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  • 1
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Authors, 2006. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 243 (2007): 378-393, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.08.016.
    Description: Well-dated, high-resolution records of planktonic foraminifera and oxygen isotopes from two sediment cores, A7 and E017, in the middle Okinawa Trough reveal strong and rapid millennial-scale climate changes since ~18 to 17 thousand years before present (kyr B.P.). Sedimentation rate shows a sudden drop at ~11.2 cal. kyr B.P. due to a rapid rise of sea-level after the Younger Dryas (YD) and consequently submergence of the large continental shelf on the East China Sea (ECS) and the retreat of the estuary providing sediment to the basin. During the last deglaciation, the relative abundance of warm and cold species of planktonic foraminifera fluctuates strongly, consistent with the timing of sea surface temperature (SST) variations determined from Mg/Ca measurements of planktonic foraminifera from one of the two cores. These fluctuations are coeval with climate variation recorded in the Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediments, namely Heinrich event 1 (H1), Bølling-Allerød (B/A) and YD events. At about 9.4 kyr B.P., a sudden change in the relative abundance of shallow to deep planktonic species probably indicates a sudden strengthening of the Kuroshio Current in the Okinawa Trough, which was synchronous with a rapid sea-level rise at 9.5-9.2 kyr B.P. in the ECS, Yellow Sea (YS) and South China Sea (SCS). The abundance of planktonic foraminiferal species, together with Mg/Ca based SST, exhibits millennial-scale oscillations during the Holocene, with 7 cold events (at about 1.7, 2.3-4.6, 6.2, 7.3, 8.2, 9.6, 10.6 cal. kyr BP) superimposed on a Holocene warming trend. This Holocene trend, together with centennial-scale SST variations superimposed on the last deglacial trend, suggests that both high and low latitude influences affected the climatology of the Okinawa Trough.
    Description: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 40206007, 40106006, 90211022 and 40506027), the Chinese Academy of Sciences innovation program (KZCX3-SW-220), and the NSF (OCE05-29600 to DWO).
    Keywords: Okinawa Trough ; Last deglaciation ; Holocene ; Planktonic foraminifera ; Sedimentation rate ; Kuroshio Current ; Millennial- scale climate changes ; Oxygen isotope
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Nature Publishing Group, 2008. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Nature Publishing Group for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Nature Geoscience 1 (2008): 620-624, doi:10.1038/ngeo285.
    Description: The early Holocene deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) is the most recent and best constrained disappearance of a large Northern Hemisphere ice sheet. Its demise is a natural experiment for assessing rates of ice sheet decay and attendant contributions to sea level rise. Here we demonstrate with terrestrial and marine records that the final LIS demise occurred in two stages of rapid melting from ~9.0- 8.5 and 7.6-6.8 kyr BP with the LIS contributing ~1.3 and 0.7 cm yr-1 to sea level rise, respectively. Simulations using a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model suggest that increased ablation from enhanced early Holocene boreal summer insolation may have been the predominant cause of the LIS contributions to sea level rise. Although the boreal summer surface radiative forcing of early Holocene LIS retreat is twice that of projections for 2100 C.E. greenhouse gas radiative forcing, the associated summer surface air temperature increase is the same. The geologic evidence for rapid LIS retreat under a comparable forcing provides a prehistoric precedent for a possible large negative mass balance response of the Greenland Ice Sheet by the end of the coming century.
    Description: This research was funded by National Science Foundation grants ATM-05-01351 & ATM-05-01241 to D.W.O. & G.A.S., start-up funds from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Postdoctoral Scholarship to A.E.C., and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's Ocean and Climate Change Institute (D.W.O. & R.E.C.).
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2003. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 18 (2003): 1086, doi:10.1029/2003PA000888.
    Description: Benthic foraminiferal Cd/Ca from an intermediate depth, western South Atlantic core documents the history of southward penetration of North Atlantic Intermediate Water (NAIW). Cd seawater estimates (CdW) for the last glacial are consistent with the production of NAIW and its export into the South Atlantic. At ∼14.5 ka concurrently with the onset of the Bølling-Allerød to Younger Dryas cooling, the NAIW contribution to the South Atlantic began to decrease, marking the transition from a glacial circulation pattern to a Younger Dryas circulation. High CdW in both the deep North Atlantic and the intermediate South Atlantic imply reduced export of deep and intermediate water during the Younger Dryas and a significant decrease in northward oceanic heat transport. A modern circulation was achieved at ∼9 ka, concurrently with the establishment of Holocene warmth in the North Atlantic region, further supporting a close linkage between deepwater variability and North Atlantic climate.
    Description: This work was supported by an MIT John Lyons Fellowship, a WHOI Ocean and Climate Change Institute Fellowship, and NSF grant OCE96-33499.
