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  • Articles  (674)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Public choice 88 (1996), S. 103-113 
    ISSN: 1573-7101
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract Research on U.S. college athletics suggests that voting on academic eligibility rules is motivated by rent-seeking behavior. Furthermore, academic eligibility rules have been criticized as being racially biased — more blacks than whites fail to meet the requirements. This paper examines whether the potential racial bias impacted voting on a specific academic eligibility rule known as Proposition 42. Evidence of customer discrimination suggests revenue generating differentials between black and white college basketball players. If rent-seeking behavior motivates voting on academic eligibility rules, then the racial composition of recruits and fans may be determinants of Proposition 42 voting. The results show that schools with more black fans were more likely to oppose Proposition 42; however, schools with a larger pool of potential black recruits tended to favor it, perhaps due to a comparative advantage in recruiting black student-athletes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7691
    Keywords: Domain decomposition ; nested dissection ; LU-factorization ; time integration ; Newton's method ; spectral elements ; finite elements
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract Domain decomposition by nested dissection for concurrent factorization and storage (CFS) of asymmetric matrices is coupled with finite element and spectral element discretizations and with Newton's method to yield an algorithm for parallel solution of nonlinear initial-and boundary-value problem. The efficiency of the CFS algorithm implemented on a MIMD computer is demonstrated by analysis of the solution of the two-dimensional, Poisson equation discretized using both finite and spectral elements. Computation rates and speedups for the LU-decomposition algorithm, which is the most time consuming portion of the solution algorithm, scale with the number of processors. The spectral element discretization with high-order interpolating polynomials yields especially high speedups because the ratio of communication to computation is lower than for low-order finite element discretizations. The robustness of the parallel implementation of the finite-element/Newton algorithm is demonstrated by solution of steady and transient natural convection in a two-dimensional cavity, a standard test problem for low Prandtl number convection. Time integration is performed using a fully implicit algorithm with a modified Newton's method for solution of nonlinear equations at each time step. The efficiency of the CFS version of the finite-element/Newton algorithm compares well with a spectral element algorithm implemented on a MIMD computer using iterative matrix methods.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7179
    Keywords: antitakeover devices ; supermajority nonfair price amendments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract Separation of corporate ownership and control creates an environment whereby the agent (management) may pursue self-interests at the expense of the principal (stockholders). One mechanism protecting stockholders from self-interested management is the market for corporate control, or the takeover market. Antitakeover devices impede the operations of this market. This paper reports on the study of one type of antitakeover device, the supermajority nonfair price amendment. This device is particularly onerous, and if antitakeover devices do protect inefficient management as has been alluded to in the literature, then evidence of inefficiency should be observable for companies adopting supermajority nonfair price amendments. To test the above proposition, we examine the difference in performance over a seven-year period (1) Between firms having supermajority nonfair price amendments and a set of matched firms that do not have these devices, and (2) between firms with these amendments and their respective industries. In both tests, performance was lower for the firms adopting these amendments, which suggests that these devices are used to protect inefficient management. Further, the argument that managers of firms which adopt antitakeover devices so that they can take a long-term outlook at the expense of short-term profitability was not supported by the data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-9686
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Decreasing pleural pressure impedes the ejection of blood from the left ventricle (LV), may lead to decreased LV compliance because of interdependence effects and leads to increased transmural LV systolic and diastolic pressure. Previous work from this laboratory has shown that patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) often develop akinetic segments of the LV wall during the Mueller maneuver. In the presence of increased LV transmural pressure regional akinesis could be caused either by the development of regional ischemia or by mechanical inhibition of motion of an area of nonfunctional myocardium as would be caused by previous myocardial infarction (MI). The present study was designed to distinguish between these two mechanisms by determining if the presence of CAD alone is sufficient to lead to regional akinesis or if prior MI is necessary. We used first pass radionuclide ventriculography (RVG) in the 30° LAD supine position to measure LV ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes, heart rate and to assess regional wall motion during the Mueller maneuver. This was done in four groups of subjects: (1) 13 normal subjects, (2) 25 patients with CAD but no prior MI, (3) 13 patients with prior nontransmural MI and (4) 36 patients with prior transmural MI. All subjects had angina pectoris and underwent contrast coronary arteriography. Most also underwent routine contrast left ventriculography as well. There were no significant differences among the three patient groups as regards medications, extent and severity of CAD, and response to routine exercise tolerance testing. EF decreased significantly in the three patient groups (4%–9%, p〈0.01) but not in the normals during the Mueller maneuver. Heart rate increased (5–10 bpm, p〈0.05) in the normals and in patient groups 2 and 4. EDV decrease in all four subject groups (8%–10%, p〈0.01), while ESV remained unchanged. Akinesis of the LV wall developed during the Mueller maneuver only in one group-2 patient, but did so in 17/36 patients with prior transmural MI (group 4, p〈0.001). One-half of the akinetic LV wall segments seen during the Mueller maneuver on RVG were not seen on routine contrast ventriculography. We tested the effects of posture (supine versus upright) on the response to the Mueller maneuver in six normal subjects and found no changes in the response of EDV and ESV to the Mueller maneuver. We conclude that (1) the appearance of LV wall akinesis during the Mueller maneuver signifies the presence of prior transmural MI, and not just CAD; (2) the Mueller maneuver can enhance the sensitivity of the RVG for detecting nonfunctional myocardium; (3) regional akinesis develops even when LV volume decreases, suggesting it is due to changes in LV transmural pressure; (4) there are changes in LV function which can lead to a decrease in global EF during the Mueller maneuver; (5) the effects of the Mueller maneuver on LV volume are complex, variable and are subject to multifactorial influences.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7691
    Keywords: Domain decomposition ; nested dissection ; LU-factorization ; parallel computers ; MIMD
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract A multilevel algorithm is presented for direct, parallel factorization of the large sparse matrices that arise from finite element and spectral element discretization of elliptic partial differential equations. Incomplete nested dissection and domain decomposition are used to distribute the domain among the processors and to organize the matrix into sections in which pivoting is applied to stabilize the factorization of indefinite equation sets. The algorithm is highly parallel and memory efficient; the efficient use of sparsity in the matrix allows the solution of larger problems as the number of processors is increased, and minimizes computations as well as the number and volume of communications among the processors. The number of messages and the total volume of messages passed during factorization, which are used as measures of algorithm efficiency, are reduced significantly compared to other algorithms. Factorization times are low and speedups high for implementation on an Intel iPSC/860 hypercube computer. Furthermore, the timings for forward and back substitutions are more than an order-of-magnitude smaller than the matrix decomposition times.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
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    Detroit, Mich. : Periodicals Archive Online (PAO)
    Technology and Culture. 3:3 (1962:Summer) 371 
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  • 7
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    Dordrecht : Periodicals Archive Online (PAO)
    Synthese. 8:8/9 ([1950/1951]) 355 
    ISSN: 0039-7857
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General , Philosophy
    Notes: Language Analysis and (Applied) Logic
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  • 8
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    Detroit, Mich. : Periodicals Archive Online (PAO)
    Technology and Culture. 6:3 (1965:Summer) 531 
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  • 9
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    Ann Arbor, Mich., etc., : Periodicals Archive Online (PAO)
    Journal of Asian Studies. 54:4 (1995:Nov.) 1150 
    ISSN: 0021-9118
    Topics: Political Science , Economics
    Description / Table of Contents: Southeast Asia
    Notes: Book Reviews
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  • 10
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    Macomb, Ill., etc. : Periodicals Archive Online (PAO)
    Journal of Geography. 8 (1909/1910) 121 
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