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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: Continental shelves and shelf seas play a central role in the global carbon cycle. However, their importance with respect to trace element and isotope (TEI) inputs to ocean basins is less well understood. Here, we present major findings on shelf TEI biogeochemistry from the GEOTRACES program as well as a proof-of-concept for a new method to estimate shelf TEI fluxes. The case studies focus on advances in our understanding of TEI cycling in the Arctic, transformations within a major river estuary (Amazon), shelf sediment micronutrient fluxes, and basin-scale estimates of submarine groundwater discharge. The proposed shelf flux tracer is 228-radium (T1/2=5.75 y), which is continuously supplied to the shelf from coastal aquifers, sediment porewater exchange, and rivers. Model-derived shelf 228Ra fluxes are combined with TEI/ 228Ra ratios to quantify ocean TEI fluxes from the western North Atlantic margin. The results from this new approach agree well with previous estimates for shelf Co, Fe, Mn, and Zn inputs and exceed published estimates of atmospheric deposition by factors of ~3-23. Lastly, recommendations are made for additional GEOTRACES process studies and coastal margin-focused section cruises that will help refine the model and provide better insight on the mechanisms driving shelf-derived TEI fluxes to the ocean.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-26
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-01-30
    Description: Particles determine the residence time of many dissolved elements in seawater. Although a substantial number of field studies were conducted in the framework of major oceanographic programs as GEOSECS and JGOFS, knowledge about particle dynamics is still scarce. Moreover, the particulate trace metal behavior remains largely unknown. The GEOSECS sampling strategy during the 1970s focused on large sections across oceanic basins, where particles were collected by membrane filtration after Niskin bottle sampling, biasing the sampling toward the small particle pool. Late in this period, the first in situ pumps allowing large volume sampling were also developed. During the 1990s, JGOFS focused on the quantifi- cation of the ‘‘exported carbon flux’’ and its seasonal variability in representative biogeochemical prov- inces of the ocean, mostly using sediment trap deployments. Although scarce and discrete in time and space, these pioneering studies allowed an understanding of the basic fate of marine particles. This understanding improved considerably, especially when the analysis of oceanic tracers such as natural radionuclides allowed the first quantification of processes such as dissolved-particle exchange and par- ticle settling velocities. Because the GEOTRACES program emphasizes the importance of collecting, char- acterizing and analyzing marine particles, this paper reflects our present understanding of the sources, fate and sinks of oceanic particles at the early stages of the program.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-02-29
    Description: Abstract The {GEOTRACES} Intermediate Data Product 2014 (IDP2014) is the first publicly available data product of the international {GEOTRACES} programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2013. It consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 200 trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) as well as classical hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing a strongly inter-linked on-line atlas including more than 300 section plots and 90 animated 3D scenes. The {IDP2014} covers the Atlantic, Arctic, and Indian oceans, exhibiting highest data density in the Atlantic. The {TEI} data in the {IDP2014} are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at cross-over stations. The digital data are provided in several formats, including {ASCII} spreadsheet, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. In addition to the actual data values the {IDP2014} also contains data quality flags and 1-� data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked to the data in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the {IDP2014} data providing section plots and a new kind of animated 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes allow for viewing of data from many cruises at the same time, thereby providing quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. In addition, the 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of observed tracer plumes, as well as for making inferences about controlling processes.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-12-23
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 35 (2008): L07608, doi:10.1029/2008GL033294.
    Description: Here we show that labile particulate iron and manganese concentrations in the upper 500 m of the Western Subarctic Pacific, an iron-limited High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) region, have prominent subsurface maxima between 100–200 m, reaching 3 nM and 600 pM, respectively. The subsurface concentration maxima in particulate Fe are characterized by a more reduced oxidation state, suggesting a source from primary volcagenic minerals such as from the Kuril/Kamchatka margin. The systematics of these profiles suggest a consistently strong lateral advection of labile Mn and Fe from redox-mobilized labile sources at the continental shelf supplemented by a more variable source of Fe from the upper continental slope. This subsurface supply of iron from the continental margin is shallow enough to be accessible to the surface through winter upwelling and vertical mixing, and is likely a key source of bioavailable Fe to the HNLC North Pacific.
    Description: Funding from the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program (JB) and WHOI Postdoctoral Scholars program, the Richard B. Sellars Endowed Research Fund, and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Endowed Fund for Innovative Research (PL).
    Keywords: Iron ; Continental margin ; HNLC
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23 (2009): GB4034, doi:10.1029/2009GB003500.