    Keywords: Cd/Ca ; δ13C ; Younger Dryas ; Intermediate water ; Foraminifera
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 34 (2007): L13701, doi:10.1029/2007GL030017.
    Description: Paleoceanographic data from the low latitude Pacific Ocean provides evidence of changes in the freshwater budget and redistribution of freshwater within the basin during the Holocene. Reconstructed Holocene seawater δ 18O changes compare favorably to differences predicted between climate simulations for the middle Holocene (MH) and for the pre-Industrial late Holocene (LH). The model simulations demonstrate that changes in the tropical hydrologic cycle affect the relationship between δ 18Osw and surface salinity, and allow, for the first time, quantitative estimates of western Pacific salinity change during the Holocene. The simulations suggest that during the MH, the mean salinity of the Pacific was higher because less water vapor was transported from the Atlantic Ocean and more was transported to the Indian Ocean. The salinity of the western Pacific was enhanced further due both to the greater advection of salt to the region by ocean currents and to an increase in continental precipitation at the expense of maritime precipitation, the latter a consequence of the stronger Asian summer monsoon.
    Description: This work was supported by NSF grants ATM-0501241, ATM-0501351, and WHOI’s Ocean and Climate Change Institute.
    Keywords: Holocene ; Tropical Pacific ; Hydrology ; Paleoceanography ; Geochemical tracers ; Insolation forcing
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 20 (2005): PA1017, doi:10.1029/2004PA001021.
    Description: Oxygen and carbon isotopic data were produced on the benthic foraminiferal taxa Cibicidoides and Planulina from 25 new piston cores, gravity cores, and multicores from the Brazil margin. The cores span water depths from about 400 to 3000 m and intersect the major water masses in this region. These new data fill a critical gap in the South Atlantic Ocean and provide the motivation for updating the classic glacial western Atlantic δ13C transect of Duplessy et al. (1988). The distribution of δ13C of ΣCO2 requires the presence of three distinct water masses in the glacial Atlantic Ocean: a shallow (∼1000 m), southern source water mass with an end-member δ13C value of about 0.3–0.5‰ VPDB, a middepth (∼1500 m), northern source water mass with an end-member value of about 1.5‰, and a deep (〉2000 m), southern source water with an end-member value of less than −0.2‰, and perhaps as low as the −0.9‰ values observed in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean (Ninnemann and Charles, 2002). The origins of the water masses are supported by the meridional gradients in benthic foraminiferal δ18O. A revised glacial section of deep water δ13C documents the positions and gradients among these end-member intermediate and deep water masses. The large property gradients in the presence of strong vertical mixing can only be maintained by a vigorous overturning circulation.
    Description: This research was supported by the National Science Foundation by grants OCE-9986748 and OCE-9905605.
    Keywords: Ice age ; Ocean circulation ; Ocean chemistry
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 23 (2008): PA3102, doi:10.1029/2007PA001572.
    Description: We analyzed strontium/calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) in four colonies of the Atlantic coral genus Montastrea with growth rates ranging from 2.3 to 12.6 mm a−1. Derived Sr/Ca–sea surface temperature (SST) calibrations exhibit significant differences among the four colonies that cannot be explained by variations in SST or seawater Sr/Ca. For a single coral Sr/Ca ratio of 8.8 mmol mol−1, the four calibrations predict SSTs ranging from 24.0° to 30.9°C. We find that differences in the Sr/Ca–SST relationships are correlated systematically with the average annual extension rate (ext) of each colony such that Sr/Ca (mmol mol−1) = 11.82 (±0.13) – 0.058 (±0.004) × ext (mm a−1) – 0.092 (±0.005) × SST (°C). This observation is consistent with previous reports of a link between coral Sr/Ca and growth rate. Verification of our growth-dependent Sr/Ca–SST calibration using a coral excluded from the calibration reconstructs the mean and seasonal amplitude of the actual recorded SST to within 0.3°C. Applying a traditional, nongrowth-dependent Sr/Ca–SST calibration derived from a modern Montastrea to the Sr/Ca ratios of a conspecific coral that grew during the early Little Ice Age (LIA) (400 years B.P.) suggests that Caribbean SSTs were 〉5°C cooler than today. Conversely, application of our growth-dependent Sr/Ca–SST calibration to Sr/Ca ratios derived from the LIA coral indicates that SSTs during the 5-year period analyzed were within error (±1.4°C) of modern values.
    Description: This work was funded by National Science Foundation (NSF) grant OCE- 0402728, the WHOI Ocean and Climate Change Institute, and an NSF Graduate Student Fellowship.
    Keywords: Coral ; Strontium/calcium ; Growth rate
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2010. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 25 (2010): PA1102, doi:10.1029/2009PA001871.
