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  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (21)
  • Oxford University Press  (7)
  • Nürnberg: Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-06
    Description: Eine beträchtliche Zahl gerade unter den älteren Arbeitslosen weist vielfältige Vermittlungshemmnisse auf. Ihre Integration in Beschäftigung stellt eine Herausforderung für die Arbeitsmarktpolitik dar. Der vorliegende Forschungsbericht stellt Ergebnisse eines Programms für ältere besonders arbeitsmarktferne ALG-II-Beziehende vor, das innerhalb des Bundesprogramms Perspektive 50plus angesiedelt ist. In diesem Teilprogramm unter der Bezeichnung Impuls 50plus werden Teilnehmende bis zu 36 Monate intensiver gefördert als dies in der Regelförderung möglich ist. Am Ziel einer Integration in ungeförderte Beschäftigung wurde mit Impuls 50plus festgehalten, die Ziele der sozialen Teilhabe und der Steigerung bzw. Wiederherstellung der Beschäftigungsfähigkeit gegenüber der Regelförderung jedoch aufgewertet. Charakteristisch waren zudem große Spielräume für die lokalen Arbeitsmarktdienstleister bei der Umsetzung von Impuls 50plus. Untersucht wurde der Zusammenhang von regionalen Strukturen und Strategien der Umsetzung von Impuls 50plus und den Erfolgen bei der Aktivierung und der Integration der Teilnehmenden: Welche Elemente der regionalen Umsetzung sind bei der Aktivierung und Integration der Zielgruppe besonders erfolgsträchtig? Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Stabilisierung bzw. Erhöhung der Beschäftigungsfähigkeit und die Integration in Beschäftigung keine gegensätzlichen Ziele sind. Gerade in Grundsicherungsstellen mit jenen Umsetzungsvarianten, die die Förderung der Beschäftigungsfähigkeit, der sozialen Stabilisierung und gesellschaftlichen Teilhabe betonen, ist die Integrationswahrscheinlichkeit höher als in Grundsicherungsstellen mit Umsetzungsvarianten, die auf gesellschaftliche Teilhabe weniger Wert legen und deutlicher Erwerbsintegration anstreben. Die Ergebnisse zeigen darüber hinaus, dass Arbeitsmarktdienstleister eine Tendenz zum Creaming aufweisen, die durch klare Vorgaben zur Definition des förderfähigen Personenkreises und zur Vergütung der Arbeitsmarktdienstleister begrenzt, aber nicht vollständig eliminiert werden kann.
    Description: A considerable number of people, particularly the older unemployed, exhibit a variety of barriers to placement. Integrating them into employment constitutes a challenge for labor market policy. The current research report presents the results of a program aimed at older persons receiving means-tested unemployment benefit (ALG II) who have multiple placement obstacles; it is located within the Federal Program "Perspektive 50plus" (Perspectives 50-plus). In the sub-program, entitled "Impuls 50plus" (Impulse 50-plus), the participants are supported in a more intensive way for up to 36 months than is possible via standard support. While with Impulse 50-plus the aim of integration into unsubsidized employment has been retained, more emphasis has been placed - in contrast to regular support - on the goals of social inclusion as well as enhancement and/or reconstitution of employability. What is also characteristic is the greater discretion enjoyed by local labor market service providers in implementing Impulse 50-plus. The research program has examined the connection between regional structures and strategies in implementing Impulse 50-plus, along with the successes achieved in activating and integrating those taking part: What elements of regional implementation are particularly likely to succeed in activating and integrating the target group? The results show that the stabilization and/or the enhancement of employability and integration into employment are not opposing goals. Particularly in job centers with implementation variants emphasizing the support of employability, social stabilization and inclusion in society, the likelihood of integration is higher than in job centers with implementation variants that lay less priority on social inclusion and strive more clearly towards integration into employment. In addition, the results show that labor market service providers have a tendency towards 'creaming' which can be partially limited by clear specifications regarding the definition of the circle of persons eligible for support and the way the labor market service providers are remunerated, but cannot be eliminated completely.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2000-01-11
    Description: A comprehensive investigation of polar stratospheric clouds was performed on 25 January 2000 with instruments onboard a balloon gondola flown from Kiruna, Sweden. Cloud layers were repeatedly encountered at altitudes between 20 and 24 kilometers over a wide range of atmospheric temperatures (185 to 197 kelvin). Particle composition analysis showed that a large fraction of the cloud layers was composed of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) particles, containing water and nitric acid at a molar ratio of 3:1; this confirmed that these long-sought solid crystals exist well above ice formation temperatures. The presence of NAT particles enhances the potential for chlorine activation with subsequent ozone destruction in polar regions, particularly in early and late winter.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Voigt, C -- Schreiner, J -- Kohlmann, A -- Zink, P -- Mauersberger, K -- Larsen, N -- Deshler, T -- Kroger, C -- Rosen, J -- Adriani, A -- Cairo, F -- Di Donfrancesco, G -- Viterbini, M -- Ovarlez, J -- Ovarlez, H -- David, C -- Dornbrack, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2000 Dec 1;290(5497):1756-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max-Planck-Institut fur Kernphysik, Division of Atmospheric Physics, Post Office Box 103 980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11099412" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2004-03-20