    Description: Climate change is projected to significantly alter the delivery (stratification, boundary currents, aridification of landmasses, glacial melt) of iron to the Southern Ocean. We report the most comprehensive suite of biogeochemical iron budgets to date for three contrasting sites in subantarctic and polar frontal waters south of Australia. Distinct regional environments were responsible for differences in the mode and strength of iron supply mechanisms, with higher iron stocks and fluxes observed in surface northern subantarctic waters, where atmospheric iron fluxes were greater. Subsurface waters southeast of Tasmania were also enriched with particulate iron, manganese and aluminum, indicative of a strong advective source from shelf sediments. Subantarctic phytoplankton blooms are thus driven by both seasonal iron supply from southward advection of subtropical waters and by wind-blown dust deposition, resulting in a strong decoupling of iron and nutrient cycles. We discuss the broader global significance our iron budgets for other ocean regions sensitive to climate-driven changes in iron supply.
    Description: T.W. was supported by a BDI grant from CNRS and Région PACA, by CNRS PICS project 3604, and by the “Soutien à la mer” CSOA CNRS-INSU. P.W.B. was supported by the New Zealand FRST Coasts and Oceans OBI. This research was supported by the Australian Government Cooperative Research Centres Programme through the Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems CRC (ACE CRC) and Australian Antarctic Science project 2720.
    Keywords: Iron ; Southern Ocean ; Biogeochemical budget ; Subantarctic ; Polar ; Australian sector
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2012. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 90 (2012):126–148, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2012.05.009.
    Description: The ability of paired measurements of thorium isotope activity and particle concentration to constrain rate constants of sorption reactions and particle dynamics in the ocean is examined. This study is motivated by GEOTRACES and other sampling programs where Th and particle data are gathered in various oceanic environments. Our approach relies on inversions with a model of trace metal and particle cycling in the water column. First, the model is used to simulate vertical profiles of (i) the activity of three Th isotopes (228,230,234Th) in the dissolved phase, small suspended particles, and large sinking particles, and (ii) the concentration of small and large particles. The simulated profiles are then subsampled and corrupted with noise to generate a pseudo data set. These data are combined with the model with arbitrary values of rate constants of Th adsorption, Th desorption, particle sinking, particle remineralization, and particle (dis)aggregation in an effort to recover the actual values used to generate the data. Inversions are performed using a least-squares technique with varying assumptions about data noise, data sampling, and model errors. We find that accurate and precise recovery of rate parameters is possible when all data have a relative error of less than 20%, vertical sampling is dense enough to resolve activity and concentration gradients, and model errors are negligible. Estimating cycling rates from data with larger errors and (or) at locations where model assumptions are not tenable would remain challenging. On the other hand, the paired data set would improve significantly the relative precision of rate parameters compared to that of prior estimates (⩾100%), even with current data uncertainties and significant model errors. Based on these results, we advocate the joint measurement of all three Th isotopes, 228Ra, and particles collected by in situ filtration within GEOTRACES and other sampling programs targeted at the study of particle processes in the ocean.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-07-06
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2015. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Marine Chemistry 170 (2015): 49-60, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2015.01.006.
    Description: The natural radionuclides 231Pa and 230Th are incorporated into the marine sediment record by scavenging, or adsorption to various particle types, via chemical reactions that are not fully understood. Because these isotopes have potential value in tracing several oceanographic processes, we investigate the nature of scavenging using trans-Atlantic measurements of dissolved (〈0.45 μm) and particulate (0.8-51 μm) 231Pa and 230Th, together with major particle composition. We find widespread impact of intense scavenging by authigenic Fe/Mn (hydr)oxides, in the form of hydrothermal particles emanating from the Mid-Atlantic ridge and particles resuspended from reducing conditions near the seafloor off the coast of West Africa. Biogenic opal was not found to be a significant scavenging phase for either element in this sample set, essentially because of its low abundance and small dynamic range at the studied sites. Distribution coefficients in shallow (〈 200 m) depths are anomalously low which suggests either the unexpected result of a low scavenging intensity for organic matter or that, in water masses containing abundant organic-rich particles, a greater percentage of radionuclides exist in the colloidal or complexed phase. In addition to particle concentration, the oceanic distribution of particle types likely plays a significant role in the ultimate distribution of sedimentary 230Th and 231Pa.