    Description: Instrumental data suggest that major shifts in tropical Pacific atmospheric dynamics and hydrology have occurred within the past century, potentially in response to anthropogenic warming. To better understand these trends, we use the hydrogen isotopic ratios of terrestrial higher plant leaf waxes (δDwax) in marine sediments from southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia, to compile a detailed reconstruction of central Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) hydrologic variability spanning most of the last two millennia. Our paleodata are highly correlated with a monsoon reconstruction from Southeast Asia, indicating that intervals of strong East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) activity are associated with a weaker Indonesian monsoon (IM). Furthermore, the centennial-scale oscillations in our data follow known changes in Northern Hemisphere climate (e.g., the Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period) implying a dynamic link between Northern Hemisphere temperatures and IPWP hydrology. The inverse relationship between the EASM and IM suggests that migrations of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and associated changes in monsoon strength caused synoptic hydrologic shifts in the IPWP throughout most of the past two millennia.
    Description: This research was supported by the U.S. NSF, the Ocean and Climate Change Institute at WHOI, and a National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship to J. Tierney.
    Keywords: Tropical Pacific climate ; Compound-specific hydrogen isotopes
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-06-06
    Description: © The Authors, 2010. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. The definitive version was published in Climate of the Past 6 (2010): 531-552, doi:10.5194/cp-6-531-2010.
    Description: Stable isotope and ice-rafted debris records from three core sites in the mid-latitude North Atlantic (IODP Site U1313, MD01-2446, MD03-2699) are combined with records of ODP Sites 1056/1058 and 980 to reconstruct hydrographic conditions during the middle Pleistocene spanning Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 9–14 (300–540 ka). Core MD03-2699 is the first high-resolution mid-Brunhes record from the North Atlantic's eastern boundary upwelling system covering the complete MIS 11c interval and MIS 13. The array of sites reflect western and eastern basin boundary current as well as north to south transect sampling of subpolar and transitional water masses and allow the reconstruction of transport pathways in the upper limb of the North Atlantic's circulation. Hydrographic conditions in the surface and deep ocean during peak interglacial MIS 9 and 11 were similar among all the sites with relative stable conditions and confirm prolonged warmth during MIS 11c also for the mid-latitudes. Sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions further reveal that in the mid-latitude North Atlantic MIS 11c is associated with two plateaus, the younger one of which is slightly warmer. Enhanced subsurface northward heat transport in the eastern boundary current system, especially during early MIS 11c, is denoted by the presence of tropical planktic foraminifer species and raises the question how strongly it impacted the Portuguese upwelling system. Deep water ventilation at the onset of MIS 11c significantly preceded surface water ventilation. Although MIS 13 was generally colder and more variable than the younger interglacials the surface water circulation scheme was the same. The greatest differences between the sites existed during the glacial inceptions and glacials. Then a north – south trending hydrographic front separated the nearshore and offshore waters off Portugal. While offshore waters originated from the North Atlantic Current as indicated by the similarities between the records of IODP Site U1313, ODP Site 980 and MD01-2446, nearshore waters as recorded in core MD03-2699 derived from the Azores Current and thus the subtropical gyre. Except for MIS 12, Azores Current influence seems to be related to eastern boundary system dynamics and not to changes in the Atlantic overturning circulation.
    Description: The Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia (FCT) through the PORTO (PDCT/MAR/58282/2004) and SEDPORT projects (PDCTM/ 40017/2003), and postdoctoral (SFRH/BPD/21691/2005) and PhD (SFRH/BP/13749/2003) fellowships funded A. V. and T. R. Additional funding to T. R. and J. G. was provided by the Consolider-Ingenio 2100 Project CE-CSD2007-0067.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2010. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Quaternary Science Reviews 29 (2010): 3336-3345, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.08.013.
    Description: Millennial-scale climate fluctuations of the last deglaciation have been tied to abrupt changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC). A key to understanding mechanisms of MOC collapse and recovery is the documentation of upper ocean hydrographic changes in the vicinity of North Atlantic deep convection sites. Here we present new high-resolution ocean temperature and δ18Osw records spanning the last deglaciation from an eastern subpolar North Atlantic site that lies along the flow path of the North Atlantic Current, approaching deep convection sites in the Labrador and Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian (GIN) Seas. High-resolution temperature and δ18Osw records from subpolar Site 980 help track the movement of the subpolar/subtropical front associated with temperature and Atlantic MOC changes throughout the last deglaciation. Distinct δ18Osw minima during Heinrich-1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD) correspond with peaks in ice-rafted debris and periods of reduced Atlantic MOC, indicating the presence of melt water in this region that could have contributed to MOC reductions during these intervals. Increased tropical and subtropical δ18Osw during these periods of apparent freshening in the subpolar North Atlantic suggest a buildup of salt at low latitudes that served as a negative feedback on reduced Atlantic MOC.
    Description: Support for this research was provided by the U.S. National Science Foundation (JFM and DWO) and a postdoctoral scholarship funded in part by the Gary Comer Science and Education Foundation (HB).
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