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  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Intermediate subviral particles (ISVP) derived from reovirus represent a simple model system for the switch-on of transcriptase function. In such particles the endogenous transcriptase is present in a switched-off form, one step removed from the switched-on state. Switch-on of transcriptase function is an active process in this system and can be triggered by K+ ions. A variety of agents which affect gene expression in cells were tested for an effect on switch-on in ISVP. Marked effects on switch-on in ISVP were observed with a diverse group of test agents, including DMSO and other solvents, BUdR, TdR, caffeine, theophylline, and temperature. The correlation in response between ISVP and cells suggests that the ISVP system may be useful as a model for studying the biochemical mechanisms underlying the perturbative effects of such agents on gene expression in cells.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: spermatozoa ; flow cytometry ; DNA staining ; nuclear morphology ; ultrastructure ; mammals ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The morphological and ultrastructural changes that occur during preparation of porcine, bovine, and murine spermatozoa for flow cytometric quantification of the relative DNA content of the X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm populations were examined. Ejaculated spermatozoa from the boar and bull were washed using a series of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions prior to fixation, whereas the epididymal mouse spermatozoa were washed only in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Spermatozoa from all three species were then fixed in ethanol and processed for fluorochrome staining by a treatment regimen consisting of sulfhydryl reduction and proteolysis. The processed sperm nuclei were stained for DNA with the fluorochrome, 4′-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) before quantification by flow cytometry. Scanning and transmission electron micrographs of sperm heads taken at various steps of the preparation and staining procedures show 1) that the rigorous washing procedure disrupted the plasma and outer acrosomal membranes, 2) that ethanol fixation resulted in removal of the outer membranes and disintegration of the nuclear envelope, and 3) that thiol and proteolysis treatment removed the remaining cellular organelles including the tail and rapidly induced partial decondensation of the tightly packed chromatin. Sequential micrographs showed that the nuclear matrix of all three species increased in thickness about twofold during the preparation and staining. Consequently, the harsh procedures currently used for quantitative staining of DNA for high-resolution flow cytometric analyses destroy most cellular organelles and thereby prevent simultaneous characterization of DNA content and other sperm cell constituents.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Gamete Research 4 (1981), S. 203-217 
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: α-chlorohydrin ; antifertility agent ; ram ; sperm metabolism ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The effects of the male antifertility agent, α-chlorohydrin, six of its derivatives, and glycidol were studied on the metabolism of washed ram spermatozoa in vitro with fructose as substrate. The α-chlorohydrin derivatives were the amino, the phosphorylated, and four glycol-bridge (ketal) compounds. All compounds except glycidol, in a concentration between 0.1 and 100 mM, reduced the aerobic glycolsis and/or oxidation of fructose. However, there was not a high correlation between the ability of these compounds to inhibit the metabolism of ram spermatozoa in vitro and their antifertility activity when administered to male rats. Other factors are clearly involved in their antifertility activity, eg, the concentration of the compounds in the epididymis and their conversion of either more or less spermicidal compounds in the body.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have isolated continuously growing cell lines derived from mouse bone marrow stroma. These cell lines were independently obtained, and though they showed morphologies ranging from the epithelioid to the fibroblastoid patterns, they all differentiated into adipocytes. Subclones obtained from two cell lines had a very high frequency (90-100%) of differentiation into adipocytes after two or three weeks of arrested growth. Though extensive accumulation of lipid often mechanically impaired mitosis, the cells committed to adipocytes did not suffer an irreversible loss of proliferative capacity. Adipogenesis was obtained in conditions similar to those required for fat cell formation in long-term bone marrow culture. The cell lines were found to be insensitive to insulin as a signal of adipocyte differentiation. The ultrastructural characteristics of the preadipocytes and fat cells are also similar to those of the fat cells developing in long-term bone marrow culture. As such, these cell lines should prove useful for analysing cell/cell interactions in haemopoiesis.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Actively growing mouse or rat embryo cells suffered structural chromosome damage, mitotic anomalies, and polyploidy after infection by human adenovirus type 5. Chromosome damage required expression of one or more early viral genes and showed regular periodicity in its frequency. The growth cycle time of some of the infected cells was reduced by about 5 hours due to a decrease in G1, and the interval between successive waves of chromosome damage corresponded to this reduced cycle time. After infection there was a decrease in cells with G1 DNA content and an increase in cells with G2 diploid, aneuploid, and polyploid DNA contents. We suggest these effects are due to the expression in semipermissive cells of early viral gene(s), whose function in productive infection in vivo is to alter cell cycle controls in order to maximize the number of cells able to replicate viral DNA and the time such cells spend in DNA replication.