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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Immunology 14 (1996), S. 233-258 
    ISSN: 0732-0582
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract T cells play a central role in the initiation and regulation of the immune response to antigen. Both the engagement of the TCR with MHC/Ag and a second signal are needed for the complete activation of the T cell. The CD28/B7 receptor/ligand system is one of the dominant costimulatory pathways. Interruption of this signaling pathway with CD28 antagonists not only results in the suppression of the immune response, but in some cases induces antigen-specific tolerance. However, the CD28/B7 system is increasingly complex due to the identification of multiple receptors and ligands with positive and negative signaling activities. This review summarizes the state of CD28/B7 immunobiology both in vitro and in vivo; summarizes the many experiments that have led to our current understanding of the participants in this complex receptor/ligand system; and illustrates the current models for CD28/B7-mediated T cell and B cell regulation. It is our hope and expectation that this review will provoke additional research that will unravel this important, yet complex, signaling pathway.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 92 (1990), S. 4793-4804 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The time dependent thermal lensing technique has been used to measure the vibrational relaxation of NO2 (initially excited at 21 631 cm−1) by Ar, Kr, and Xe. The energy transfer analysis was carried out in terms of 〈〈ΔE〉〉, the bulk average energy transferred per collision. This quantity was found to have a very strong dependence on vibrational energy, with a marked increase at energies greater than about 10 000 cm−1, where several electronic excited states (2B2, 2B1, and 2A2) mix with the ground state (2A1). This effect may be due to large amplitude vibrational motions associated with the coupled electronic states. Even at low energies, deactivation is faster than in other triatomic systems, probably because NO2 is an open shell molecule and electronic curve crossings provide efficient pathways for vibrational deactivation. The V–T rate constant for deactivation of NO2(010) by argon is estimated to be (5.1±1.0)×10−14 cm3 s−1. Results obtained for NO@B|2–NO2 collisions gave 〈〈ΔE〉〉 values in good agreement with literature results from fluorescence quenching experiments, indicating that V–T may be more important than V–V energy transfer in the quenching process.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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