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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: We report on the discovery and follow-up timing observations of a 63-ms radio pulsar, PSR J1105-6107. We show that the pulsar is young, having a characteristic age of only 63kyr. We consider its possible association with the nearby remnant G290.1-0.8 (MSH 11-61A) but uncertainties in the distances and ages preclude a firm conclusion.
    Keywords: Astronomy
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  • 2
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: This paper analyses how rising agricultural prices affect heterogenous farm production and access to inputs under credit market imperfections in the CEE transition countries. Using the FADN farm level panel data, which contains 37416 observations for 2004 and 2005, we estimate a farm credit constraint equation and find that small individual farms (IF) are more credit constrained that large corporate farms (CF). Using the estimated parameters we simulate the effect of rising input and output prices on production and input use of IF and CF farms. Our results suggest that in the presence of credit market imperfections, the relatively less credit constrained CF tend to benefit more from higher output prices than IF. Given that farms in transition and developing countries are more credit constrained than farms in developed market economies, raising food prices may actually reduce their profits and income compared to the latter. Hence, not only consumers but also agricultural producers in the developing world may loose from the increasing food prices.
    Keywords: Q11 ; Q12 ; P23 ; ddc:330 ; Credit constraint ; food prices ; firm level heterogeneity
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: The present paper examines a long-run relationship between the energy, bioenergy and food prices. In the recent years the bioenergy production has increased significantly around the world. The increase has been driven by rising energy prices as well as by environmental policies aiming at reducing the harmful effects of conventional sources of energy, such as climate change. Bioenergy, in turn, affects agricultural markets, because it uses agricultural commodities as inputs. The theoretical model we develop predicts that, because of price inelastic food demand, the agricultural price increase may be substantial. The empirical findings confirm the theoretical hypothesis that energy prices do affect prices of agricultural commodities. However, the co-integration is weaker than theoretically predicted. The price effect of bioenergy might be mitigated by new technological development, which improve yields and lead to an offsetting effect in the supply of agricultural commodities, and by fallow land brought into cultivation, when agricultural profitability is rising.
    Keywords: Q11 ; Q13 ; Q42 ; ddc:330 ; Energy ; bioenergy ; crude oil ; prices ; cointegration
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: The present paper studies the land use change impacts of fuels and biofuels. We test the theoretical hypothesis, which says that changes in fuel prices cause changes in land use both directly and indirectly and, because of price inter-dependencies, biofuels reinforce the land use change impacts. Our data consists of yearly observations extending from 1950 to 2007 for the US, to which we apply time-series analytical mechanisms of five major traded agricultural commodities, the area of cultivated agricultural land and crude oil price. The empirical findings confirm that markets for crude oil and cultivated agricultural land are interdependent: an increase in oil price by 1 dollar/barrel increases land use between 54 and 68 thousand hectares. We also find that the rise of bioenergy sector accelerates land use change in the US.
    Keywords: C14 ; C22 ; C51 ; D58 ; Q11 ; Q13 ; Q42 ; ddc:330 ; Near-VAR ; energy ; bioenergy ; prices ; land use ; biofuel support policies
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: This is the first paper that econometrically estimates the impact of the rising Bioenergy production on the global CO2 emissions. We apply a structural vector autoregression (SVAR) approach to time series with annual observation for the world biofuel production and global CO2 emissions from 1961 to 2009. We find that in the medium- to long-run biofuels significantly reduce global CO2 emissions: the CO2 emission elasticities with respect to biofuels range between -0.57 and -0.80. In the short-run, however, biofuels may increase CO2 emissions temporarily (elasticity 0.57). Our findings complement those of life-cycle assessment and simulation models. However, by employing a more holistic approach and obtaining more robust estimates of environmental impact of biofuels, our results are particularly valuable for policy makers.
    Keywords: C14 ; C22 ; C51 ; D58 ; Q11 ; Q13 ; Q42 ; ddc:330 ; Biofuels ; C02 emissions ; environmental impact ; SVAR
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: Decoupled direct payments were introduced in the EU in form of the Single Payment Scheme (SPS) in 2005. The 2013 CAP reform changed both the implementation of the SPS and its budget. We assess the possible effects of the 2013 CAP reform on EU land markets; in particular the capitalization of the SPS in land rental values. Our analyses suggest that the implementation details of the 2013 CAP reform will largely determine the impact of the SPS on land markets. The key ones are the reference period for entitlement allocation, regionalization, payment differentiation and budgetary changes. Our analysis also implies that a number of relatively minor policy changes could have substantial impacts on land markets.