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The possibilities that the growth-promoting effect of the extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by cultured bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) cells could be due to: (1) adsorbed cellular factors released during the cell lysis process leading to the denudation of the ECM; (2) adsorbed serum or plasma factors: or (3) adsorbed exogenous growth factors have been examined. Exposure of confluent BCE cultures to 2 M urea in medium supplemented with 0.5% calf serum denudes the ECM without cell lysis. The ECM prepared by this procedure supports cell growth just as well as ECM prepared by denudation involving cell lysis. Thus, it is unlikely that the growth-promoting properties of ECM are due to adsorbed cellular factors. When the ECM produced by BCE cells grown in defined medium supplemented with high-density lipoprotein, transferrin, and insulin was compared to the ECMs produced by cells grown in the presence of serum- or plasma-supplemented medium, all were found to be equally potent in stimulating cell growth. It is therefore unlikely that the growth-promoting ability of the ECM is due to adsorbed plasma or serum components. When fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-coated and ECM-coated plastic dishes were submitted to a heat treatment (70°C, 30 min) which results in the inactivation of FGF, the growth-supporting ability of FGF-coated dishes was lost, while the comparable ability of ECM-coated dishes was not affected significantly. This observation tends to demonstrate that the active factor present in the ECM is not FGF. Nor is it platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), since treatment known to destroy the activity of PDGF, such as exposure to dithiothreitol (0.1 M, 30 min, 22°C) or to β-mercaptoethanol (10%) in the presence or absence of 6 M urea for 30 min at 227°C, does not affect the growth-promoting activity of ECM. It is therefore unlikely that the growth-promoting effect of ECM is due to cellular growth-promoting agents or to plasma or serum factors adsorbed onto the ECM.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In culture, B16/C3 murine melanoma cells grown in the presence of serum undergo melanogenesis at a specific time after plating. At this time, melanin is synthesized intracellularly and then secreted into the extracellular culture fluid. We have found that melanin secretion is dependent on the presence of serum in the growth medium. When confluent cultures are deprived of serum, that is, refed with serum-free medium, cells remain viable but do not undergo melanogenesis. Addition of serum-free medium supplemented with either melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) or dibutyryl cAMP induced melanogenesis in these cells but did not result in melanin secretion. Furthermore, when B16/C3 cells are grown in serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium, they also undergo melanogenesis but fail to release melanin. The addition of serum, however, to B16/C3 cells induced to undergo melanogenesis with MSH, dibutyryl cAMP, or hormone-supplemented medium promotes melanin secretion. Fractionation studies hence revealed that serum contains specific factors capable of inducing melanin secretion. These results demonstrate that factors that regulate melanin synthesis are distinct from those that induce cells to release melanin into their extracellular environment. Furthermore, the ability to induce melanogenesis with single factors will permit us to study the precise sequence of events leading to differentiation in B16/C3 cells under chemically defined conditions.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 102 (1980), S. 175-181 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A procedure has been investigated for sorting viable cells according to their DNA content. Cells are stained with the U.V. activated fluorochromes 4′6-diamidino-2-pheylindole (DAPI), Hoechst 33258 or Hoechst 33342, and sorted with a Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter. Hoechst 33342 is a suitable vital stain for a varietyof cell types. Hoechst 33258 and DAPI, however, are quantitative vital stains for CHO cells only. Cloning efficiency is unaffected by the sorting procedure, and these stains are not mutagenic at concentrations suitable for vital staining. Potential applications of this procedure to cell biology are discussed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: BALB/c or DBA/2 mice were infected with Abelson murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV), pseudotype Molony murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV). Infection of these mice with 104 focus-forming units of A-MuLV (M-MuLV) induced overt leukemia, detectable grossly or microscopically in 90% of the mice at 20-38 days. However, these methods did not detect leukemia at 17 days or before. Bone marrow cells from A-MuLV-infected leukemic or preleukemic mice were placed in tissue culture in a soft agarose gel. Cells from leukemic or preleukemic BALB/c mice grew to form colonies of 103 cells or more, composed of lymphoblasts, whereas marrow cells from normal uninfected mice did not. Cells from these colonies grew to form ascitic tumors after intraperitoneal inoculation into pristane-primed BALB/c recipient. Colony-forming leukemia cells could be detected in the marrow of A-MuLV-infected mice as early as 8 days after virus incoluation. The number of colony-forming leukemia cells increased as a function of time after virus inoculation.Colony-forming leukemia cells require other cells in order to replicate in tissue culture. Normal bone marrow cells, untreated or after treatment with mitomycin-C, provide this “helper” function. Only in the presence of untreated or mitomycin-C treated helper cells was the number of colonies approximately proportional to the number of leukemia cells plated.Marrow cells from leukemic BALB/c mice form more colonies than those from leukemic DBA/2 mice. The number of colonies formed per 103 microscopically identifiable leukemia cells plated was determined to be 2-3 for leukemic BALB/c mice and 0.3 for DBA/2 mice. Cocultivation of leukemic DBA/2 marrow cells with mitomycin-C treated normal BALB/c cells did not increase the number of colonies formed by the DBA/2 leukemic cells. Thus, the decreased ability of DBA/2 leukemia cells to form colonies appears to be a property of the leukemia cell population.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The effect of inhibition of the cell membrane Na+-K+ pump on the Balb/c-3T3 cell growth cycle was studied. Inhibition of the Na+-K+ pump resulted in a dose-dependent reduction of intracellular K+ concentration ({K+}i). However, inhibition of protein synthesis in G0/G1 and of subsequent entry into S phase occurred only after {K+}i fell below a critical threshold (50-60 mmoles/liter). Thus, when the {K+}i falls below a critical threshold, protein synthesis is inhibited, preventing cells from entering the S phase.The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) induces cells to become “competent” to traverse the cell cycle; the platelet-poor plasma component of serum allows competent cells to progress through G0/G1 and enter S phase. Inhibition of the Na+-K+ pump did not prevent the induction of competence by PDGF, but it did reversibly inhibit plasma-mediated events in early G0/G1. Similarly, cycloheximide inhibited plasma-mediated events but did not prevent PDGF-induced competence. Thus, protein synthesis may not be required for induction of competence; alternatively, the induction of the competent state may occur in these cells after removal of PDGF and protein synthesis inhibitor. Protein synthesis is required for subsequent plasma-mediated events in G0/G1.
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