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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Phosphate fertilizer incorporated in the soil placed around tea plants when planted in the field produced a large improvement in the rate of growth of the plants, thus indicating that tea in acid soils had a demand for phosphate. Yield responses to phosphate fertilizer applied to mature tea were uncommon and the pattern of these confused. This work showed that mature tea will absorb phosphate and give positive yield responses when there is an undisturbed mulch layer on the soil surface. Within this layer phosphate is maintained in a more available form and many highly active roots are formed. These conditions are destroyed by manual weeding; the mulch forms naturally from tea leaves and prunings where no-cultivation herbicidal weed control is practised.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Phosphate fertilizer incorporated in the soil placed around tea plants when planted in the field produced a large improvement in the rate of growth of the plants, thus indicating that tea in acid soils had a demand for phosphate. Yield responses to phosphate fertilizer applied to mature tea were uncommon and the pattern of these confused. This work showed that mature tea will absorb phosphate and give positive yield responses when there is an undisturbed mulch layer on the soil surface. Within this layer phosphate is maintained in a more available form and many highly active roots are formed. These conditions are destroyed by manual weeding; the mulch forms naturally from tea leaves and prunings where no-cultivation herbicidal weed control is practised.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7160
    Keywords: captive breeding ; in situ conservation ; ex situ conservation ; zoos ; protected areas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract Growing deterministic and stochastic threats to many wild populations of large vertebrates have focused attention on the conservation significance of captive breeding and subsequent reintroduction. However, work on both gorillas and black rhinos questions this shift in emphasis. In these species, field-based conservation can be effective if properly supported and, although this is not cheap, per capita costs may still be considerably lower than for ex situ propagation in captivity. Here we attempt to broaden the scope of this debate by contrasting the breeding success and costs of in situ and captive programmes for a range of threatened mammals. Data are scarce, but we find that across nine large-bodied genera, in situ conservation achieves comparable rates of population growth to those seen in established captive breeding programmes. Moreover, comparing budgets of well-protected reserves with zoos' own estimates of maintenance costs and the costs of zoo adoption schemes, we find that per capita costs for effective in situ conservation are consistently lower than those of maintenance in captivity. Captive breeding may be more cost-effective for smaller-bodied taxa, and will often remain desirable for large mammals restricted to one or two vulnerable wild populations. However, our results, coupled with the fact that effective in situ conservation protects intact ecosystems rather than single species, lead us to suggest that zoos might maximize their contribution to large mammal conservation by investing where possible in well-managed field-based initiatives, rather than establishing additional ex situ breeding programmes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-06-15
    Description: Additive manufacturing through material extrusion, often termed three-dimensional (3D) printing, is a burgeoning method for manufacturing thermoplastic components. However, a key obstacle facing 3D-printed plastic parts in engineering applications is the weak weld between successive filament traces, which often leads to delamination and mechanical failure. This is the chief obstacle to the use of thermoplastic additive manufacturing. We report a novel concept for welding 3D-printed thermoplastic interfaces using intense localized heating of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by microwave irradiation. The microwave heating of the CNT-polymer composites is a function of CNT percolation, as shown through in situ infrared imaging and simulation. We apply CNT-loaded coatings to a 3D printer filament; after printing, microwave irradiation is shown to improve the weld fracture strength by 275%. These remarkable results open up entirely new design spaces for additive manufacturing and also yield new insight into the coupling between dielectric properties and radio frequency field response for nanomaterial networks.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-06-19
    Description: Article Plasma accelerators driven by particle beams are a promising technology, but the acceleration distance and energy gain are strongly limited by head erosion in a high-ionization-potential gas. Here the authors observe up to 130% energy boost in a self-focused electron beam, with limited head erosion. Nature Communications doi: 10.1038/ncomms11898 Authors: S. Corde, E. Adli, J. M. Allen, W. An, C. I. Clarke, B. Clausse, C. E. Clayton, J. P. Delahaye, J. Frederico, S. Gessner, S. Z. Green, M. J. Hogan, C. Joshi, M. Litos, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, N. Vafaei-Najafabadi, D. Walz, V. Yakimenko
