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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-02-01
    Print ISSN: 0015-749X
    Electronic ISSN: 1938-3738
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-07-15
    Print ISSN: 1542-4766
    Electronic ISSN: 1542-4774
    Topics: Economics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-02-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Porter, John R -- Wratten, Steve -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 20;506(7488):295. doi: 10.1038/506295a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Copenhagen, Denmark. ; Lincoln University, New Zealand.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24553231" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Gross Domestic Product/*trends ; Humans ; *Quality of Life ; Sociology/*methods
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-08-01
    Description: The solar neighbourhood is the closest and most easily studied sample of the Galactic interstellar medium, an understanding of which is essential for models of star formation and galaxy evolution. Observations of an unexpectedly intense diffuse flux of easily absorbed 1/4-kiloelectronvolt X-rays, coupled with the discovery that interstellar space within about a hundred parsecs of the Sun is almost completely devoid of cool absorbing gas, led to a picture of a 'local cavity' filled with X-ray-emitting hot gas, dubbed the local hot bubble. This model was recently challenged by suggestions that the emission could instead be readily produced within the Solar System by heavy solar-wind ions exchanging electrons with neutral H and He in interplanetary space, potentially removing the major piece of evidence for the local existence of million-degree gas within the Galactic disk. Here we report observations showing that the total solar-wind charge-exchange contribution is approximately 40 per cent of the 1/4-keV flux in the Galactic plane. The fact that the measured flux is not dominated by charge exchange supports the notion of a million-degree hot bubble extending about a hundred parsecs from the Sun.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Galeazzi, M -- Chiao, M -- Collier, M R -- Cravens, T -- Koutroumpa, D -- Kuntz, K D -- Lallement, R -- Lepri, S T -- McCammon, D -- Morgan, K -- Porter, F S -- Robertson, I P -- Snowden, S L -- Thomas, N E -- Uprety, Y -- Ursino, E -- Walsh, B M -- England -- Nature. 2014 Aug 14;512(7513):171-3. doi: 10.1038/nature13525. Epub 2014 Jul 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33124, USA. ; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA. ; Universite Versailles St Quentin; Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Universite Paris 06; CNRS/INSU, LATMOS-IPSL, Guyancourt 78280, France. ; The Henry A. Rowland Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA. ; GEPI Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR 8111, Universite Paris Diderot, 92190, Meudon, France. ; Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA. ; 1] NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA [2] Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25079321" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-11-16
    Description: The long and complex history of southern Africa makes it a geological nexus for understanding how crust forms, evolves and survives plate tectonic processes over billions of years. The goal of this study is to characterize the crustal thickness, composition, and Moho impedance contrasts across the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons and surrounding mobile belts, which range in age from Archean to Palaeozoic. We use data gathered from the 1997–1999 Southern Africa Seismic Experiment, the Africa Array (2006–2007) and the Global Seismographic Network (1993–2009) to generate P -wave receiver function Gaussian-weighted common conversion point stacks across the region in order to provide a continuous 3-D image of crustal variations throughout southern Africa. We observe thickened crust associated with mobile belts and the intrusion of the Bushveld Complex relative to the less-deformed cratons. The southern Kaapvaal and eastern Zimbabwe Cratons have a well-defined Moho with an average depth of ~34 km and Vp / Vs of ~1.73, indicative of felsic average crustal composition. We explain the felsic composition observed in the Kaapvaal Craton in the context of significant crustal modification related to the deposition of the Ventersdorp lavas. We find that the Bushveld Province, the site of the world's largest layered mafic intrusion, has a thick (〉40 km) crust with a Vp / Vs 〉 1.8, indicative of a mafic average crustal composition. The magnitude of Moho conversions beneath the Bushveld Province is variable, with the lowest amplitude conversion appearing between the eastern and western limbs of the Bushveld Complex, indicative of mafic underplating beneath the region. In the Limpopo Belt and western Zimbabwe Craton, we observe low amplitude Moho conversions beneath the Okavango Dyke Swarm, and attribute this to the reworking of the crust by mafic underplating and intrusion during the Jurassic rifting of Gondwanaland. The Namaqua-Natal event thickened the crust and created a gradational transition from crust to mantle as seen by low amplitude Ps arrivals from receiver functions. Evidence for the presence of a mafic lower crust beneath the Namaqua-Natal Belt is observed in high Vp / Vs values (~1.8) and a high concentration of granulite xenoliths in kimberlite intrusions. In contrast to past interpretations for craton formation that suggest sharp Moho boundaries and low Vp / Vs ratios are characteristic of undisturbed cratons, we propose that these crustal properties are more controlled by tectonic events that later modify the existing cratonic crust. We cannot rule out secular crustal formation variations in the early Earth, but we propose that the southern African cratonic crust has been too heavily modified by later tectonic events to be used in arguments for secular variation, as may be the case for other cratons as well. Thus, it is important to consider the regional geological history of cratons to ensure that secular variation is not confused with the effects of later tectonic deformation and crustal modification.
