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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Since the first module was assembled on the International Space Station (ISS), on-orbit investigations have been underway across all scientific disciplines. The facilities dedicated to research on ISS have supported over 1100 investigations from over 900 scientists representing over 60 countries. Relatively few of these investigations are tracked through the traditional NASA grants monitoring process and with ISS National Laboratory use growing, the ISS Program Scientist s Office has been tasked with tracking all ISS investigations from objectives to results. Detailed information regarding each investigation is now collected once, at the first point it is proposed for flight, and is kept in an online database that serves as a single source of information on the core objectives of each investigation. Different fields are used to provide the appropriate level of detail for research planning, astronaut training, and public communications. http://www.nasa.gov/iss-science/. With each successive year, publications of ISS scientific results, which are used to measure success of the research program, have shown steady increases in all scientific research areas on the ISS. Accurately identifying, collecting, and assessing the research results publications is a challenge and a priority for the ISS research program, and we will discuss the approaches that the ISS Program Science Office employs to meet this challenge. We will also address the online resources available to support outreach and communication of ISS research to the public. Keywords: International Space Station, Database, Tracking, Methods
    Keywords: Space Sciences (General)
    Type: JSC-CN-24701 , American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology; Nov 02, 2011 - Nov 06, 2011; San Jose, CA; United States
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: With the retirement of the Space Shuttle and the transition of the International Space Station (ISS) from assembly to full laboratory capabilities, the opportunity to perform life science research in space has increased dramatically, while the operational considerations associated with transportation of the experiments has changed dramatically. US researchers have allocations on the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) and Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). In addition, the International Space Station (ISS) Cargo Resupply Services (CRS) contract will provide consumables and payloads to and from the ISS via the unmanned SpaceX (offers launch and return capabilities) and Orbital (offers only launch capabilities) resupply vehicles. Early requirements drove the capabilities of the vehicle providers; however, many other engineering considerations affect the actual design and operations plans. To better enable the use of the International Space Station as a National Laboratory, ground and on-orbit facility development can augment the vehicle capabilities to better support needs for cell biology, animal research, and conditioned sample return. NASA Life scientists with experience launching research on the space shuttle can find the trades between the capabilities of the many different vehicles to be confusing. In this presentation we will summarize vehicle and associated ground processing capabilities as well as key concepts of operations for different types of life sciences research being launched in the cargo vehicles. We will provide the latest status of vehicle capabilities and support hardware and facilities development being made to enable the broadest implementation of life sciences research on the ISS.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: JSC-CN-24700 , American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology; Nov 02, 2011 - Nov 06, 2011; San Jose, CA; United States
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !
    Keywords: Economics and Cost Analysis
    Type: KSC-2012-062 , 48th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference; Jul 30, 2012 - Aug 01, 2012; Atlanta, GA; United States
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A general architectural design sequence is described to create a highly efficient, operable, and supportable design that achieves an affordable, repeatable, and sustainable transportation function. The paper covers the following aspects of this approach in more detail: (1) vehicle architectural concept considerations (including important strategies for greater reusability); (2) vehicle element propulsion system packaging considerations; (3) vehicle element functional definition; (4) external ground servicing and access considerations; and, (5) simplified guidance, navigation, flight control and avionics communications considerations. Additionally, a technology integration strategy is forwarded that includes: (a) ground and flight test prior to production commitments; (b) parallel stage propellant storage, such as concentric-nested tanks; (c) high thrust, LOX-rich, LOX-cooled first stage earth-to-orbit main engine; (d) non-toxic, day-of-launch-loaded propellants for upper stages and in-space propulsion; (e) electric propulsion and aero stage control.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: KSC-2011-031 , KSC-2011-031R , KSC-2011-031RR , 47th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference; Jul 31, 2011 - Aug 03, 2011; San Diego, CA; United States
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-03-20
    Description: The study of genetic influences on drug response and efficacy (‘pharmacogenetics’) has existed for over 50 years. Yet, we still lack a complete picture of how genetic variation, both common and rare, affects each individual's responses to medications. Exome sequencing is a promising alternative method for pharmacogenetic discovery as it provides information on both common and rare variation in large numbers of individuals. Using exome data from 2203 AA and 4300 Caucasian individuals through the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project, we conducted a survey of coding variation within 12 Cytochrome P450 ( CYP ) genes that are collectively responsible for catalyzing nearly 75% of all known Phase I drug oxidation reactions. In addition to identifying many polymorphisms with known pharmacogenetic effects, we discovered over 730 novel nonsynonymous alleles across the 12 CYP genes of interest. These alleles include many with diverse functional effects such as premature stop codons, aberrant splicesites and mutations at conserved active site residues. Our analysis considering both novel, predicted functional alleles as well as known, actionable CYP alleles reveals that rare, deleterious variation contributes markedly to the overall burden of pharmacogenetic alleles within the populations considered, and that the contribution of rare variation to this burden is over three times greater in AA individuals as compared with Caucasians. While most of these impactful alleles are individually rare, 7.6–11.7% of individuals interrogated in the study carry at least one newly described potentially deleterious alleles in a major drug-metabolizing CYP .