    Keywords: H22 ; L11 ; Q11 ; Q12 ; Q15 ; Q18 ; P32 ; R12 ; ddc:330 ; Capitalization ; decoupled subsidies ; CAP reform ; land market ; land prices
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: This study investigates the impact of the SAPS (Simplified Area Payment Scheme) on rental land values in seven New EU Member States (NMS). Using the FADN farm level panel data with 20,930 observations from 2004 and 2005 we are able to control for unobserved heterogeneity, simultaneity, and omitted variable bias, which often distort the incidence measures. According to our results, the SAPS has a positive and statistically significant impact on land rents in the NMS. However, the effect is smaller than theoretically predicted. Land rents capture only 0.19 of the marginal Euro of the SAPS. Taking into account the level of land renting in the NMS, around 10 percent of the total value of SAPS payments benefit non-farming land owners through higher farmland rental prices. Because the share of rented land is higher for corporate than for individual farms, family farms will likely benefit more from the SAPS than corporate farms.
    Keywords: F12 ; L11 ; Q11 ; Q12 ; Q15 ; Q18 ; P32 ; R12 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; Agricultural policy ; decoupled subsidies ; capitalisation ; land value
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: In this paper we estimate the income distributional effects of the common agricultural policy (CAP) for farmers and landowners. First, we theoretically analyse the level of farmers' and landowners' gains from coupled and decoupled payments. Second, using a unique farm level panel data set from the FADN for the period 1995-2007 we employ the fixed effects, the Heckman selection bias and the GMM estimators to estimate income distributional effects of CAP subsidies. The results do not confirm the theoretical hypothesis that landowners benefit a large share of the CAP subsidies. According to our estimates, farmers gain between 60% to 95%, 80% to 178% and 86% to 90% of the total value of coupled crop/animal, coupled RDP and decupled payments, respectively. The CAP subsidies are only marginally capitalised in land rents. Our results suggest that the rental rates are more responsive to structural variables and show a strong time dependency, suggesting the presence of rigidities in the EU rental markets, which constraint the adjustment of land rents to market signals and thus reduce landowners' gains from the CAP.
    Keywords: F12 ; L11 ; Q11 ; Q12 ; Q15 ; Q18 ; P32 ; R12 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; Distributional effects ; panel microdata ; GMM ; CAP ; land rents
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: This is the first paper that estimates the global land use change impact of growth of the bioenergy sector. Applying time-series analytical mechanisms to fuel, biofuel and agricultural commodity prices and production, we estimate the long-rung relationship between energy prices, bioenergy production and the global land use change. Our results suggest that rising energy prices and bioenergy production significantly contribute to the global land use change both through the direct and indirect land use change impact. Globally, the total agricultural area yearly increases by 35578.1 thousand ha due to increasing oil price, and by 12125.1 thousand ha due to increasing biofuel production, which corresponds to 0.73% and 0.25% of the total world-wide agricultural area, respectively. Soya land use change and wheat land use change have the highest elasticities both with respect to oil price and biofuel production. In contrast, non-biomass crops (grassland and rice) have negative land use change elasticities. Region-specific results suggest that South America faces the largest yearly total land use change associated with oil price increase (+10600.7 thousand ha), whereas Asia (+8918.6 thousand ha), South America (+4024.9 thousand ha) and North America (+1311.5 thousand ha) have the largest yearly total land use change associated with increase in biofuel production.
    Keywords: C14 ; C22 ; C51 ; D58 ; Q11 ; Q13 ; Q42 ; ddc:330 ; Land use change ; bioenergy ; commodity prices ; biofuel support policies
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: The objective of this paper is to review new restrictions imposed on land sales in selected Eastern EU Member States and to investigate the potential impacts of these restrictions on land prices, transaction distortions, and access to land. The main common element of the new regulations across the four studied countries (Latvia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia) is the introduction of the pre-emption rights to selected groups of potential buyers which tend to favor domestic and local farmers relative to external competition. However, the coverage of pre-emption rights differs strongly across countries. The regulation adopted in Slovakia is the most restrictive, followed by Latvia and Poland; Romania has adopted the least restrictive measures. We expect market transactions as well as land prices to decline due to reduced competition, causing foregone income to non-farming landowners.
    Keywords: F12 ; L11 ; Q11 ; Q12 ; P32 ; ddc:330 ; Land Market ; SAPS ; institutions ; agricultural policy ; CEE
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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