Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 114 (2009): C09013, doi:10.1029/2008JC005183.
Here we use observations and ocean models to identify mechanisms driving large seasonal to interannual variations in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved oxygen (O2) in the upper ocean. We begin with observations linking variations in upper ocean DIC and O2 inventories with changes in the physical state of the ocean. Models are subsequently used to address the extent to which the relationships derived from short-timescale (6 months to 2 years) repeat measurements are representative of variations over larger spatial and temporal scales. The main new result is that convergence and divergence (column stretching) attributed to baroclinic Rossby waves can make a first-order contribution to DIC and O2 variability in the upper ocean. This results in a close correspondence between natural variations in DIC and O2 column inventory variations and sea surface height (SSH) variations over much of the ocean. Oceanic Rossby wave activity is an intrinsic part of the natural variability in the climate system and is elevated even in the absence of significant interannual variability in climate mode indices. The close correspondence between SSH and both DIC and O2 column inventories for many regions suggests that SSH changes (inferred from satellite altimetry) may prove useful in reducing uncertainty in separating natural and anthropogenic DIC signals (using measurements from Climate Variability and Predictability's CO2/Repeat Hydrography program).
This report was prepared by K.B.R. under awards
NA17RJ2612 and NA08OAR4320752, which includes support through
the NOAA Office of Climate Observations (OCO). The statements, findings,
conclusions, and recommendations are those of the authors and do not
necessarily reflect the views of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration or the U.S. Department of Commerce. Support for K.B.R.
was also provided by the Carbon Mitigation Initiative (CMI) through the
support of BP, Amaco, and Ford. R.M.K. was supported by NOAA grants
NA17RJ2612, NA08OAR4320752, and NA08OAR4310820. F.F.P. was
supported by the European Union FP6 CARBOOCEAN Integrated project
(contract 51176), the French OVIDE project, and the Spanish Salvador de
Madariaga program (PR2006– 0523). This work was also supported by the
European NOCES project (EVK2-CT201-00134). Y.Y. and A.I. are partly
supported by CREST, JST of Japan. The long-term OISO observational
program in the South Indian Ocean is supported by the following three
French institutes: INSU (Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers), IPSL
(Institute Pierre-Simon Laplace), and IPEV (Institut Paul-Emile Victor).
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