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  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (21)
  • Oxford University Press  (7)
  • Nürnberg: Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-06
    Description: Eine beträchtliche Zahl gerade unter den älteren Arbeitslosen weist vielfältige Vermittlungshemmnisse auf. Ihre Integration in Beschäftigung stellt eine Herausforderung für die Arbeitsmarktpolitik dar. Der vorliegende Forschungsbericht stellt Ergebnisse eines Programms für ältere besonders arbeitsmarktferne ALG-II-Beziehende vor, das innerhalb des Bundesprogramms Perspektive 50plus angesiedelt ist. In diesem Teilprogramm unter der Bezeichnung Impuls 50plus werden Teilnehmende bis zu 36 Monate intensiver gefördert als dies in der Regelförderung möglich ist. Am Ziel einer Integration in ungeförderte Beschäftigung wurde mit Impuls 50plus festgehalten, die Ziele der sozialen Teilhabe und der Steigerung bzw. Wiederherstellung der Beschäftigungsfähigkeit gegenüber der Regelförderung jedoch aufgewertet. Charakteristisch waren zudem große Spielräume für die lokalen Arbeitsmarktdienstleister bei der Umsetzung von Impuls 50plus. Untersucht wurde der Zusammenhang von regionalen Strukturen und Strategien der Umsetzung von Impuls 50plus und den Erfolgen bei der Aktivierung und der Integration der Teilnehmenden: Welche Elemente der regionalen Umsetzung sind bei der Aktivierung und Integration der Zielgruppe besonders erfolgsträchtig? Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Stabilisierung bzw. Erhöhung der Beschäftigungsfähigkeit und die Integration in Beschäftigung keine gegensätzlichen Ziele sind. Gerade in Grundsicherungsstellen mit jenen Umsetzungsvarianten, die die Förderung der Beschäftigungsfähigkeit, der sozialen Stabilisierung und gesellschaftlichen Teilhabe betonen, ist die Integrationswahrscheinlichkeit höher als in Grundsicherungsstellen mit Umsetzungsvarianten, die auf gesellschaftliche Teilhabe weniger Wert legen und deutlicher Erwerbsintegration anstreben. Die Ergebnisse zeigen darüber hinaus, dass Arbeitsmarktdienstleister eine Tendenz zum Creaming aufweisen, die durch klare Vorgaben zur Definition des förderfähigen Personenkreises und zur Vergütung der Arbeitsmarktdienstleister begrenzt, aber nicht vollständig eliminiert werden kann.
    Description: A considerable number of people, particularly the older unemployed, exhibit a variety of barriers to placement. Integrating them into employment constitutes a challenge for labor market policy. The current research report presents the results of a program aimed at older persons receiving means-tested unemployment benefit (ALG II) who have multiple placement obstacles; it is located within the Federal Program "Perspektive 50plus" (Perspectives 50-plus). In the sub-program, entitled "Impuls 50plus" (Impulse 50-plus), the participants are supported in a more intensive way for up to 36 months than is possible via standard support. While with Impulse 50-plus the aim of integration into unsubsidized employment has been retained, more emphasis has been placed - in contrast to regular support - on the goals of social inclusion as well as enhancement and/or reconstitution of employability. What is also characteristic is the greater discretion enjoyed by local labor market service providers in implementing Impulse 50-plus. The research program has examined the connection between regional structures and strategies in implementing Impulse 50-plus, along with the successes achieved in activating and integrating those taking part: What elements of regional implementation are particularly likely to succeed in activating and integrating the target group? The results show that the stabilization and/or the enhancement of employability and integration into employment are not opposing goals. Particularly in job centers with implementation variants emphasizing the support of employability, social stabilization and inclusion in society, the likelihood of integration is higher than in job centers with implementation variants that lay less priority on social inclusion and strive more clearly towards integration into employment. In addition, the results show that labor market service providers have a tendency towards 'creaming' which can be partially limited by clear specifications regarding the definition of the circle of persons eligible for support and the way the labor market service providers are remunerated, but cannot be eliminated completely.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 1992-12-11
    Description: Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is frequently accompanied by the AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) dementia complex. The role of specific HIV genetic elements in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) disease is not clear. Transgenic mice were constructed that contained the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of two CNS-derived strains and a T cell tropic strain of HIV-1. Only mice generated with CNS-derived LTRs directed expression in the CNS, particularly in neurons. Thus, some strains of HIV-1 have a selective advantage for gene expression in the brain, and neurons can supply the cellular factors necessary for their transcription.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Corboy, J R -- Buzy, J M -- Zink, M C -- Clements, J E -- AI27297/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI28748/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- NS07000/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1992 Dec 11;258(5089):1804-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Comparative Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1465618" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/*physiology ; Central Nervous System/*physiology ; Female ; Gene Expression ; *HIV Long Terminal Repeat ; HIV-1/*genetics ; Intestine, Small/physiology ; Lung/physiology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Inbred DBA ; Mice, Transgenic ; Ocular Physiological Phenomena ; Organ Specificity ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/*metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Spinal Cord/physiology ; Thymus Gland/physiology ; beta-Galactosidase/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2000-01-11
    Description: A comprehensive investigation of polar stratospheric clouds was performed on 25 January 2000 with instruments onboard a balloon gondola flown from Kiruna, Sweden. Cloud layers were repeatedly encountered at altitudes between 20 and 24 kilometers over a wide range of atmospheric temperatures (185 to 197 kelvin). Particle composition analysis showed that a large fraction of the cloud layers was composed of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) particles, containing water and nitric acid at a molar ratio of 3:1; this confirmed that these long-sought solid crystals exist well above ice formation temperatures. The presence of NAT particles enhances the potential for chlorine activation with subsequent ozone destruction in polar regions, particularly in early and late winter.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Voigt, C -- Schreiner, J -- Kohlmann, A -- Zink, P -- Mauersberger, K -- Larsen, N -- Deshler, T -- Kroger, C -- Rosen, J -- Adriani, A -- Cairo, F -- Di Donfrancesco, G -- Viterbini, M -- Ovarlez, J -- Ovarlez, H -- David, C -- Dornbrack, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2000 Dec 1;290(5497):1756-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max-Planck-Institut fur Kernphysik, Division of Atmospheric Physics, Post Office Box 103 980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11099412" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2004-03-20
