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  • 1
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/38
    In: CRREL Report, 82-38
    Description / Table of Contents: Extreme cold causes heavy buildup of frost, ice and condensation on many windows. It also increases the incentive for improving the airtightness of windows against heat loss. Our study shows that tightening specifications for Alaskan windows to permit only 30% of the air leakage allowed by current American airtightness standards is economically attractive. We also recommend triple glazing in much of Alaska to avoid window icing in homes and barracks. We base our conclusions on a two-year field study of Alaskan military bases that included recording humidity and temperature data, observing moisture accumulation on windows and measuring airtightness with a fan pressurization device.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 26 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-38
    Language: English
    Note: Contents Abstract Preface Nomenclature Introduction Previous work in cold weather window performance Investigation Data acquisition and analysis Modeling the window thermal regime Moisture and ice observations Airtightness testing and analysis Annual heat loss from air leakage Results and conclusions Moisture on windows Airtightness Airtightness economics Recommendations for windows in extreme cold Airtightness Multiple glazing Literature cited Appendix A: Moisture levels and airtightness Appendix B: Dewpoint data Appendix C: Sample observations of icing
    Location: AWI Archive
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1615-6110
    Keywords: Heterostyly ; distyly ; zygomorphic flowers ; self-compatibility ; protandry ; geitonogamy ; Lamiaceae ; rare plant species
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Heterostyly rarely occurs in families with strongly zygomorphic flowers. For this reason Darwin (1877) doubted whether heterostyly would occur in the Lamiaceae and recent reviews have not reported the floral polymorphism in this family. Here we describe distyly in a rare species ofSalvia restricted to bluffs and seaward canyons on Santa Rosa Island (Santa Barbara Co., California) and northwestern Baja California (Mexico).Salvia brandegeei is morphologically distylous with populations composed of equal frequencies of long-and short-styled morphs differing reciprocally in stigma and anther position. Controlled hand pollinations demonstrated no significant differences in the seed set of self, intramorph or intermorph pollinations. Unlike most heterostylous species investigated,S. brandegeei does not possess diallelic incompatibility or ancillary polymorphisms of pollen and stigmas. We propose that the evolution of distyly inS. brandegeei may have been associated with an ecological shift to a new environment in which protandry failed to prevent increased levels of geitonogamy. Heterostyly was then selected because it increased the proficiency of cross-pollination. The origin of distyly in self-compatibleS. brandegeei is consistent with Lloyd and Webb's theoretical model for the evolution of distyly.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5168
    Keywords: salmon ; eggs ; embryos ; larvae ; thyroid hormones ; development ; ontogeny ; pituitary gland ; thyrotropic cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Total organism content of L-thyroxine (T4) and triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) were measured in the early developmental stages of a stock of Lake Ontario coho salmon from the egg to the yolk absorption stage. Whole organism T4 levels were constant between the egg and pre-hatch embryo stages, but fell progressively during yolk absorption. T3 levels were low from egg to eye-pigment appearance, but then increased prior to hatch and fell again during the post-hatch yolk absorption period. When expressed as ng/tissue, T4 content of the body compartment rose progressively between days 67 and 87 post-fertilization, whilst T4 content of the yolk compartment fell progressively during the same period; the pattern was not evident for tissue T3 content. When expressed as ng/g dry weight of tissue, the inverse relationship was found for T4, and T3 content of the body and yolk compartments decreased progressively and increased progressively, respectively during the same period, suggesting that thyroid hormones were selectively retained in the yolk compartment. Intensely “immunostained” (using anti-human β-TSH antibody) thyrotropic cells were present in small numbers in the pars distalis of the embryonic pituitary at the eye-pigment appearance stage, and the numbers increased markedly until the pre-hatch period. Administration of either bovine thyrotropic hormone (bTSH) or ovine growth hormone (oGH) had no effect on thyroid hormone content of larvae challenged during the yolk absorption period, suggesting that the thyroid tissue was not responsive to exogenous bTSH challenge at this time, and that oGH-sensitive 5′-monodeiodination was either not present or at levels that were too low to cause an elevation in total T3 content, or that the substrate levels were insufficient to permit a measureable increase in whole body T3 content.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 83 (1998), S. 480-485 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) and low-energy electron diffraction study of the InP(001) surface is presented. The surface was prepared by thermal desorption of an As-P capped epilayer grown by molecular beam epitaxy. RA spectra have been monitored over a spectral range of 1.5–5.5 eV at regular intervals during thermal decapping and annealing up to the point of decomposition (553–973 K). Each of the RA spectra of the surface reconstructions comprise positive (at 2.9 eV) and negative (at 1.8 eV) anisotropies which have been previously associated with P- and In-related bonding, respectively. Unlike other III-V (001) semiconductor surfaces, the evolution of different reconstructions cannot be explained in terms of a change in surface stoichiometry which involves loss of the anion species. In the case of InP(001) the P species contributes to the clean surface reconstruction from the early stages of decapping to the point of decomposition. