the measurement of moral progress by the net product is concerned, although some would argue that also today morals, as well as gods, are always with the winners. Anyhow, real changes in the availability of goods and services is, according to national and international standards, measured by changes in real net social product; conceptual problems - e.g., of how to treat the non-pecuniary costs (environmental pollution) and benefits (value added of housewives) - are, of course, part of every measurement. What matters here is that the approach as such is hardly controversial.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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