    Description: Rotary motion around a molecular axis has been controlled by simple electron transfer processes and by photoexcitation. The basis of the motion is intramolecular rotation of a carborane cage ligand (7,8-dicarbollide) around a nickel axle. The Ni(III) metallacarborane structure is a transoid sandwich with two pairs of carbon vertices reflected through a center of symmetry, but that of the Ni(IV) species is cisoid. The interconversion of the two provides the basis for controlled, rotational, oscillatory motion. The energies of the Ni(III) and Ni(IV) species are calculated as a function of the rotation angle.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hawthorne, M Frederick -- Zink, Jeffrey I -- Skelton, Johnny M -- Bayer, Michael J -- Liu, Chris -- Livshits, Ester -- Baer, Roi -- Neuhauser, Daniel -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2004 Mar 19;303(5665):1849-51.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1569, USA. mfh@chem.ucla.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15031500" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1992-12-11
    Description: Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is frequently accompanied by the AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) dementia complex. The role of specific HIV genetic elements in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) disease is not clear. Transgenic mice were constructed that contained the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of two CNS-derived strains and a T cell tropic strain of HIV-1. Only mice generated with CNS-derived LTRs directed expression in the CNS, particularly in neurons. Thus, some strains of HIV-1 have a selective advantage for gene expression in the brain, and neurons can supply the cellular factors necessary for their transcription.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Corboy, J R -- Buzy, J M -- Zink, M C -- Clements, J E -- AI27297/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI28748/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- NS07000/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1992 Dec 11;258(5089):1804-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Comparative Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1465618" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/*physiology ; Central Nervous System/*physiology ; Female ; Gene Expression ; *HIV Long Terminal Repeat ; HIV-1/*genetics ; Intestine, Small/physiology ; Lung/physiology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Inbred DBA ; Mice, Transgenic ; Ocular Physiological Phenomena ; Organ Specificity ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/*metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Spinal Cord/physiology ; Thymus Gland/physiology ; beta-Galactosidase/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1990-11-30
    Description: Borna disease virus (BDV) causes a rare neurological disease in horses and sheep. The virus has not been classified because neither an infectious particle nor a specific nucleic acid had been identified. To identify the genome of BDV, a subtractive complementary DNA expression library was constructed with polyadenylate-selected RNA from a BDV-infected MDCK cell line. A clone (B8) was isolated that specifically hybridized to RNA isolated from BDV-infected brain tissue and BDV-infected cell lines. This clone hybridized to four BDV-specific positive strand RNAs (10.5, 3.6, 2.1, and 0.85 kilobases) and one negative strand RNA (10.5 kilobases) in BDV-infected rat brain. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the clone suggested that it represented a full-length messenger RNA which contained several open reading frames. In vitro transcription and translation of the clone resulted in the synthesis of the 14- and 24-kilodalton BDV-specific proteins. The 24-kilodalton protein, when translated in vitro from the clone, was recognized by antibodies in the sera of patients (three of seven) with behavioral disorders. This BDV-specific clone will provide the means to isolate the other BDV-specific nucleic acids and to identify the virus responsible for Borna disease. In addition, the significance of BDV or a BDV-related virus as a human pathogen can now be more directly examined.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉VandeWoude, S -- Richt, J A -- Zink, M C -- Rott, R -- Narayan, O -- Clements, J E -- RR00130/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- RR07002/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1990 Nov 30;250(4985):1278-81.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Colorado State University, Lab Animal Resources, Fort Collins 80532.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2244211" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antibodies, Viral/*blood ; Borna Disease/*microbiology ; Borna disease virus/*genetics/immunology ; Brain/microbiology ; Cloning, Molecular ; DNA/*genetics ; Fluorescent Antibody Technique ; Humans ; Immunoblotting ; Mental Disorders/*microbiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Molecular Weight ; Nucleic Acid Hybridization ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/genetics ; RNA, Viral/analysis/genetics ; Rats ; Transcription, Genetic ; Viral Proteins/*genetics/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 1992-02-28
    Description: Novel sol-gel synthetic techniques were used to immobilize copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), cytochrome c, and myoglobin (Mb) by encapsulation in stable, optically transparent, porous silica glass matrices under mild conditions such that the biomolecules retained their characteristic reactivities and spectroscopic properties. The resulting glasses allowed transport of small molecules into and out of the glasses at reasonable rates but nevertheless retained the protein molecules within their pores. Chemical reactions of the immobilized proteins could be monitored by means of changes in their visible absorption spectra. Silica glasses containing the immobilized proteins were observed to have similar reactivities and spectroscopic properties to those found for the proteins in solution. For example, encapsulated CuZnSOD was demetallated and remetallated, encapsulated ferricytochrome c was reduced and then reoxidized, and encapsulated met Mb was reduced to deoxy Mb and then reacted either with dioxygen to make oxy Mb or with carbon monoxide to make carbonyl Mb.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ellerby, L M -- Nishida, C R -- Nishida, F -- Yamanaka, S A -- Dunn, B -- Valentine, J S -- Zink, J I -- GM28222/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM08375/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1992 Feb 28;255(5048):1113-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles 90024.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1312257" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cattle ; Cytochrome c Group/chemistry ; Gels ; *Glass ; Horses ; Myoglobin/chemistry ; Proteins/*chemistry ; Solutions ; Spectrum Analysis ; Superoxide Dismutase/chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2017-09-21
