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  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: Using Pioneer Venus data, hydrogen and deuterium ions are shown to escape from the hydrogen bulge region in the nightside ionosphere. The polarization electric field propels these light ions upward through the ionosphere and into the ion-exosphere, where H(+) and D(+) continue to be accelerated away from Venus and move into the ionotail and beyond. The vertical flow speeds of H(+) and D(+) are found to be about the same; therefore, selective escape between H(+) and D(+) is negligible for this mechanism. Present day planetary loss rates of about 8.6 x 10(exp 25)/s and 3.2 X 10(exp 23)/s were obtained for H(+) and D(+), respectively. Such rates, persisting over a few billion years, should have significantly affected the planetary water budget.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 4; p. (4)117-(4)122
    Format: text
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  • 2
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The concepts of an Earth Observing System (EOS), an information system being developed by the EOS Science and Mission Requirements Working Group for international use and planned to begin in the 1990s, are discussed. The EOS is designed to study the factors that control the earth's hydrologic cycle, biochemical cycles, and climatologic processes by combining the measurements from remote sensing instruments, in situ measurement devices, and a data and information system. Three EOS platforms are planned to be launched into low, polar, sun-synchronous orbits during the Space Station's Initial Operating Configuration, one to be provided by ESA and two by the United States.
    Keywords: ASTRONAUTICS (GENERAL)
    Type: IAF PAPER 86-72
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] A second encounter took place on September 21 1974 but the spacecraft passed the planet on the Sunward side at too great a distance to permit observations inside the planet's bow shock. The third and last encounter (Mercury III) took place on March 16 1975 at which time the spacecraft passed within ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 225 (1970), S. 533-534 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We have used the observed properties of the solar wind2 to determine order of magnitude estimates of the characteristic parameters in this interaction. A pressure balance at the stagnation point formed with the streaming pressure of the solar wind leads to a magnetic field build-up of ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: From Mariner 10 third encounter UV data, a value of .00045 was calculated as the fraction of the solar wind He++ flux intercepted and captured by Mercury's magnetosphere if the observed He atmosphere is maintained by the solar wind. If an internal source for He prevails, the corresponding upper bound for the global outgassing rate is estimated to be 4.5 x 10 to the 22nd power per sec. A surface temperature distribution was used which satisfies the heat equation over Mercury's entire surface using Mariner 10 determined mean surface thermal characteristics. The means stand off distance of Mercury's magnetopause averaged over Mercury's orbit was also used.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-78056 , X-621-77-269
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Nonthermal heating in two fluid solar wind model
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-63864 , X-621-70-114
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The problem of thermal escape is considered in which both the effects of thermospheric winds at the exobase and collisions below the exobase are included in a Monte Carlo calculation. The collisions are included by means of a collisional relaxation layer of a background gas which models the transition region between the exosphere and the thermosphere. The wind effects are considered in the limiting cases of vertical and horizontal flows. Two species are considered: terrestrial hydrogen and terrestrial helium. In the cases of terrestrial hydrogen the escape fluxes were found to be strongly filtered or throttled by collisions at high exospheric temperatures. The model is applied to molecular hydrogen diffusing through a methane relaxation layer under conditions possible on Titan. The results are similar to the case of terrestrial hydrogen with wind enhanced escape being strongly suppressed by collisions. It is concluded that wind enhanced escape is not an important process on Titan.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-71251 , X-621-76-290
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: Many of the small to medium sized objects in the solar system can be characterized as having surface bounded exospheres, or atmospheres so tenuous that scale lengths for inter-particle collisions are much larger than the dimensions of the objects. The atmospheres of these objects are the product of their surfaces, both the surface composition and the interactions that occur on them and also their interiors when gases escape from there. Thus by studying surface bounded exospheres it is possible to develop insight into the composition and processes that are taking place on the surface and interiors of these objects. The Moon and Mercury are two examples of planetary bodies with surface bounded exospheres that have been studied through spectroscopic observations of sodium, potassium, and, on the moon, mass spectrometric measurements of lunar gases such as argon and helium.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 11; LPI-Contrib-1234-Pt-11
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Two topics related to the interaction of the solar wind with Venus are considered. First, a short review of the experimental evidence with particular attention to plasma measurements carried out on Mariner-5 and Mariner-10 is given. Secondly, the results of some recent theoretical work on the interaction of the solar wind with the ionosphere of Venus are summarized.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Solar-Wind Interaction with the Planets, Mercury, Venus, and Mars; p 63-80
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The two-fluid solar-wind model is extended by including the collisionless dissipation of hydromagnetic waves originating at the sun. A series of solar wind models is generated, parameterized by the total energy flux of hydromagnetic waves at the base of the model. The resulting properties of propagation and dissipating of hydromagnetic waves on this model are presented.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: Solar Wind; p 248-251
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