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  • 1
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Four ecotypes of Phragmites australis from different habitats in northwest China were examined to compare their photosynthetic characteristics. In a swamp ecotype, the Δ13C value of leaf materials was −34.0‰, and bundle sheath cells contained a small amount of organelles and round-shaped chloroplasts, as being similar to typical C3 plants. In a dune ecotype, the Δ13C value was −20.9‰ and bundle sheath cells contained oval-shaped chloroplasts with poorly-developed grana. In light and heavy salt meadow ecotypes, Δ13C values were −30.6‰ and −35.6‰, respectively. The shape of bundle sheath chloroplasts in the light salt meadow ecotype was intermediate between those of the swamp and dune ecotypes. Abundance of bundle sheath organelles in the heavy salt meadow ecotype was intermediate. The swamp ecotype had photosynthetic enzyme activities typical of C3 type plants, whereas the dune ecotype had an increased activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), a key C4 enzyme, and a decreased ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) activity. The light salt meadow and heavy salt meadow ecotypes had substantial activities of PEPC, which indicates potential for C4 photosynthesis. These data suggest that this species evolved the C3-like ecotype in swamp environments and the C4-like C3-C4 intermediate in dune desert environments, and C3-like C3-C4 intermediates in salt environments.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-11-18
    Description: The early Paleozoic Wuyi-Yunkai orogen in South China is a major orogenic belt in East Asia that formed at a similar time as the classic Caledonian orogeny in Europe. Despite the possibility of its being one of the few examples of intraplate orogenesis in the world, details about the orogen remain poorly defined. In this study, we provide age constraints on metamorphic and magmatic events in the eastern segment of the orogen, and the protoliths of the amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks found there. By combining previous work with our new metamorphic and petrogenetic analyses, we present the following findings: (1) the Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny occurred between mid-Ordovician (〉460 Ma) and earliest Devonian (ca. 415 Ma) time; (2) amphibolite-facies metamorphism in the eastern Wuyi-Yunkai orogen occurred between ca. 460 and 445 Ma, whereas cooling below 500–300 °C occurred by ca. 420 Ma; (3) the orogen exhibits a clockwise pressure-temperature (P-T) path and a maximum pressure of 〉8 kbar, indicating crustal thickening during the orogeny; (4) protoliths of the high-grade metamorphic rocks in the eastern segment of the orogen were dominantly Neoproterozoic (840–720 Ma) volcanic and volcaniclastic rift successions and younger deposits formed in a failed rift, and Paleoproterozoic rocks account for only a small proportion of the outcrops; and (5) the analyzed granites indicate a mixed source of Paleoproterozoic basement and Neoproterozoic continental rift rocks, with elevated melt temperatures of 〉800 °C, which are interpreted as reflecting dehydration melting of basin sediments taken to below midcrustal levels.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Until now, the origin of hard magnetic properties of rapidly quenched Nd-Fe-B alloys with lower Nd concentration is not clear. In this paper, the phase compositions of rapidly quenched Nd4Fe77.5B18.5 alloys annealed under different conditions have been studied by using zero-field spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Mössbauer effect (ME) techniques. It is found that there exists a certain amount of Nd2Fe14B phase in the samples annealed at 960 °C and ingot alloy, which have poor hard magnetic properties; while, the sample annealed under optimal condition consists only of bct-Fe3B as the main phase and a small amount of a-Fe. However, the ME result indicates that about 5 at. % Fe atoms in FeIII (8 g) site of bct-Fe3B have been replaced by Nd atoms; the NMR result demonstrates that 11B NMR spectrum is the characteristic peak of bct-Fe3B, but it broadens asymmetrically to the high frequency side, which is due to the bct-Fe3B influenced by Nd atoms. The amplitude of radio frequency (rf) excitation field required to get the maximum 11B spin-echo signal from bct-Fe3B in the sample annealed at 839 °C is only about one third as much as that required to excite the 11B in the bct-Fe3B influenced by Nd atoms in the sample annealed at 670 °C for a short time, which implies the latter has a larger coercivity field than the former. It is concluded that the origin of hard magnetic properties of Nd4Fe77.5B18.5 alloy is not related to the 2:14:1 phase, but to the change of bct-Fe3B itself.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The Fe–B amorphous alloys powders with high boron concentration can be prepared by borohydride reduction (BHR). By adjusting technological factors, the Fe100−xBx amorphous powders with compositions ranging from x=17 to 40 can be easily obtained, but it is difficult to make the amorphous ribbons with such a high B concentration by using rapidly quenched technique, which can usually obtain the amorphous ribbons with the compositions ranging from x=12 to 25. Up to now, there are different points of view about if the short range order (SRO) in the Fe–B amorphous powders prepared by the BHR around room temperature is the same with that in the amorphous ribbons made by rapidly quenched and vapor depositing techniques. In this paper, the SRO in Fe100−xBx amorphous powders with various boron concentration prepared by the BHR have been studied by the zero field spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. It was shown that the types of SRO in these samples vary with the B concentration. There exist Fe3B- and Fe2B-like SRO and a small amount of α-Fe in the samples with lower B concentration, while there are Fe3B- and FeB-like SRO in the alloys with higher B concentration. Fe3B-like SRO, however, only exists in the amorphous ribbons obtained by rapidly quenched method. It can be concluded that there are different types of SRO in the amorphous alloys prepared by different methods. This conclusion can explain the reason why the average hyperfine field at Fe sites deceases with the B concentration increasing.