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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 0066-4146
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: We propose that turbulent mixing layers are common in the interstellar medium (ISM). Injection of kinetic energy into the ISM by supernovae and stellar winds, in combination with density and temperature inhomogeneities, results in shear flows. Such flows will become turbulent due to the high Reynolds number (low viscosity) of the ISM plasma. These turbulent boundary layers will be particularly interesting where the shear flow occurs at boundaries of hot (approximately 10(exp 6) K) and cold or warm (10(exp 2) - 10(exp 4) K) gas. Mixing will occur in such layers producing intermediate-temperature gas at T is approximately equal to 10(exp 5.0) - 10(exp 5.5) that radiates strongly in the optical, ultraviolet, and EUV. We have modeled these layers under the assumptions of rapid mixing down to the atomic level and steady flow. By including the effects of non-equilibrium ionization and self-photoionization of the gas as it cools after mixing, we predict the intensities of numerous optical, infrared, and ultraviolet emission lines, as well as absorption column densities of C 4, N 5, Si 4, and O 6.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Ames Research Center, The Evolution of Galaxies and Their Environment; p 322-323
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In 13 years of operation, IUE has gathered approximately 5000 spectra of almost 600 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). In order to undertake AGN studies which require large amounts of data, we are consistently reducing this entire archive and creating a homogeneous, easy-to-use database. First, the spectra are extracted using the Optimal extraction algorithm. Continuum fluxes are then measured across predefined bands, and line fluxes are measured with a multi-component fit. These results, along with source information such as redshifts and positions, are placed in the IUEAGN relational database. Analysis algorithms, statistical tests, and plotting packages run within the structure, and this flexible database can accommodate future data when they are released. This archival approach has already been used to survey line and continuum variability in six bright Seyfert 1s and rapid continuum variability in 14 blazars. Among the results that could only be obtained using a large archival study is evidence that blazars show a positive correlation between degree of variability and apparent luminosity, while Seyfert 1s show an anti-correlation. This suggests that beaming dominates the ultraviolet properties for blazars, while thermal emission from an accretion disk dominates for Seyfert 1s. Our future plans include a survey of line ratios in Seyfert 1s, to be fitted with photoionization models to test the models and determine the range of temperatures, densities and ionization parameters. We will also include data from IRAS, Einstein, EXOSAT, and ground-based telescopes to measure multi-wavelength correlations and broadband spectral energy distributions.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Ames Research Center, The Evolution of Galaxies and Their Environment; p 313-314
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: This paper summarizes the results of the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) program to study 0 VI in the Milky Way halo. Spectra of 100 extragalactic objects and two distant halo stars are analyzed to obtain measures of O VI absorption along paths through the Milky Way thick disk/halo. Strong O VI absorption over the velocity range from -100 to 100 km/s reveals a widespread but highly irregular distribution of O VI, implying the existence of substantial amounts of hot gas with T approx. 3 x 10(exp 5) K in the Milky Way thick disk/halo. The overall distribution of O VI is not well described by a symmetrical plane-parallel layer of patchy O VI absorption. The simplest departure from such a model that provides a reasonable fit to the observations is a plane-parallel patchy absorbing layer with an average O VI mid-plane density of n(sub 0)(O VI) = 1.7 x 10(exp -2)/cu cm, a scale height of approx. 2.3 kpc, and a approx. 0.25 dex excess of O VI in the northern Galactic polar region. The distribution of O VI over the sky is poorly correlated with other tracers of gas in the halo, including low and intermediate velocity H I, Ha emission from the warm ionized gas at approx. l0(exp 4) K, and hot X-ray emitting gas at approx. l0(exp 6) K . The O VI has an average velocity dispersion, b approx. 60 km/s and standard deviation of 15 km/s. Thermal broadening alone cannot explain the large observed profile widths. A combination of models involving the radiative cooling of hot fountain gas, the cooling of supernova bubbles in the halo, and the turbulent mixing of warm and hot halo gases is required to explain the presence of O VI and other highly ionized atoms found in the halo. The preferential venting of hot gas from local bubbles and superbubbles into the northern Galactic polar region may explain the enhancement of O VI in the North.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: IAU XXV General Assembly, Symposium No. 217; Jul 01, 2003; Sydney; Australia
    Format: text
