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  • Articles  (73)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1626
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es werden die Grundbeziehungen für die Berechnung von Strahlen seismischer Wellen in inhomogenen Milieus abgeleitet, in denen die Geschwindigkeit allgemein von drei krummlinigen Koordinaten abhängt. Die angeführten Beziehungen stellen ein System von gewöhnlichen Differentialgleichungen erster Ordnung dar. Die numerische Lösung dieses Systems bietet eine Möglichkeit, die Strahlendiagramme, Laufzeitkurven und Isochronen für die gegebenen Geschwindigkeitsmodelle zu konstruieren. Aufmerksamkeit wird ebenfalls dem Einfall der Strahlen auf eine unebene Grenzschicht gewidmet. Die Beziehungen für die Berechnung reflektierter und refraktierter Strahlen werden abgeleitet. Anhand der abgeleiteten Beziehungen werden Strahlendiagramme und Laufzeitkurven für eine Geschwindigkeitsverteilung berechnet, die durch die vorläufige Interpretation der Ergebnisse von seismischen Tiefensondierungen am tschechoslowakischen Teil des Profils VI gewonnen wurden.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-1626
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Резюме Иссле¶rt;уеmся оnре¶rt;еленuе уnру uх nосmоянных nо скоросmям объемных волн. Меmо¶rt;ом nосле¶rt;овamельных nрuблuженuŭ решaеmся сuсmемa урaвненuŭ muna (6) u (10). Для мamерuaлов с высокоŭ aнuзоmроnuеŭ вмесmо скоросmеŭ nоnеречных волн можно uсnользовamь uх оценкu, коmорые nовmоренuем рaсчеma уmочняюmся (фu . 2). Для вычuсленuя уnру uх nосmоянных необхо¶rt;uмо знamь скоросmu nро¶rt;ольных волн мuнuмaльно в 15mu нanрaвленuях u скоросmu обеuх nоnеречных волн мuнuмaльно в шесmu нanрaвленuях. Прu uсnользовaнuu оценок скоросmеŭ nоnеречных волн необхо¶rt;uмо знamь скоросmu nро¶rt;ольных волн мuнuмaльно ¶rt;ля 21 о нanрaвленuя.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-1626
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary The space (time) delay of transmitted waves in the vicinity of the interface beyond the critical point is investigated on two-dimensional seismic models of a low velocity channel; results of laboratory experiments are compared with the conclusions of the theory. The effect of the time delay in field measurements is demonstrated by means of two typical geological formations.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-1626
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary At two observation sites located in different geological conditions seismic waves from borehole shots and from quarry blast were recorded with a three-component broadband instrument. The analysis of dynamic characteristics, based on the experimental investigation of the displacement amplitudes, is presented.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-1626
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary The dynamic focal parameters of a series of strong earthquakes, recorded by the FBV broadband velocigraph at KHC (Kašperské Hory, Czechoslovakia), are estimated. The influence of specific wave pattern features on the estimation accuracy is studied. Polarization analysis is used to demonstrate the complicated interference character even of record portions corresponding to a single teleseismic wave group. The values of the dynamic focal parameters do not depend significantly on the length of the analysed record portions and are sufficiently consistent with those reported by Riznichenko [2]. The possibility of estimating dynamic focal parameters from recording of standard classes B (intermediate band) and C (long-period) seismographs is pointed out.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-1626
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary An analytical migration method is developed for inverting wide angle seismic reflection travel time data with proper migration. In this method the concept of effective velocity (V eff ) in the vertically inhomogeneous earth has been used, which takes into account the refraction effect. It is shown that the migration process in this case becomes extremely rapid as curved ray paths are replaced by equivalent straight paths. A post migration ‘sliding correction’ is found to be necessary, which arises due to the non-collinearity of the recording point, reflection point and the image point in the equivalent straight path geometry for dipping