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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Based on solar irradiance data published by Neckel and Labs (1984) and Iqbal (1983), the solar exoatmospheric irradiances for Thematic Mapper (TM) bands 1, 2, 3, and 4 have been calculated. Results vary by up to 1 percent from previous published values, which were based on the earlier data of Neckel and Labs. For TM bands 5 and 7, integrated solar exoatmospheric irradiances have also been recalculated using solar irradiance data published by Labs and Neckel (1968), Arvesen et al. (1969), and Iqbal (1983). These irradiances vary by up to 6 percent from previously published results, which were based on data published by Thekaekara (1972).
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161); 8; 517-523
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  • 2
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    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Preflight and in-orbit sensor and data measurements indicate that TM meets or exceeds most specifications. Measured spectral band edges meet instrument specifications in 12 out of 14 cases; there is ample dynamic range. The signal-to-noise ratio exceeds specifications, except for band 3, channel 4; and band 7 channel 7 is very noisy but still meets specifications. The modulation transfer function of channel 4, band 2, is smaller than specified. Registration errors between the primary focal plane (PFP) and the cold focal plane (CFP) are about 0.75 pixels along-scan and 0.2 pixels across scan. Forward and reverse scan discontinuities are well within ground-processing capabilities to rectify. Instrument gain variability, up to 7 percent for band 5, requires use of the internal calibration (IC) system to assure radiometric accuracy. Preliminary applications evaluation of image contents indicates that TM provides much better definition of edges than MSS.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-27
    Description: The relative capabilities of two remote-sensing systems in measuring depth and, consequently, bottom contours in sandy-bottomed and sediment-laden coastal waters were determined quantitatively. The multispectral scanner (MSS), orbited on the LANDSAT-2 Satellite, and the ocean color scanner (OCS), flown on U-2 aircraft, were used. Analysis of imagery taken simultaneously indicates a potential for hydrographic charting of marine coastal and shallow shelf areas, even when water turbidity is a factor. Several of the eight optical channels examined on the OCS were found to be sensitive to depth or depth-related information. The greatest sensitivity was in OCS-4(0.544 + or - 0.012 microns) from which contours corresponding to depths up to 12m were determined. The sharpness of these contours and their spatial stability through time suggests that upwelling radiance is a measure of bottom reflectance and not of water turbidity. The two visible channels on LANDSAT's MSS were less sensitive in the discrimination of contours, with depths up to 8m in the high-gain mode (3x) determined in MSS-4(0.5 to 0.6 microns).
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-X-71146 , X-923-76-111 , Ocean 76 Conf.; 14-16 Sept. 1976; Washington, DC; United States
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Relative spectral response data for the Landsat-4 and Landsat-4 backup multispectral scanner subsystems (MSS), the protoflight and flight models, are presented and compared to similar data for the Landsat 1, 2 and 3 scanners. Channel (six channels per band) outputs for soil and soybean targets were simulated and compared within each band and between scanners.The principal differences between the spectral responses of the Landsat-4 scanners and previous scanners are discussed. The simulated Landsat-4 scanner outputs were 3 to 10 percent lower in the red band and 3 to 11 percent higher in the first near-IR band than previous scanners for the soybeans targets. The Landsat-4 scanners were generally more uniform from channel to channel within bands than previous scanners. In the upper-band edge of the red band of the protoflight scanner, one channel was markedly different (12 nm) from the rest. For a soybeans target, this nonuniformity resulted in a within-band difference of 6.2 percent in simulated outputs between channels.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161); 6; 697-716
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Data collected on the spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-4 backup thematic mapper instruments, the protoflight (PF) and flight (F) models, respectively are analyzed and summarized. Tests were conducted on the instruments and their components to determine compliance with two sets of spectral specifications: Band-by-band spectral coverage and channel-by-channel within-band spectral matching.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: LANDSAT-4 Sci. Characterization; 2 p
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The TM band 6 shutter background and the 34.7 C internal black body signal were measured over 50 day dates. Variability of the shutter background temperature was from 7 C to 11 C. For ten specific images, the digital counts of the calibration data were measured. The average pulse value of the black body peak decreased from 174 to 149 counts while the shutter background counts varied as a function of shutter temperature from 77 to 85. Relative internal gains between the four channels were calculated and compared to prelaunch values. They showed gains over 9 months of up to 5%. Frequency histograms of number of pixels vs. digital counts from a night scene were used to determine gain relative to the mean and to discern a systematic along-scan pattern in a difference between forward and reverse scan counts of up to 0.5. A corrected digital image was obtained. A temperature estimate for and area of Lake Erie of 18.5 C to 19.9 C was obtained. Local temperature records showed 21 C.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: LANDSAT-4 Sci. Characterization; 3 p
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  • 7
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    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Key spectral, radiometric, and geometric characteristics of the TM sensor are examined. Spectrally, band 5 is slightly wider than specified and its upper edge at 50% of miximum of 1784 nm includes some unintended overlap with water absorption bands. Thermal band 6 is half the expected width. Radiometrically, the TM has extreme linearity and stability in comparison with previous MSS photomultiplier systems. Forward and reverse scans on TM show some unexplained radiometric differences of up to four digital levels. Primary focal plane bands show a monotomic decrease in gain of about 5% in the five months since launch. The relative internal gains of bands 5 and 7 varied with a period of about 60 days and an amplitude of about 6%. Radiometric calibration must be applied before histogram equalization algorithms to preserve radiometric accuracy. Geometrically, channel 4 in band 2 has a smaller modulation transfer function than desired. There is apparent misregistration of .75 pixels along scan and 0.2 pixels across scan.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: LANDSAT-4 Sci. Characterization; 2 p
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The characterization objectives of the LANDSAT 4 Science Office at GSFC are to: (1) determine the accuracy and precision of sensor and spacecraft performance, image data quality, and derived information; (2) recommend LANDSAT 4 system improvements; and (3) communicate results to the research community. In-house activities are directed toward full access and utilization of the prelaunch and in-orbit engineering test data on the sensor and spacecraft. Principle scientists in remote sensing are involved as part of a major scientific characterization effort, and workshops were held for these investigative teams. A symposium is scheduled prior to turnover of the TM to NOAA.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: LANDSAT-4 Sci. Characterization; 2 p
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Two multispectral scanner subsystems (MSS) have been fabricated and tested by an American aerospace company for the NASA Landsat program. One MSS, designated the protoflight (PF) model, was integrated into the Landsat-4 spacecraft, which was launched on July 16, 1982. The second, designated the flight (F) model, has been integrated into the Landsat-4 backup satellite, which is scheduled for possible launch in 1985. Each MSS has four bands in the reflective portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The engineering test data which were collected included channel-by-channel spectral response curves. A description of the test procedure is included in Appendix A. This document is to make available to the Landsat user community data on the spectral characteristics of the two sensors. The Landsat-4 PF and F scanners were found to be essentially identical in mean spectral response.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0099-1112); 49; June 198
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: A multistage sampling procedure using image processing, geographical information systems, and analytical photogrammetry is presented which can be used to guide the collection of representative, high-resolution spectra and discrete reflectance targets for future satellite sensors. The procedure is general and can be adapted to characterize areas as small as minor watersheds and as large as multistate regions. Beginning with a user-determined study area, successive reductions in size and spectral variation are performed using image analysis techniques on data from the Multispectral Scanner, orbital and simulated Thematic Mapper, low altitude photography synchronized with the simulator, and associated digital data. An integrated image-based geographical information system supports processing requirements.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
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