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: gelatin ; films ; tissue ; bonding ; argon beam ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Cross-linked gelatin films were bonded to heart muscle and to lung pleura and parenchyma using the electrical discharge of an argon beam radiofrequency coagulator. The bonds were stable in warm saline buffer for minutes to hours. Bonding was thought to partly occur through a mechanical interlock of film and tissue elements. The interdigitation of tissue and film arose during exposure to the argon beam, which denatured protein constituents of both, and created a fluidized state that rapidly coalesced. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res (Appl Biomater) 43: 89-98, 1998
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: Isochrysis ; lipid ; mariculture ; mass culture ; microalgae ; Nannochloropsis ; nutrition ; Pavlova ; polyunsaturated fatty acids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Three species of microalgae were grown in mass culture to investigate the influence of culture technique and growth phase on the production of 20:5(n−3) and 22:6(n−3). These polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are considered to be essential in many marine animals diets for high growth and survival rates. The species of microalgae examined wereNannochloropsis oculata, Pavlova lutheri andIsochrysis sp. (clone T.Iso). All batch cultures (logarithmic and stationary phase) and semi-continuous cultures (logarithmic phase) examined contained high levels of the long-chain (n−3) PUFA, but production could be maximised by harvesting at specific times and growth phases. Maximum cellular content (pg cell-1) of long-chain PUFA was found in logarithmic phase batch cultures ofN. oculata and in stationary phase cultures ofP. lutheri. The cellular content of PUFA in cultures ofIsochrysis sp. did not change significantly with culture technique or growth phase. Alternatively, stationary phase cultures of all three species showed increased proportions (%) and cellular contents of triacylglycerols, and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids with correspondingly decreased proportions of polar lipids and most PUFA relative to logarithmic phase cultures. The exception was the proportion and cellular content of 22:6(n−3) inP. lutheri which increased with triacylglycerol content. The mass of long-chain (n−3) PUFA per volume of culture was significantly higher in stationary phase cultures due to the higher cell counts per volume. These findings indicate that the opportunity exists to maximise PUFA production by microalgae with the potential to improve animal growth and reduce production costs in mariculture operations and may be of use in the large scale culture and harvesting of microalgae for the biotechnology industry.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2145
    Keywords: Pollen-pistil interference ; Prior self-pollination ; Tristyly ; Self-incompatibility Stylar senescence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The potential inhibitory effects of incompatible pollen on outcrossed seed set were investigated in mass-flowering, self-incompatible, tristylous Pontederia sagittata. Prior application of self pollen, followed after 2, 4, or 6 h by compatible pollen, was conducted on five genotypes of each of the three style morphs under uniform glasshouse conditions. The greatest reductions in seed set occurred in pollinations of the long-styled (L) morph at the 6 h time interval. Smaller reductions were also found for this treatment in the mid-styled (M) morph. No significant reductions in seed set were observed in the short-styled (S) morph or in the other morphs at shorter time intervals. Observations of pollen germination and pollen tube growth indicated that the lack of inhibitory effects in the S morph may occur because relatively few pollen grains adhered to stigmas in selfpollinations. In the L and M morphs, early germination of self pollen may cause physical clogging of the stigma and style, resulting in a reduced number of compatible pollen tubes in styles. Observations of the structural integrity of styles indicated that prior germination of self pollen resulted in more rapid onset of pistil senescence, particularly in the L morph. These influences may contribute to the morph-specific differences in seed set observed following prior self-pollination of outcrossed flowers. The negative effects of incompatible pollen are likely to be most evident where ecological factors cause delays in the delivery of outcross pollen to stigmas.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Trimorphic incompatibility ; Pontederia cordata L.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae), a perennial diploid, possesses the rare genetic polymorphism tristyly. A controlled pollination programme was conducted over a three year period, under glasshouse conditions, on 36 clones of P. cordata var. cordata to examine the nature of the self-incompatibility system. The three major findings of the pollination study were: (1) the three floral morphs display different levels of self-incompatibility, (2) pollen from the two anther levels within a flower exhibits different compatibility behaviour in self-pollinations, (3) considerable individual genetic variation in the expression of self-incompatibility is evident among clones within floral morphs. Similar results were also obtained from a smaller study on 15 clones of P. cordata var. lancifolia conducted over a 6 month period. In common with other Pontederia species the mid-styled morph (M) of P. cordata produces large amounts of seed when self-pollinated with pollen from long-level anthers. A developmental model is proposed to explain the high level of self-compatibility of the M morph in Pontederia species. Self-pollination of segregating progenies from M and S morphs of known incompatibility status demonstrated that the expression of incompatibility is closely associated with style length. It is suggested that overall differences in incompatibility behaviour among the floral morphs may be due to the pleiotropic effects of major genes controlling sub-characters of the tristylous syndrome, rather than linked modifier genes. However, the variable expression of trimorphic incompatibility within floral morphs suggests that this variation may be polygenic in origin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2145