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-03-26
    Description: Many ion channels, both selective and nonselective, have reentrant pore loops that contribute to the architecture of the permeation pathway. It is a fundamental feature of these diverse channels, regardless of whether they are gated by changes of membrane potential or by neurotransmitters, and is critical to function of the...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-09-30
    Description: There is a global trend in the depletion of transient reef fish spawning aggregations ("FSAs"), making them a primary target for management with marine protected areas (MPAs). Here, we review the observed and likely effectiveness of FSA MPAs, discuss how future studies could fill knowledge gaps, and provide recommendations for MPA design based on species' life history and behaviour, enforcement potential, and management goals. Modelling studies indicate that FSA MPAs can increase spawning-stock biomass and normalize sex ratio in protogynous fish populations, unless fishing mortality remains high outside protected FSA sites and spawning times. In the field, observations of no change or continued decline in spawning biomass are more common than population recovery. When empirical studies suggest that FSA MPAs may not benefit fish productivity or recovery, extenuating factors such as insufficient time since MPA creation, poor or lack of enforcement, inadequate design, and poorly defined management objectives are generally blamed rather than failure of the MPA concept. Results from both the empirical and modelling literature indicate that FSA MPAs may not improve exploitable biomass and fisheries yields; however, investigations are currently too limited to draw conclusions on this point. To implement effective FSA MPAs, additional modelling work, long-term monitoring programmes at FSA sites, and collections of fisheries-dependent data are required, with greater attention paid to the design and enforcement of area closures. We recommend a harmonized, adaptive approach that combines FSA MPA design with additional management measures to achieve explicitly stated objectives. Conservation objectives and, therefore, an overall reduction in mortality rates should be targeted first. Fisheries objectives build on conservation objectives, in that they require an overall reduction in mortality rates while maintaining sufficient access to exploitable biomass. Communication among researchers, regulatory agencies, park authorities, and fishers will be paramount for effective action, along with significant funds for implementation and enforcement.
    Print ISSN: 1054-3139
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9289
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-09-29
    Print ISSN: 0952-8873
    Electronic ISSN: 1464-374X
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Law
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-07-31
    Description: We present lower/middle tropospheric column-averaged CH4 mole fraction time series measured by nine globally distributed ground-based FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) remote sensing experiments of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). We show that these data are well representative of the tropospheric regional-scale CH4 signal, largely independent of the local surface small-scale signals, and only weakly dependent on upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric (UTLS) CH4 variations. In order to achieve the weak dependency on the UTLS, we use an a posteriori correction method. We estimate a typical precision for daily mean values of about 0.5% and a systematic error of about 2.5%. The theoretical assessments are complemented by an extensive empirical study. For this purpose, we use surface in situ CH4 measurements made within the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) network and compare them to the remote sensing data. We briefly discuss different filter methods for removing the local small-scale signals from the surface in situ data sets in order to obtain the in situ regional-scale signals. We find good agreement between the filtered in situ and the remote sensing data. The agreement is consistent for a variety of timescales that are interesting for CH4 source/sink research: day-to-day, monthly, and inter-annual. The comparison study confirms our theoretical estimations and proves that the NDACC FTIR measurements can provide valuable data for investigating the cycle of CH4.
    Print ISSN: 1867-1381
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8548
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-04-02
    Description: Here, we report preliminary estimates of the column averaged carbon dioxide (CO2) dry air mole fraction, XCO2, retrieved from spectra recorded over land by the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite, GOSAT (nicknamed "Ibuki"), using retrieval methods originally developed for the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission. After screening for clouds and other known error sources, these retrievals reproduce much of the expected structure in the global XCO2 field, including its variation with latitude and season. However, low yields of retrieved XCO2 over persistently cloudy areas and ice covered surfaces at high latitudes limit the coverage of some geographic regions, even on seasonal time scales. Comparisons of early GOSAT XCO2 retrievals with XCO2 estimates from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) revealed a global, −2% (7–8 parts per million, ppm, with respect to dry air) XCO2 bias and 2 to 3 times more variance in the GOSAT retrievals. About half of the global XCO2 bias is associated with a systematic, 1% overestimate in the retrieved air mass, first identified as a global +10 hPa bias in the retrieved surface pressure. This error has been attributed to errors in the O2 A-band absorption cross sections. Much of the remaining bias and spurious variance in the GOSAT XCO2 retrievals has been traced to uncertainties in the instrument's calibration, oversimplified methods for generating O2 and CO2 absorption cross sections, and other subtle errors in the implementation of the retrieval algorithm. Many of these deficiencies have been addressed in the most recent version (Build 2.9) of the retrieval algorithm, which produces negligible bias in XCO2 on global scales as well as a ~30% reduction in variance. Comparisons with TCCON measurements indicate that regional scale biases remain, but these could be reduced by applying empirical corrections like those described by Wunch et al. (2011b). We recommend that such corrections be applied before these data are used in source sink inversion studies to minimize spurious fluxes associated with known biases. These and other lessons learned from the analysis of GOSAT data are expected to accelerate the delivery of high quality data products from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), once that satellite is successfully launched and inserted into orbit.
    Print ISSN: 1867-1381
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8548
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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