reflectors. Calculations for some representative dips show that, for the depths and recording ranges of interest in DSS, the vertical component of the sliding correction is negligible compared to the horizontal component. However, even the horizontal component is not significant for reflectors with gentle dips. The effect of certain simplifying assumptions in the estimation of V eff is shown to be within the error limits of velocity determination. A computer programme package has been written for carrying out the migration. The method yields more accurate results in various theoretical and field cases than the conventional graphical wave front methods which are at present widely used for crustal reflection work.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-1626
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Резюме В рaбоmе[3] решенa зa¶rt;aчa зaвuсuмосmu скоросmеŭ рaсnросmрaненuя nро¶rt;олных волн оm у лa na¶rt;енuя оmносumельно нормaлеŭ mонкuх кру лых mрещuн. Эma mеореmuческaя мо¶rt;ель былa nрuмененa к эскnерuменmaльно uзмеренным скоросmям nро¶rt;олных волн нa шaровых обрaзцaх орных nоро¶rt; nрu u¶rt;росmamuческuх ¶rt;aвленuях ¶rt;о 400 МПa. Обсужaлuсь ¶rt;ве мо¶rt;елu: nервaя мо¶rt;ель с о¶rt;ноŭ сuсmемоŭ naрaллельно нanрaвленных mрещuн u вmорaя мо¶rt;ель uмеющaя ¶rt;ве незaвuсuмые сuсmемы mрещuн. Решенuем обрamноŭ зa¶rt;aчu nолучuлuсь naрaмеmры mрещuн в зaвuсuмосmu оm u¶rt;росmamuческо о ¶rt;aвленuя. Прuве¶rt;ены резульmamы ¶rt;ля обрaзцa сaзaвско о рaно¶rt;uорuma.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-1626
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The dependence between Pn-wave velocities and the surface heat flow, temperature at the core-mantl boundary and thickness of the Earth's crust for continents (Europe, Asia, North America and Australia) was investigated statistically in connection with the problem of lateral inhomogeneities in the upper mantle. The relations obtained were compared with those determined under laboratory conditions. The conclusion is that temperature and pressure effects may provide additional explanations of the regional variations of Pn-wave velocities observed in most continents.
    Notes: Резюме Зaвuсuмосmь меж¶rt;угрaнuчнымu скоросmямu nро¶rt;ольных волн нa nоверхносmu Мохоровuчuчa(Pn ), nоверхносmным mеnловым nоmоком, mемnерamуроŭ нa Мохо u мощносmью земноŭ коры конmuненmов былa uссле¶rt;овaнa в связu с воnросом о нрuчuнегорuзонmaльных нео¶rt;норо¶rt;носmеŭ скоросmu Pn. Оnублuковaнные ¶rt;aнные о резульmamaх лaборamорных uссле¶rt;овaнuŭ уnругuх своŭсmв nоро¶rt; верхнеŭ мaнmuu в условuях высокuх ¶rt;aвленuŭ u mемnерamур нaхо¶rt;umся в сооmвеmсmвuu с резульmamaмu nре¶rt;лaгaемоŭ рaбоmы. Делaеmся выво¶rt;, чmо регuонaльные uзмененuя скоросmеŭ Pn-волн ¶rt;ля больщеŭ чaсmu конmuненmaльноŭ коры оnре¶rt;еляюmся рaзлuчuем mермо¶rt;uнaмuческuх условuŭ нa nоверхносmu Мохоmовuчuчa.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-1626
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Bei Verfolgung der Entstehung und Formierung der durch eine explosive Kugelquelle erregten Druckwellen steht die Frage ihres Frequenzgehalts im Vordergrund. Der Frequenzgehalt dieser Wellen wurde durch die Abhängigkeit ausgedrückt (2), die die Änderungen der relativen Breite des Amplitudenspektrums (1) vom Gewicht und von der Entfernung der Quelle angibt. Aus(2) erfolgt, dass der Frequenzgehalt der Druckwellen mit wachsender Entfernung und Grösse der Ladung exponential sinkt, wobei die Steilheit dieses Abfalls für höhere Grössen der Ladung kleiner ist. Das Herabsetzen des Frequenzgehalts dieser Wellen verursacht, dass die maximate spektral Dichte in grösseren Entfernungen von der Quelle markanter wird.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-1626
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Резюме Меmо¶rt; вычuсленuя уnру uх nосmоянных uз скоросmеŭ nро¶rt;олЩных волн, оnuсaнныŭ в[4], был uсnолЩовaн ¶rt;ля обрaзцa uзвесmнякa с небольщuм коэффцuенmом aнuзоmроnuu. Для maко о мamерuaлa возможно нaŭmu ря¶rt; совокуnносmеŭ уnру uх nосmоянных, коmорые хорощо annроксuмuруюm кuнемamuческuе u ¶rt;uнaмuческuе своŭсmвa nро¶rt;олъных волн. Девяmъ uз эmuх nосmоянных uмеюm о¶rt;нознaчные, nрaвuльные знaченuя. Для осmaльных ¶rt;венa¶rt;цamu nосmоянных мозно uз скоросmеŭ nро¶rt;ольных волн оnре¶rt;елumь mолько щесmъ условных урaвненuŭ.
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