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: eXTP is a science mission designed to study the state of matter under extreme conditions of density, gravity and magnetism. Primary goals are the determination of the equation of state of matter at supra-nuclear density, the measurement of QED effects in highly magnetized star, and the study of accretion in the strong-field regime of gravity. Primary targets include isolated and binary neutron stars, strong magnetic field systems like magnetars, and stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. The mission carries a unique and unprecedented suite of state-of-the-art scientific instruments enabling for the first time ever the simultaneous spectral-timing-polarimetry studies of cosmic sources in the energy range from 0.5-30 keV (and beyond). Key elements of the payload are: the Spectroscopic Focusing Array (SFA) - a set of 11 X-ray optics for a total effective area of approx. 0.9 m(exp. 2) and 0.6 m(exp. 2) at 2 keV and 6 keV respectively, equipped with Silicon Drift Detectors offering less than 180 eV spectral resolution; the Large Area Detector (LAD) - a deployable set of 640 Silicon Drift Detectors, for a total effective area of approx. 3.4 m(exp. 2), between 6 and 10 keV, and spectral resolution better than 250 eV; the Polarimetry Focusing Array (PFA) - a set of 2 X-ray telescope, for a total effective area of 250 cm(exp. 2) at 2 keV, equipped with imaging gas pixel photoelectric polarimeters; the Wide Field Monitor (WFM) - a set of 3 coded mask wide field units, equipped with position-sensitive Silicon Drift Detectors, each covering a 90 degrees x 90 degrees field of view. The eXTP international consortium includes major institutions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Universities in China, as well as major institutions in several European countries and the United States. The predecessor of eXTP, the XTP mission concept, has been selected and funded as one of the so-called background missions in the Strategic Priority Space Science Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences since 2011. The strong European participation has significantly enhanced the scientific capabilities of eXTP. The planned launch date of the mission is earlier than 2025.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN43898 , SPIE Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray Conference 2016; 26 Jun. 2016; Edinburgh; United Kingdom|Proceedings of SPIE (ISSN 0277-786X) (e-ISSN 1996-756X); 9905; 99051Q
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-02-03
    Description: The breakdown characteristics of oil-paper insulation in AC, DC and compound field at different temperatures were studied. The breakdown mechanism of oil-paper insulation at different temperatures and in AC and DC electric fields was analyzed. The breakdown characteristic mechanisms of the oil-paper insulation in the compound field at different temperatures were obtained: the dielectric strength of oil-paper compound insulation is changed gradually from dependence on oil dielectric strength to dependence on paperboard dielectric strength at low temperature. The dielectric strength of oil-paper compound insulation is always related to the oil dielectric strength closely at high temperature with decrease of AC content.
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Description: Intermartensitic Transformation and Enhanced Exchange Bias in Pd (Pt) -doped Ni-Mn-Sn alloys Scientific Reports, Published online: 12 May 2016; doi:10.1038/srep25911
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-10-11
    Description: Gpr97 is essential for the follicular versus marginal zone B-lymphocyte fate decision Cell Death and Disease 4, e853 (October 2013). doi:10.1038/cddis.2013.346 Authors: J-j Wang, L-l Zhang, Hong-x Zhang, C-l Shen, S-y Lu, Y Kuang, Y-h Wan, W-g Wang, H-m Yan, S-y Dang, J Fei, X-l Jin & Z-g Wang
    Keywords: Gpr97knockout miceB lymphopoiesisfollicular B cellslambda 5 gene
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 9
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    American Physical Society (APS)
    Publication Date: 2013-08-03
    Description: Author(s): Fan Zhang, C. L. Kane, and E. J. Mele We demonstrate the existence of topological superconductors (SCs) protected by mirror and time-reversal symmetries. D -dimensional ( D =1, 2, 3) crystalline SCs are characterized by 2 D -1 independent integer topological invariants, which take the form of mirror Berry phases. These invariants determine t... [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 056403] Published Fri Aug 02, 2013
    Keywords: Condensed Matter: Electronic Properties, etc.
    Print ISSN: 0031-9007
    Electronic ISSN: 1079-7114
    Topics: Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-03
    Description: Author(s): Fan Zhang, C. L. Kane, and E. J. Mele We propose a feasible route to engineer one- and two-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological superconductors (SCs) via proximity effects between nodeless s ± wave iron-based SCs and semiconductors with large Rashba spin-orbit interactions. At the boundary of a time-reversal-invariant topologi... [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 056402] Published Fri Aug 02, 2013
    Keywords: Condensed Matter: Electronic Properties, etc.
    Print ISSN: 0031-9007
    Electronic ISSN: 1079-7114
    Topics: Physics
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