    Description: Cruise management for GA03 was funded by the U. S. National Science Foundation to W. Jenkins (OCE-0926423), E. Boyle (OCE-0926204), and G. Cutter (OCE-0926092). Radionuclide studies were supported by NSF (OCE-0927064 to LDEO, OCE-0926860 to WHOI, OCE- 0927757 to URI, and OCE-0927754 to UMN). Additional support came from the European Research Council (278705) to LFR and the Ford Foundation Predoctoral Fellowship to SMV. Particle studies were supported by NSF OCE-0963026 to PJL.
    Keywords: GEOTRACES ; Suspended particulate matter ; Adsorption ; Radioactive tracers ; Trace elements
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: © The Author(s), 2015. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Biogeosciences 12 (2015): 3953-3971, doi:10.5194/bg-12-3953-2015.
    Description: Sequestration of carbon by the marine biological pump depends on the processes that alter, remineralize, and preserve particulate organic carbon (POC) during transit to the deep ocean. Here, we present data collected from the Great Calcite Belt, a calcite-rich band across the Southern Ocean surface, to compare the transformation of POC in the euphotic and mesopelagic zones of the water column. The 234Th-derived export fluxes and size-fractionated concentrations of POC, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), and biogenic silica (BSi) were measured from the upper 1000 m of 27 stations across the Atlantic and Indian sectors of the Great Calcite Belt. POC export out of the euphotic zone was correlated with BSi export. PIC export was not, but did correlate positively with POC flux transfer efficiency. Moreover, regions of high BSi concentrations, which corresponded to regions with proportionally larger particles, exhibited higher attenuation of 〉 51 μm POC concentrations in the mesopelagic zone. The interplay among POC size partitioning, mineral composition, and POC attenuation suggests a more fundamental driver of POC transfer through both depth regimes in the Great Calcite Belt. In particular, we argue that diatom-rich communities produce large and labile POC aggregates, which not only generate high export fluxes but also drive more remineralization in the mesopelagic zone. We observe the opposite in communities with smaller calcifying phytoplankton, such as coccolithophores. We hypothesize that these differences are influenced by inherent differences in the lability of POC exported by different phytoplankton communities.
    Description: This work was funded by NSF OCE-0960880 to P. J. Lam, and NSF OCE-0961660 and NASA NNX11A072G and NNX11AL93G to W. M. Balch.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-12-21
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 29 (2015): 1309–1332, doi:10.1002/2015GB005134.
    Description: Summertime carbon, nitrogen, and biogenic silica export was examined using 234Th:238U disequilibria combined with free floating sediment traps and fine scale water column sampling with in situ pumps (ISP) within the Eastern Tropical North Pacific and the Gulf of California. Fine scale ISP sampling provides evidence that in this system, particulate carbon (PC) and particulate nitrogen (PN) concentrations were more rapidly attenuated relative to 234Th activities in small particles compared to large particles, converging to 1–5 µmol dpm−1 by 100 m. Comparison of elemental particle composition, coupled with particle size distribution analysis, suggests that small particles are major contributors to particle flux. While absolute PC and PN export rates were dependent on the method used to obtain the element/234Th ratio, regional trends were consistent across measurement techniques. The highest C fixation rates were associated with diatom-dominated surface waters. Yet, the highest export efficiencies occurred in picoplankton-dominated surface waters, where relative concentrations of diazotrophs were also elevated. Our results add to the increasing body of literature that picoplankton- and diazotroph-dominated food webs in subtropical regions can be characterized by enhanced export efficiencies relative to food webs dominated by larger phytoplankton, e.g., diatoms, in low productivity pico/nanoplankton-dominated regions, where small particles are major contributors to particle export. Findings from this region are compared globally and provide insights into the efficiency of downward particle transport of carbon and associated nutrients in a warmer ocean where picoplankton and diazotrophs may dominate. Therefore, we argue the necessity of collecting multiple particle sizes used to convert 234Th fluxes into carbon or other elemental fluxes, including 〈50 µm, since they can play an important role in vertical fluxes, especially in oligotrophic environments. Our results further underscore the necessity of using multiple techniques to quantify particle flux given the uncertainties associated with each collection method.
    Description: NSF Grant Numbers: OCE-0726290, OCF-0962362, OCE-0726543, OCE-0726422; EU Grant Number: FP7-MC-IIF-220485; MEC Grant Number: CTM2007-31241-E/MAR; ICREA Academia; MERS Grant Number: 2014 SGR – 1356; Spain's Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia Grant Numbers: AP-2009-4733, BES-2004-3348; NASA New Investigator Award Grant Number: NNX10AQ81G; Sloan Research Fellowship
    Description: 2016-02-29
    Keywords: Carbon export ; Export efficiency ; C/234Th ratios ; Th-234 ; Diazotrophs ; Particle attenuation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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