    Description: Migratory behavior in birds is evolutionarily plastic, but it is unclear how this behavior responded during glacial cycles. One view is that at glacial maxima, species simply shifted their breeding ranges south of glacial ice and remained migratory. To test this hypothesis, we constructed ecological niche models for breeding and wintering ranges of 56 species, finding that 70% of currently long-distance North American migrant species likely lacked suitable breeding habitat in North America at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and we hypothesized that they reverted to the ancestral state of being tropical sedentary residents. A smaller percentage of short-distance migrants (27%) experienced altered migratory behavior at the LGM, although the ranges of all species were shifted southward, as traditionally envisioned. We suggest that many species oscillate between sedentary and migratory strategies with each glacial cycle acting as an adaptive switch. Thus, range shifts occur more frequently than speciation events and are inadequately depicted by phylogenetic reconstructions. We suggest that reconstructing the evolutionary history of traits, such as migratory behavior, is best served by using ranges at glacial maxima. A phylogeny of warblers strongly predicted LGM, but not present distributions, and suggested that migration was re-expressed from three tropical centers of warbler diversity. Understanding of evolutionary history will be improved when reconstructions use distributions relevant to the time of character transitions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-02-16
    Description: Transcriptional and splicing anomalies have been observed in intron 8 of the CASP8 gene (encoding procaspase-8) in association with cutaneous basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) and linked to a germline SNP rs700635. Here, we show that the rs700635[C] allele, which is associated with increased risk of BCC and breast cancer, is protective against prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.91, P = 1.0 x 10 –6 ]. rs700635[C] is also associated with failures to correctly splice out CASP8 intron 8 in breast and prostate tumours and in corresponding normal tissues. Investigation of rs700635[C] carriers revealed that they have a human-specific short interspersed element-variable number of tandem repeat- Alu (SINE-VNTR- Alu ), subfamily-E retrotransposon (SVA-E) inserted into CASP8 intron 8. The SVA-E shows evidence of prior activity, because it has transduced some CASP8 sequences during subsequent retrotransposition events. Whole-genome sequence (WGS) data were used to tag the SVA-E with a surrogate SNP rs1035142[T] ( r 2 = 0.999), which showed associations with both the splicing anomalies ( P = 6.5 x 10 –32 ) and with protection against prostate cancer (OR = 0.91, P = 3.8 x 10 –7 ).
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Description: From historical and archeological records, it is posited that the European medieval household was a combination of close relatives and recruits. However, this kinship structure has not yet been directly tested at a genomic level on medieval burials. The early 7th century CE burial at Niederstotzingen, discovered in 1962, is the most complete and richest example of Alemannic funerary practice in Germany. Excavations found 13 individuals who were buried with an array of inscribed bridle gear, jewelry, armor, and swords. These artifacts support the view that the individuals had contact with France, northern Italy, and Byzantium. This study analyzed genome-wide sequences recovered from the remains, in tandem with analysis of the archeological context, to reconstruct kinship and the extent of outside contact. Eleven individuals had sufficient DNA preservation to genetically sex them as male and identify nine unique mitochondrial haplotypes and two distinct Y chromosome lineages. Genome-wide analyses were performed on eight individuals to estimate genetic affiliation to modern west Eurasians and genetic kinship at the burial. Five individuals were direct relatives. Three other individuals were not detectably related; two of these showed genomic affinity to southern Europeans. The genetic makeup of the individuals shares no observable pattern with their orientation in the burial or the cultural association of their grave goods, with the five related individuals buried with grave goods associated with three diverse cultural origins. These findings support the idea that not only were kinship and fellowship held in equal regard: Diverse cultural appropriation was practiced among closely related individuals as well.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-04-03
    Description: When an accretion disc falls prey to the runaway instability, a large portion of its mass is devoured by the black hole within a few dynamical times. Despite decades of effort, it is still unclear under what conditions such an instability can occur. The technically most advanced relativistic simulations to date were unable to find a clear sign for the onset of the instability. In this work, we present three-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics simulations of accretion discs around black holes in dynamical space–time. We focus on the configurations that are expected to be particularly prone to the development of this instability. We demonstrate, for the first time, that the fully self-consistent general relativistic evolution does indeed produce a runaway instability.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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