    Keywords: Seismology
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-11-21
    Description: We announce a new facility in the spectral code cloudy that enables tracking the evolution of a cooling parcel of gas with time. For gas cooling from temperatures relevant to galaxy clusters, earlier calculations estimated the [Fe  xiv ] 5303/[Fe  x ] 6375 luminosity ratio, a critical diagnostic of a cooling plasma, to slightly less than unity. By contrast, our calculations predict a ratio of ~3. We revisit recent optical coronal line observations along the X-ray cool arc around NGC 4696 by Canning et al., which detected [Fe  x ] 6375, but not [Fe  xiv ] 5303. We show that these observations are not consistent with predictions of cooling flow models. Differential extinction could in principle account for the observations, but it requires extinction levels ( A V  〉 3.625) incompatible with previous observations. The non-detection of [Fe  xiv ] implies a temperature ceiling of 2.1 million K. Assuming cylindrical geometry and transonic turbulent pressure support, we estimate the gas mass at ~1 million M . The coronal gas is cooling isochorically. We propose that the coronal gas has not condensed out of the intracluster medium, but instead is the conductive or mixing interface between the X-ray plume and the optical filaments. We present a number of emission lines that may be pursued to test this hypothesis and constrain the amount of intermediate-temperature gas in the system.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-01-09
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-04-25
    Description: The stability of RNAs bearing AU-rich elements in their 3'-UTRs, and thus the level of expression of their protein products, is regulated by interactions with cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins. Binding by HuR generally leads to mRNA stabilization and increased protein production, whereas binding by AUF1 isoforms generally lead to rapid degradation of the mRNA and reduced protein production. The exact nature of the interplay between these and other RNA-binding proteins remains unclear, although recent studies have shown close interactions between them and even suggested competition between the two for binding to their cognate recognition sequences. Other recent reports have suggested that the sequences recognized by the two proteins are different. We therefore performed a detailed in vitro analysis of the binding site(s) for HuR and AUF1 present in androgen receptor mRNA to define their exact target sequences, and show that the same sequence is contacted by both proteins. Furthermore, we analysed a proposed HuR target within the 3'-UTR of MTA1 mRNA, and show that the contacted bases lie outside of the postulated motif and are a better match to a classical ARE than the postulated motif. The defining features of these HuR binding sites are their U-richness and single strandedness.
    Print ISSN: 0021-924X
    Electronic ISSN: 1756-2651
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-05-06
    Description: Uptake of nitrogen (N) by sequential root regions in six tree species was measured in roots of 16- to 26-month-old seedlings at 50 and 1500 µM NH 4 NO 3 concentration, at the cell level using oscillating microelectrodes and at the root region level using enriched 15 N application. Our objective was to determine the root regions making the greatest contribution to total N uptake in each species as measured by the two contrasting techniques. White and condensed tannin zones were the regions with the smallest surface area in all species, but these zones often had the highest net flux of NH 4 + and NO 3 – . For most species, little variation was found among root regions in N flux calculated using a 15 N mass balance approach, but where significant differences existed, high N flux was observed in white, cork or woody zones. When N fluxes measured by each of the two methods were multiplied by the estimated surface area or biomass of each root region, the effect of root region size had the greatest influence on regional N uptake. Root regions of greatest overall N uptake were the cork and woody zones, on average. Total N uptake may thus be greatest in older regions of tree seedling roots, despite low rates of uptake per unit area.
    Print ISSN: 0829-318X
    Electronic ISSN: 1758-4469
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-04-15
    Description: As proliferating cells transit from interphase into M-phase, chromatin undergoes extensive reorganization, and topoisomerase (topo) IIα, the major isoform of this enzyme present in cycling vertebrate cells, plays a key role in this process. In this study, a human cell line conditional null mutant for topo IIα and a derivative expressing an auxin-inducible degron (AID)-tagged version of the protein have been used to distinguish real mitotic chromosome functions of topo IIα from its more general role in DNA metabolism and to investigate whether topo IIβ makes any contribution to mitotic chromosome formation. We show that topo IIβ does contribute, with endogenous levels being sufficient for the initial stages of axial shortening. However, a significant effect of topo IIα depletion, seen with or without the co-depletion of topo IIβ, is the failure of chromosomes to hypercompact when delayed in M-phase. This requires much higher levels of topo II protein and is impaired by drugs or mutations that affect enzyme activity. A prolonged delay at the G2/M border results in hyperefficient axial shortening, a process that is topo IIα-dependent. Rapid depletion of topo IIα has allowed us to show that its function during late G2 and M-phase is truly required for shaping mitotic chromosomes.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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