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  • 1985-1989  (5)
Collection
Publisher
Years
Year
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 0066-4162
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Alongtrack data collected with the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner instrument were used to study an observed limb-darkening phenomenon. A numerical model developed for the longwave exitance as a function of the SZA has agreed well with ERBE data, indicating that the atmosphere is in adiabatic, rather than radiative, equilibrium. A corrected form of the model has been defined for SZA over 60 deg. The model was used to parameterize diurnal data for the Sahara-Saudi and Australian deserts.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Early results are reported from measurements of the diurnal variability of total and clear-sky regional radiative parameters by the ERBE instruments on one dedicated satellite and the polar-orbiting NOAA-9 satellite. Attention is focused on November 1984, the first complete data set. The scene is identified in terms of longwave and shortwave radiances (daytime) or longwave radiation (night) and maximum likelihood estimates carried out with the addition of Earth Radiation Budget data from Nimbus-7. Analysis of the first data set revealed significant differences between total and clear-sky albedo. The clear-sky and LRE both reach maximum around noon and minimum values at midnight.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2006-02-14
    Description: In the past, flight experiments to define the meteoroid environment near the Earth and in interplanetary space were undertaken. The effectiveness of meteoroid bumpers was investigated. These flight experiments were aboard Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and Explorer 46. Hypervelocity impact tests were conducted in the laboratory to study protective structures and the composition of meteoroids from the hundreds of meteor spectra obtained. It was also found that manmade debris presented a similar hazard to spacecraft near the Earth. An assessment of that hazard is made in this paper. An analysis of the collision probability problem with much attention given to the population of small untrackable fragments created during explosions is presented.
    Keywords: ASTRONAUTICS (GENERAL)
    Type: NASA. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Orbital Debris; p 45-68
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A brief description is given of how temporal and spatial variability in the earth's radiative behavior influences the goals of satellite radiation monitoring systems and how some previous systems have addressed the existing problems. Then, results of some simulations of radiation budget monitoring missions are presented. These studies led to the design of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). A description is given of the temporal and spatial averaging algorithms developed for the ERBE data analysis. These algorithms are intended primarily to produce monthly averages of the net radiant exitance on regional, zonal, and global scales and to provide insight into the regional diurnal variability of radiative parameters such as albedo and long-wave radiant exitance. The algorithms are applied to scanner and nonscanner data for up to three satellites. Modeling of dialy shortwave albedo and radiant exitance with satellite samling that is insufficient to fully account for changing meteorology is discussed in detail. Studies performed during the ERBE mission and software design are reviewed. These studies provide quantitative estimates of the effects of temporally sparse and biased sampling on inferred diurnal and regional radiative parameters. Other topics covered include long-wave diurnal modeling, extraction of a regional monthly net clear-sky radiation budget, the statistical significance of observed diurnal variability, quality control of the analysis, and proposals for validating the results of ERBE time and space averaging.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Reviews of Geophysics (ISSN 8755-1209); 24; 422-438
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