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  • Canopy conductance  (2)
  • Heterosis  (2)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Trees 1 (1987), S. 219-224 
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Larix ; Heterosis ; Photosynthesis ; Stomatal conductance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Individual 33-year-old forest trees of the deciduous conifer speciesLarix decidua, Larix leptolepis andLarix decidua x leptolepis were investigated with respect to the phenomenon of stem heterosis in hybrid larch; the first part of this study compares the gas exchange responses of leaves. CO2 assimilation per leaf area was similar in the three larch species, but on a dry weight basis the nitrogen content of the needles and maximum CO2 assimilation rate (Amax) were slightly higher in the hybrid. This increase was accompanied by a higher protein content than in the Japanese and a lower specific leaf weight than in the European larch. All three species were similar in terms of the photosynthetic “nitrogen use” and stomatal conductance atA max. The similar slopes of the area-related steady-state responses of gas exchange against irradiance, evaporative demand and internal CO2 concentration led to similar rates of CO2 uptake under ambient conditions. The natural combinations and variability of the environmental factors also reduced the small dry weight-related difference inA max between hybrid larch and the parent species, such that all trees achieved similar daily carbon gains. Thus, the ecological significance of small interspecific differences in the metabolism of leaves has very little effect under the natural habitat conditions of a temperate climate. The second part of the study will investigate the effect of growth characteristics on the heterosis of hybrid larch.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Trees 1 (1987), S. 225-231 
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Larix ; Heterosis ; Growth ; Branching pattern ; Needle density
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Among 33-year-old forest trees ofLarix decidua, L. leptolepis andL. decidua x leptolepis, the hybrid possessed an above-ground biomass which was three times greater, although all larches displayed similar relative distributions of biomass. At a “relative growth rate” slightly lower than in the parent species, hybrid larch achieved twice the annual carbon gain, increment in stem length and above-ground production, and its foliage-related stem growth was higher than in European (L. decidua) but similar to Japanese (L. leptolepis) larch. A similar “relative growth efficiency” and foliage-related total above-ground production in all trees did reflect the similarity of photosynthetic capacity of the hybrid found at the leaf level. While the lengths of lateral twigs on hybrid branches were intermediate between the European larch with short, and the Japanese larch with large, twigs the hybrid possessed the longest branches with the highest needle biomass. This resulted in a crown structure of the hybrid crown similar to the Japanese larch together with a high needle density on branches as in the European larch. In total, the foliage biomass per crown length was about 30% higher in hybrid larch than in both of the parent species. Thus, the high carbon input for the stem heterosis was based on a “complementation principle” of advantageous parent features at the crown level. Similar slopes of foliage against sapwood area of stem and branches did not indicate a special need for a thick hybrid stem with respect to water transport.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Canopy conductance ; Canopy transpiration ; Xylem sap flow ; Humidity response of stomatal ; Nothofagus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Tree transpiration was determined by xylem sap flow and eddy correlation measurements in a temperate broad-leaved forest of Nothofagus in New Zealand (tree height: up to 36 m, one-sided leaf area index: 7). Measurements were carried out on a plot which had similar stem circumference and basal area per ground area as the stand. Plot sap flux density agreed with tree canopy transpiration rate determined by the difference between above-canopy eddy correlation and forest floor lysimeter evaporation measurements. Daily sap flux varied by an order of magnitude among trees (2 to 87 kg day−1 tree−1). Over 50% of plot sap flux density originated from 3 of 14 trees which emerged 2 to 5 m above the canopy. Maximum tree transpiration rate was significantly correlated with tree height, stem sapwood area, and stem circumference. Use of water stored in the trees was minimal. It is estimated that during growth and crown development, Nothofagus allocates about 0.06 m of circumference of main tree trunk or 0.01 m2 of sapwood per kg of water transpired over one hour. Maximum total conductance for water vapour transfer (including canopy and aerodynamic conductance) of emergent trees, calculated from sap flux density and humidity measurements, was 9.5 mm s−1 that is equivalent to 112 mmol m−2 s−1 at the scale of the leaf. Artificially illuminated shoots measured in the stand with gas exchange chambers had maximum stomatal conductances of 280 mmol m−2 s−1 at the top and 150 mmol m−2 s−1 at the bottom of the canopy. The difference between canopy and leaf-level measurements is discussed with respect to effects of transpiration on humidity within the canopy. Maximum total conductance was significantly correlated with leaf nitrogen content. Mean carbon isotope ratio was −27.76±0.27‰ (average ±s.e.) indicating a moist environment. The effects of interactions between the canopy and the atmosphere on forest water use dynamics are shown by a fourfold variation in coupling of the tree canopy air saturation deficit to that of the overhead atmosphere on a typical fine day due to changes in stomatal conductance.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Evaporation ; Aerodynamic conductance ; Canopy conductance ; Humidity response ; Soil water
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Canopy-scale evaporation rate (E) and derived surface and aerodynamic conductances for the transfer of water vapour (gs and ga, respectively) are reviewed for coniferous forests and grasslands. Despite the extremes of canopy structure, the two vegetation types have similar maximum hourly evaporation rates (E max) and maximum surface conductances (gsmax) (medians = 0.46 mm h-1 and 22 mm s-1). However, on a daily basis, median E max of coniferous forest (4.0 mm d-1) is significantly lower than that of grassland (4.6 mm d-1). Additionally, a representative value of ga for coniferous forest (200 mm s-1) is an order of magnitude more than the corresponding value for grassland (25 mm s-1). The proportional sensitivity of E, calculated by the Penman-Monteith equation, to changes in gs is 〉0.7 for coniferous forest, but as low as 0.3 for grassland. The proportional sensitivity of E to changes in ga is generally ±0.15 or less. Boundary-line relationships between gs and light and air saturation deficit (D) vary considerably. Attainment of gsmax occurs at a much lower irradiance for coniferous forest than for grassland (15 versus about 45% of full sunlight). Relationships between gs and D measured above the canopy appear to be fairly uniform for coniferous forest, but are variable for grassland. More uniform relationships may be found for surfaces with relatively small ga, like grassland, by using D at the evaporating surface (D0) as the independent variable rather than D at a reference point above the surface. An analytical expression is given for determining D0 from measurable quantities. Evaporation rate also depends on the availability of water in the root zone. Below a critical value of soil water storage, the ratio of evaporation rate to the available energy tends to decrease sharply and linearly with decreasing soil water content. At the lowest value of soil water content, this ratio declines by up to a factor of 4 from the non-soil-water-limiting plateau. Knowledge about functional rooting depth of different plant species remains rather limited. Ignorance of this important variable makes it generally difficult to obtain accurate estimates of seasonal evaporation from terrestrial ecosystems.
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