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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 287 (1980), S. 284-291 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] CENTRAL to the concept of plate tectonics are the assumptions that astrong lithosphre overlies a weaker asthenosphere, and that lithospheric plates are undeformed except at their boundaries. Because the evolution of the Earth's surface from the standpoint of plate tectonics has gained widespread ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 231 (1971), S. 518-522 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] An earlier account of seafloor spreading between Australia and Antarctica1 was based on limited data, confined almost entirely to the north flank of the Indian-Antarctic ridge. A detailed study of the magnetic anomaly lineation pattern for this entire region is now in progress (J. K. W. et al, to ...
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Elsevier B.V., 2007. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Earth and Planetary Science Letters 267 (2008): 341-352, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007.11.053.
    Description: Detailed near-bottom investigation of a series of giant, kilometer scale, elongate pockmarks along the edge of the mid-Atlantic continental shelf confirms that methane is actively venting at the site. Dissolved methane concentrations, which were measured with a commercially available methane sensor (METS) designed by Franatech GmbH mounted on an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), are as high as 100 nM. These values are well above expected background levels (1-4 nM) for the open ocean. Sediment pore water geochemistry gives further evidence of methane advection through the seafloor. Isotopically light carbon in the dissolved methane samples indicates a primarily biogenic source. The spatial distribution of the near-bottom methane anomalies (concentrations above open ocean background), combined with water column salinity and temperature vertical profiles, indicate that methane-rich water is not present across the entire width of the pockmarks, but is laterally restricted to their edges. We suggest that venting is primarily along the top of the pockmark walls with some advection and dispersion due to local currents. The highest methane concentrations observed with the METS sensor occur at a small, circular pockmark at the southern end of the study area. This observation is compatible with a scenario where the larger, elongate pockmarks evolve through coalescing smaller pockmarks.
    Description: This work was supported by NSF grants OCE- 0242426, OCE-0242804 and OCDE-0242449 and ONR grant N00014-02-1-0691.
    Keywords: Pockmarks ; Seafloor venting ; Methane ; AUV
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: One- and two-dimensional models for the deformation by horizontal compression of an elastic plate containing a preexisting deflection were developed and analyzed in order to explain why the compressionally deformed oceanic lithosphere in the Central Indian-Ocean basin is not located where maximum levels of compressive stress in the Indo-Australian plate were predicted by Cloetingh and Wortel (1985, 1986). It is concluded from the results that the location of the deformed region is controlled by an earlier lithospheric deformation that is attributed to the emplacement of the Afanazy-Nikitin seamount group in Late Cretaceous or early Tertiary time.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 19795-19
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: This paper presents a final technical report on a dedicated environmental remote sensing facility for the Columbia Earth Institute. The above-referenced award enabled the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory to establish a state-of-the-art remote sensing image analysis and data visualization facility to serve the research and educational needs of students and staff at Lamont and the Columbia Earth Institute.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: Many rifted or passive continental margins feature a seaward-facing erosional escarpment which abruptly demarcates deeply weathered, low relief, interior uplands from a deeply incised, high relief coastal zone. It is generally accepted that these escarpments originate at the time of continental rifting and propagate inland through the elevated rift flank topography at rates on the order of 1 km/Myr over the course of a margin's history. Considering the length of passive margins worldwide and an average rift flank plateau height of several hundred meters, it is clear that sediment eroded from passive margins is an important component of the mass flux from continents to oceans through geologic time. The overall goal of the research reported here is to develop a quantitative understanding of the kinematics of escarpment propagation across passive margins and the underlying geological processes responsible for this behavior. Plateau-bounding escarpments in general exhibit two basic forms depending on the direction of surface water drainage on the plateau interior relative to the escarpment. Where surface water flows away from the escarpment, the escarpment takes the form of subdued embayments and promontories, such that its overall trend remains fairly straight as it evolves with time. Where upland streams flow across the escarpment, it takes the form of dramatic, narrow gorges whose heads appear to propagate up the plateau drainage systems as large-scale knickpoints. From work on the Colorado Plateau, Schmidt (1987) noted that the Colorado River is located much closer to the Grand Canyon's south rim, a drainage divide escarpment, than to the north rim, which is a gorge-like escarpment. The main implication is that the gorge-like form might be associated with higher long-term average erosion rates compared to the drainage divide escarpment type.
    Keywords: Geophysics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: The scaling properties of synthetic topographic surfaces and digital elevation models (DEMs) of topography are examined by analyzing their 'structure functions,' i.e., the qth order powers of the absolute elevation differences: delta h(sub q) (l) = E((absolute value of h(x + l) - h(x))(exp q)). We find that the relation delta h(sub 1 l) approximately equal cl(exp H) describes well the scaling behavior of natural topographic surfaces, as represented by DEMs gridded at 3 arc sec. Average values of the scaling exponent H between approximately 0.5 and 0.7 characterize DEMs from Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, and Somalia over 3 orders of magnitude range in length scale l (approximately 0.1-150 km). Differences in appparent topographic roughness among the three areas most likely reflect differences in the amplitude factor c. Separate determination of scaling properties in the x and y coordinate directions allows us to assess whether scaling exponents are azimuthally dependent (anisotropic) or whether they are isotropic while the surface itself is anisotropic over a restricted range of length scale. We explore ways to determine whether topographic surfaces are characterized by simple or multiscaling properties.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; B7; p. 13,997-14,012
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1996-09-01
    Description: Rifted continental margins generally display an interior, low-relief, highly weathered upland area and a deeply incised, high-relief coastal area. The boundary between the two zones is commonly demarcated by an abrupt, seaward-facing escarpment. We investigate the rate and pattern of escarpment erosion and landscape evolution along the passive margin of south-east Australia, in the region of the New England Tableland. The process of rifting is shown to initiate an escarpment across which rivers flow, resulting in an escarpment that takes the form of dramatic, elongated gorges. Using a mass balance approach, we estimate the volume/unit length of continental material eroded seaward of the escarpment to be between 41 and 68 km2, approximately an order of magnitude less than the 339 km2 of terrigenous sediments calculated to have been deposited offshore, but consistent with earlier denudation estimates based on apatite fission track data. On the bedrock rivers draining the New England Tableland region, the escarpment is manifested as a series of sharp knickpoints punctuating the river longitudinal profiles. The knickpoints are situated the same distance upstream along the different channels and uniform escarpment retreat rates on the order of 2 km Myr-1 are estimated, despite some differences in bedrock lithologies. Gorge head migration appears to be very important as a bedrock incision mechanism. Field observations indicate a coupling between escarpment retreat and knickpoint propagation, bedrock channel incision, and hillslope development.
    Print ISSN: 0950-091X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2117
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Wiley
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1977-08-01
    Print ISSN: 0012-821X
    Electronic ISSN: 1385-013X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1978-10-01
    Print ISSN: 0012-821X
    Electronic ISSN: 1385-013X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Elsevier
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