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-03-24
    Description: Author(s): C. A. Lindstrøm, E. Adli, J. M. Allen, W. An, C. Beekman, C. I. Clarke, C. E. Clayton, S. Corde, A. Doche, J. Frederico, S. J. Gessner, S. Z. Green, M. J. Hogan, C. Joshi, M. Litos, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, B. D. O’Shea, N. Vafaei-Najafabadi, and V. Yakimenko Hollow channel plasma wakefield acceleration is a proposed method to provide high acceleration gradients for electrons and positrons alike: a key to future lepton colliders. However, beams which are misaligned from the channel axis induce strong transverse wakefields, deflecting beams and reducing t... [Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 124802] Published Fri Mar 23, 2018
    Keywords: Plasma and Beam Physics
    Print ISSN: 0031-9007
    Electronic ISSN: 1079-7114
    Topics: Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-07-18
    Description: Dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into liquids typically requires ultrasonication to exfoliate individuals CNTs from bundles. Experiments show that CNT length drops with sonication time (or energy) as a power law t-m. Yet the breakage mechanism is not well understood, and the experimentally reported power law exponent m ranges from approximately 0.2 to 0.5. Here we simulate the motion of CNTs around cavitating bubbles by coupling Brownian dynamics with the Rayleigh–Plesset equation. We observe that, during bubble growth, CNTs align tangentially to the bubble surface. Surprisingly, we find two dynamical regimes during the collapse: shorter CNTs align radially, longer ones buckle. We compute the phase diagram for CNT collapse dynamics as a function of CNT length, stiffness, and initial distance from the bubble nuclei and determine the transition from aligning to buckling. We conclude that, depending on their length, CNTs can break due to either buckling or stretching. These two mechanisms yield different power laws for the length decay (0.25 and 0.5, respectively), reconciling the apparent discrepancy in the experimental data.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-11-01
    Description: Nature Physics 10, 825 (2014). doi:10.1038/nphys3115 Authors: A. Soare, H. Ball, D. Hayes, J. Sastrawan, M. C. Jarratt, J. J. McLoughlin, X. Zhen, T. J. Green & M. J. Biercuk Extrinsic interference is routinely faced in systems engineering, and a common solution is to rely on a broad class of filtering techniques to afford stability to intrinsically unstable systems or isolate particular signals from a noisy background. Experimentalists leading the development of a new generation of quantum-enabled technologies similarly encounter time-varying noise in realistic laboratory settings. They face substantial challenges in either suppressing such noise for high-fidelity quantum operations or controllably exploiting it in quantum-enhanced sensing or system identification tasks , due to a lack of efficient, validated approaches to understanding and predicting quantum dynamics in the presence of realistic time-varying noise. In this work we use the theory of quantum control engineering and experiments with trapped 171Yb+ ions to study the dynamics of controlled quantum systems. Our results provide the first experimental validation of generalized filter-transfer functions casting arbitrary quantum control operations on qubits as noise spectral filters. We demonstrate the utility of these constructs for directly predicting the evolution of a quantum state in a realistic noisy environment as well as for developing novel robust control and sensing protocols. These experiments provide a significant advance in our understanding of the physics underlying controlled quantum dynamics, and unlock new capabilities for the emerging field of quantum systems engineering.
    Print ISSN: 1745-2473
    Electronic ISSN: 1745-2481
    Topics: Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: Stretchable, bendable, and foldable conductive coatings are crucial for wearable electronics and biometric sensors. These coatings should maintain functionality while simultaneously interfacing with different types of surfaces undergoing mechanical deformation. MXene sheets as conductive two-dimensional nanomaterials are promising for this purpose, but it is still extremely difficult to form surface-agnostic MXene coatings that can withstand extreme mechanical deformation. We report on conductive and conformal MXene multilayer coatings that can undergo large-scale mechanical deformation while maintaining a conductivity as high as 2000 S/m. MXene multilayers are successfully deposited onto flexible polymer sheets, stretchable poly(dimethylsiloxane), nylon fiber, glass, and silicon. The coating shows a recoverable resistance response to bending (up to 2.5-mm bending radius) and stretching (up to 40% tensile strain), which was leveraged for detecting human motion and topographical scanning. We anticipate that this discovery will allow for the implementation of MXene-based coatings onto mechanically deformable objects.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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