    Keywords: Key words Tristyly ; Trimorphic incompatibility ; Pollen trimorphism ; Partial incompatibility ; Clonal aquatic plant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) is a mat-forming, clonal aquatic that inhabits lakes, marshes and river systems in many parts of the Neotropics. The species is tristylous with long-, mid-, and short-styled morphs commonly represented in natural populations. To investigate whether E. azurea possesses a trimorphic incompatibility system typical of tristylous species, we conducted a controlled pollination experiment on 15 clones representing the three style morphs from a natural population near Rosario, Argentina. Comparisons of fruit and seed set following self-, illegitimate, and legitimate pollinations clearly demonstrated the presence of trimorphic incompatibility in E. azurea. Self- and illegitimate pollinations produced significantly less fruit and seed than legitimate pollinations in all three style morphs. Pollen from the two anther levels within a flower exhibited contrasting compatibility relations in self-pollinations. In common with several other tristylous species in Pontederiaceae, the expression of self-incompatibility was weakest in the mid-styled morph and strongest in the short-styled morph. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary significance of the partial expression of trimorphic incompatibility in E. azurea.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-06-26
    Description: Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia: Banksiophoma australiensis (incl. Banksiophoma gen. nov.) on Banksia coccinea, Davidiellomyces australiensis (incl. Davidiellomyces gen. nov.) on Cyperaceae, Didymocyrtis banksiae on Banksia sessilis var. cygnorum, Disculoides calophyllae on Corymbia calophylla, Harknessia banksiae on Banksia sessilis, Harknessia banksiae-repens on Banksia repens, Harknessia banksiigena on Banksia sessilis var. cygnorum, Harknessia communis on Podocarpus sp., Harknessia platyphyllae on Eucalyptus platyphylla, Myrtacremonium eucalypti (incl. Myrtacremonium gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus globulus, Myrtapenidiella balenae on Eucalyptus sp., Myrtapenidiella eucalyptigena on Eucalyptus sp., Myrtapenidiella pleurocarpae on Eucalyptus pleurocarpa, Paraconiothyrium hakeae on Hakea sp., Paraphaeosphaeria xanthorrhoeae on Xanthorrhoea sp., Parateratosphaeria stirlingiae on Stirlingia sp., Perthomyces podocarpi (incl. Perthomyces gen. nov.) on Podocarpus sp., Readeriella ellipsoidea on Eucalyptus sp., Rosellinia australiensis on Banksia grandis, Tiarosporella corymbiae on Corymbia calophylla, Verrucoconiothyrium eucalyptigenum on Eucalyptus sp., Zasmidium commune on Xanthorrhoea sp., and Zasmidium podocarpi on Podocarpus sp. Brazil: Cyathus aurantogriseocarpus on decaying wood, Perenniporia brasiliensis on decayed wood, Perenniporia paraguyanensis on decayed wood, and Pseudocercospora leandrae-fragilis on Leandra fragilis. Chile: Phialocephala cladophialophoroides on human toe nail. Costa Rica: Psathyrella striatoannulata from soil. Czech Republic: Myotisia cremea (incl. Myotisia gen. nov.) on bat droppings. Ecuador: Humidicutis dictiocephala from soil, Hygrocybe macrosiparia from soil, Hygrocybe sangayensis from soil, and Polycephalomyces onorei on stem of Etlingera sp. France: Westerdykella centenaria from soil. Hungary: Tuber magentipunctatum from soil. India: Ganoderma mizoramense on decaying wood, Hodophilus indicus from soil, Keratinophyton turgidum in soil, and Russula arunii on Pterigota alata. Italy: Rhodocybe matesina from soil. Malaysia: Apoharknessia eucalyptorum, Harknessia malayensis, Harknessia pellitae, and Peyronellaea eucalypti on Eucalyptus pellita, Lectera capsici on Capsicum annuum, and Wallrothiella gmelinae on Gmelina arborea. Morocco: Neocordana musigena on Musa sp. New Zealand: Candida rongomai-pounamu on agaric mushroom surface, Candida vespimorsuum on cup fungus surface, Cylindrocladiella vitis on Vitis vinifera, Foliocryphia eucalyptorum on Eucalyptus sp., Ramularia vacciniicola on Vaccinium sp., and Rhodotorula ngohengohe on bird feather surface. Poland: Tolypocladium fumosum on a caterpillar case of unidentified Lepidoptera. Russia: Pholiotina longistipitata among moss. Spain: Coprinopsis pseudomarcescibilis from soil, Eremiomyces innocentii from soil, Gyroporus pseudocyanescens in humus, Inocybe parvicystis in humus, and Penicillium parvofructum from soil. Unknown origin: Paraphoma rhaphiolepidis on Rhaphiolepsis indica. USA: Acidiella americana from wall of a cooling tower, Neodactylaria obpyriformis (incl. Neodactylaria gen. nov.) from human bronchoalveolar lavage, and Saksenaea loutrophoriformis from human eye. Vietnam: Phytophthora mekongensis from Citrus grandis, and Phytophthora prodigiosa from Citrus grandis. Morphological and culture characteristics along with DNA barcodes are provided.
    Keywords: ITS nrDNA barcodes ; LSU ; novel fungal species ; systematics
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
    Format: application/pdf
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