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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2004-02-21
    Description: The Sir2 deacetylase modulates organismal life-span in various species. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Sir2 increases longevity are largely unknown. We show that in mammalian cells, the Sir2 homolog SIRT1 appears to control the cellular response to stress by regulating the FOXO family of Forkhead transcription factors, a family of proteins that function as sensors of the insulin signaling pathway and as regulators of organismal longevity. SIRT1 and the FOXO transcription factor FOXO3 formed a complex in cells in response to oxidative stress, and SIRT1 deacetylated FOXO3 in vitro and within cells. SIRT1 had a dual effect on FOXO3 function: SIRT1 increased FOXO3's ability to induce cell cycle arrest and resistance to oxidative stress but inhibited FOXO3's ability to induce cell death. Thus, one way in which members of the Sir2 family of proteins may increase organismal longevity is by tipping FOXO-dependent responses away from apoptosis and toward stress resistance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brunet, Anne -- Sweeney, Lora B -- Sturgill, J Fitzhugh -- Chua, Katrin F -- Greer, Paul L -- Lin, Yingxi -- Tran, Hien -- Ross, Sarah E -- Mostoslavsky, Raul -- Cohen, Haim Y -- Hu, Linda S -- Cheng, Hwei-Ling -- Jedrychowski, Mark P -- Gygi, Steven P -- Sinclair, David A -- Alt, Frederick W -- Greenberg, Michael E -- NIHP30-HD18655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P01 NS35138-17/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2004 Mar 26;303(5666):2011-5. Epub 2004 Feb 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Neuroscience, Children's Hospital, and Department of Neurobiology, Center for Blood Research (CBR) Institute for Biomedical Research, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Animals ; Apoptosis ; Cell Cycle ; Cell Line ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; Cells, Cultured ; Cerebellum/cytology ; Forkhead Transcription Factors ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Histone Deacetylases/genetics/*metabolism ; Humans ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Neurons/cytology ; *Oxidative Stress ; Phosphorylation ; Proteins/genetics ; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism ; Sirtuin 1 ; Sirtuins/genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-03-31
    Description: Brown and beige adipose tissues can dissipate chemical energy as heat through thermogenic respiration, which requires uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Thermogenesis from these adipocytes can combat obesity and diabetes, encouraging investigation of factors that control UCP1-dependent respiration in vivo. Here we show that acutely activated thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue is defined by a substantial increase in levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Remarkably, this process supports in vivo thermogenesis, as pharmacological depletion of mitochondrial ROS results in hypothermia upon cold exposure, and inhibits UCP1-dependent increases in whole-body energy expenditure. We further establish that thermogenic ROS alter the redox status of cysteine thiols in brown adipose tissue to drive increased respiration, and that Cys253 of UCP1 is a key target. UCP1 Cys253 is sulfenylated during thermogenesis, while mutation of this site desensitizes the purine-nucleotide-inhibited state of the carrier to adrenergic activation and uncoupling. These studies identify mitochondrial ROS induction in brown adipose tissue as a mechanism that supports UCP1-dependent thermogenesis and whole-body energy expenditure, which opens the way to improved therapeutic strategies for combating metabolic disorders.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chouchani, Edward T -- Kazak, Lawrence -- Jedrychowski, Mark P -- Lu, Gina Z -- Erickson, Brian K -- Szpyt, John -- Pierce, Kerry A -- Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina -- Vetrivelan, Ramalingam -- Clish, Clary B -- Robinson, Alan J -- Gygi, Steve P -- Spiegelman, Bruce M -- DK31405/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):112-6. doi: 10.1038/nature17399. Epub 2016 Mar 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue, Brown/chemistry/cytology/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Respiration ; Cysteine/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; *Energy Metabolism/drug effects ; Female ; Humans ; Ion Channels/*chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mitochondria/drug effects/*metabolism ; Mitochondrial Proteins/*chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Reactive Oxygen Species/*metabolism ; Sulfhydryl Compounds/metabolism ; *Thermogenesis/drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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