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  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The destruction of interstellar grains by nonthermal sputtering, thermal sputtering, and grain-grain collisions is discussed. It is concluded that large grains are easily destroyed by shocks in the interstellar medium, but that small grains are much more persistent. Since the MRN model has many more small grains than large ones, this means that the total number of grains is not significantly reduced even when half or more of the grain material is returned to the gas phase. Thus, the small grains are always available as condensation cores for mantle formation or redepletion of refractory grain materials.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Royal Observatory Lab. and Observational Infrared Spectra of Interstellar Dust; p 26-32
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-03-09
    Description: The present conference on the interstellar medium in galaxies discusses the cool phase of the interstellar medium, molecular clouds in spiral galaxies, interstellar dust in galaxies, and the diffuse interstellar medium. Attention is given to cooling flows and X-ray emission in early-type galaxies, the interstellar medium in active galaxies, abundances in extragalactic H II regions, and thermal phases of the interstellar medium in galaxies. Topics considered include large-scale interstellar gasdynamics in disk galaxies, gas during mergers, magnetic fields in galaxies, and large-scale star formation in the interstellar medium. Also discussed are gaseous halos and disks of galaxies at large redshift, the star-gas cycle in galaxies, measuring atomic hydrogen masses using the 21-cm line, and mass determinations from far-infrared and from CO observations.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A survey is reported of interstellar densities, abundances, and cloud structure in the Galaxy, using the IUE and IRAS satellites. Heavy element depletions are discussed along with their correlations with mean density, reddening, and galactic location. Interesting correlations between the Fe/Si abundance ratio and the infrared diffuse cirrus is also reported, which may provide information on the history and formation of grains in the galactic halo.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Ames Research Center Summer School on Interstellar Processes: Abstracts of Contributed Papers; p 163-164
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  • 8
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Shock processing plays an important role in the life of a typical interstellar grain. Shocks of 100 km/s-l or greater can destroy about 50% of the grain material under appropriate preshock conditions of density and magnetic field. The destruction occurs by grain-grain collisions and nonthermal sputtering for steady state radiative shocks and by thermal sputtering for fast adiabatic shocks. The evaluation of the lifetime of grains against shock destruction depends on models of the interstellar medium (ISM) structure and on supernova remnants (SNR) evolution. Results from various authors give lifetimes between 10 to the 8th and 10 to the 9th power years, compared to typical injection times for new grains of a few times 10 to the 9th power years. These numbers require that a major portion of the interstellar silicon bearing grain material must be formed by grain growth in the ISM. At the same time, the presence of isotopic anomalies in some meteorites implies that at least some grains must survive from their formation in SNRs or red giant winds through incorporation into the solar system.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Washington. Interrelationships among Circumstellar, Interstellar and Interplanetary Dust; p 37-54
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The X-ray observations of young remnants and their theoretical interpretation are described. A number of questions concerning the nature of the blast wave interaction with the interstellar gas and grains and of atomic processes in these hot plasmas are considered. It is concluded that future X-ray spectrometers with high collecting area, moderate spectral resolution and good spatial resolution can make important contributions to the understanding of supernova remnants in the Milky Way and neighboring galaxies and of their role in the global chemical and dynamical evolution of the interstellar medium.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center X-ray Astronomy in the 1980's; p 107-117
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-08-27
    Description: It is proposed that turbulent mixing layers are common in the ISM of the Milky Way and selected external galaxies, with many layers per kiloparsec along typical lines of sight. All of the diffuse C I 1550-A background emission and a significant fraction of the diffuse H-alpha background at high latitude can be explained by mixing layers cooling at pressure of about 3000/cu cm K. These models also produce the correct ratio of semiforbidden C IV 15500 III 1663-A emission. Only 10 percent of the disk H-alpha is likely to arise from mixing layers. The observed Galactic absorption-line column densities of C IV, N V, Si IV, and O VI are roughly consistent with mixing-layer models with an intermediate temperature of about 10 exp 5.3 K and depleted abundances.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 407; 1; p. 83-99.
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