    Description: Rotary motion around a molecular axis has been controlled by simple electron transfer processes and by photoexcitation. The basis of the motion is intramolecular rotation of a carborane cage ligand (7,8-dicarbollide) around a nickel axle. The Ni(III) metallacarborane structure is a transoid sandwich with two pairs of carbon vertices reflected through a center of symmetry, but that of the Ni(IV) species is cisoid. The interconversion of the two provides the basis for controlled, rotational, oscillatory motion. The energies of the Ni(III) and Ni(IV) species are calculated as a function of the rotation angle.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hawthorne, M Frederick -- Zink, Jeffrey I -- Skelton, Johnny M -- Bayer, Michael J -- Liu, Chris -- Livshits, Ester -- Baer, Roi -- Neuhauser, Daniel -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2004 Mar 19;303(5665):1849-51.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1569, USA. mfh@chem.ucla.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15031500" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-05-24
    Description: We demonstrate that tidal evolution of the inner planet (‘e’) of the system orbiting the star 55 Cancri could have led to passage through two secular resonances with other planets in the system. The consequence of this evolution is excitation of both the planetary eccentricity and inclination relative to the original orbital plane. The large mass ratio between the innermost planet and the others means that these excitations can be of substantial amplitude and can have dramatic consequences for the system organization. Such evolution can potentially explain the large observed mutual inclination between the innermost and outermost planets in the system, and implies that tidal heating could have substantially modified the structure of planet e, and possibly reduced its mass by Roche lobe overflow. Similar inner secular resonances may be found in many multiple planet systems and suggest that many of the innermost planets in these systems could have suffered similar evolutions.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2006-05-06
    Description: Given the choice of waiting for an adverse outcome or getting it over with quickly, many people choose the latter. Theoretical models of decision-making have assumed that this occurs because there is a cost to waiting-i.e., dread. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the neural responses to waiting for a cutaneous electric shock. Some individuals dreaded the outcome so much that, when given a choice, they preferred to receive more voltage rather than wait. Even when no decision was required, these extreme dreaders were distinguishable from those who dreaded mildly by the rate of increase of neural activity in the posterior elements of the cortical pain matrix. This suggests that dread derives, in part, from the attention devoted to the expected physical response and not simply from fear or anxiety. Although these differences were observed during a passive waiting procedure, they correlated with individual behavior in a subsequent choice paradigm, providing evidence for a neurobiological link between the experienced disutility of dread and subsequent decisions about unpleasant outcomes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1820741/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1820741/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Berns, Gregory S -- Chappelow, Jonathan -- Cekic, Milos -- Zink, Caroline F -- Pagnoni, Giuseppe -- Martin-Skurski, Megan E -- DA00367/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- DA016434/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- K08 DA000367/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA016434/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2006 May 5;312(5774):754-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Suite 4000, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. gberns@emory.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16675703" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; *Anxiety ; Brain Mapping ; Cerebral Cortex/*physiology ; Cues ; *Decision Making ; Electroshock ; *Emotions ; *Fear ; Female ; Humans ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Models, Psychological ; Pain/physiopathology ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-03-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bolon, Brad -- Altrock, Bruce -- Barthold, Stephen W -- Baumgarth, Nicole -- Besselsen, David -- Boivin, Gregory -- Boyd, Kelli L -- Brayton, Cory -- Cardiff, Robert D -- Couto, Suzana -- Eaton, Kathryn A -- Foreman, Oded -- Griffey, Stephen M -- La Perle, Krista -- Lairmore, Michael D -- Liu, Chen -- Meyerholz, David K -- Nikitin, Alexander Yu -- Schoeb, Trenton R -- Schwahn, Denise -- Sellers, Rani S -- Sundberg, John P -- Tolwani, Ravi -- Valli, Victor E -- Zink, M Christine -- U01 CA141582/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Mar 25;331(6024):1516-7. doi: 10.1126/science.331.6024.1516-b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21436422" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/*organization & administration ; Translational Medical Research/*organization & administration ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-05-06
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2017-09-21
    Description: Migratory behavior in birds is evolutionarily plastic, but it is unclear how this behavior responded during glacial cycles. One view is that at glacial maxima, species simply shifted their breeding ranges south of glacial ice and remained migratory. To test this hypothesis, we constructed ecological niche models for breeding and wintering ranges of 56 species, finding that 70% of currently long-distance North American migrant species likely lacked suitable breeding habitat in North America at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and we hypothesized that they reverted to the ancestral state of being tropical sedentary residents. A smaller percentage of short-distance migrants (27%) experienced altered migratory behavior at the LGM, although the ranges of all species were shifted southward, as traditionally envisioned. We suggest that many species oscillate between sedentary and migratory strategies with each glacial cycle acting as an adaptive switch. Thus, range shifts occur more frequently than speciation events and are inadequately depicted by phylogenetic reconstructions. We suggest that reconstructing the evolutionary history of traits, such as migratory behavior, is best served by using ranges at glacial maxima. A phylogeny of warblers strongly predicted LGM, but not present distributions, and suggested that migration was re-expressed from three tropical centers of warbler diversity. Understanding of evolutionary history will be improved when reconstructions use distributions relevant to the time of character transitions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
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