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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-6822
    Keywords: DNA ; flow cytometry ; genotoxicology ; largemouth bass ; red blood cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Analysis of cellular DNA content by flow cytometry has been used to detect genetic changes associated with exposure to environmental contaminants. In lower vertebrates, nucleated red blood cells can be collected for analysis without harm to the animal. Because erythrocytes sampled from an individual should have identical amounts of DNA, the coefficient of variation (CV) around the G0/G1 peak should be small. Increases in CV can indicate genetic aberrations, but may also be caused by sample handling and preparation or problems with instrumentation. To increase confidence in associating increases in CV with external causes, artifactual changes in CV due to sample treatment and instrument parameters should be identified and minimized. We assessed the effects of various sampling and handling protocols on the CV of nucleated blood cells collected from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). We also compared the distribution of cells among the G0/G1, S, and G2/M phases of the cell cycle to see whether these were affected by sampling or treatment protocols. Groups of 7 fish were bled on 7 consecutive days, and blood from each fish was analyzed by flow cytometry when freshly collected, and after freezing for 1 hour or 10 days. The same fish were bled again over a consecutive 7-day period, and the experiment was repeated. CV and cell cycle distribution were not affected by our freezing protocol. Repeat sampling from the same individual did not affect CV, but altered the distribution of cells in the cell cycle, suggesting increased hemopoiesis in response to blood sampling. Day-to-day variation in the CV occurred in both fresh and frozen samples, probably as the result of small variations in instrument adjustments. These results demonstrate the suitability of this freezing protocol for these blood samples, and illustrate the importance of assessing sources of variation when using flow cytometry to screen wild populations in genotoxicological studies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-6857
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Evidence for multiple insemination in the mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, was detected by statistical analysis of the enzyme phenotypes in mother-offspring combinations for three loci. The probability of nondetection of multiple insemination events for diallelic loci with two or more males mating with a female was presented. The frequency of multiple insemination for G. affinis is at least 56% but is probably nearer to 100%. The high incidence of multiple insemination together with sperm storage and delayed fertilization could have important effects on allele frequencies through time and space. These effects are due to the increase in effective population size and overlap among generations.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-9761
    Keywords: Sigmodon hispidushabitat mosaic ; sex-age cohorts ; survivorship ; density decline ; landscape ; population dynamics ; electromorphs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract This study describes the demographic features of a population of Sigmodon hispidus utilizing the habitat mosaic provided by a Carolina Bay on the Atlantic coastal plain of South Carolina. A total of 71 cotton rats were captured 160 times on a 4 ha grid during a winter decline from 25/ha to less that 1/ha. Body weights of adults declined until early February and then increased; those of subadults grew very slowly until February followed by a spurt in growth. Weight gain did not differ between survivors and non-survivors for males, but female survivors gained 1.5 g per week more than non-survivors. Female subadults exhibited higher mortality early in the decline and males later. Adult females were randomly distributed across 8 microhabitats, whereas adult males were almost exclusively confined to heavy Rubus cover. Subadult males used wet sites more than any other cohort; subadult females were widely distributed using drier sites most frequently. By the end of the decline, all survivors were localized in Rubus-dominated patches. No statistically significant changes in electromorph genotypes or allele frequencies were detected, but survivors had a higher frequency of the F-allele at the adenylate kinase locus than did non-survivors (42.3% vs. 16.7%). Our findings affirm the importance of a landscape perspective in understanding the population dynamics of cotton rats, and show how a habitat mosaic influences survival differentially among sex-age cohorts.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-946X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The RS CVn binary stellar system HR 1099 is a source of both X-ray and radio flares. We present here a model of the system in which the two types of flare are produced by the same population of mildly-relativistic (γ ≲ 10) electrons, injected into a coronal loop. After reviewing possible radiation mechanisms we conclude that, given the probable conditions in the flaring region, the radio emission is gyrosynchrotron radiation and the X-ray emission is thermal bremsstrahlung. The thermal X-ray source must lie in the stellar chromosphere, but the apparent absence of plasma absorption at radio frequencies indicates that the radio source is located high in the coronal loop. Using the relationships given by Dulk and Marsh (1982) for the radio emission from a power-law electron energy spectrum,N(γ)α (γ - 1)−δ, we conclude that 3 ≲δ ≲ 7, with ≳ 30% of the electron population trapped in the radio source. Some implications of these results for one particular version of the model are discussed.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 189 (1961), S. 664-665 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We have collected plaque from dentures after thorough brushing in a stream of running water. This material shows characteristics similar to those of the deposits described by Manly1 and Vallotton8. Samples examined microscopically and by culture in various media were virtually sterile. Specimens ...
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 347 (1990), S. 372-373 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] It is well established3'4 that aerosols are generated at the ocean surface by wind-related processes such as bubble-film bursting, whitecapping and spin-drift. The generation of such aerosol particles increases rapidly with increasing wind speed U (refs 5-7). The primary constitutent of this ...
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 267 (1977), S. 32-33 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Table 1 Values of droplet concentrations N, water content C, mean radius r, and dispersion S measured within hill fog (mean spacing of consecutive spectra about 3 m) AT 129 140 112 136 115 105 99 106 111 99 97 76 112 95 106 154 144 118 142 168 C ...
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