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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Animal location technologies have evolved considerably in the last 60 years. Nowadays, animal tracking solutions based on global positioning systems (GPS) are commercially available. However, existing devices have several constraints, mostly related to wireless data transmission and financial cost, which make impractical the monitorization of all the animals in a herd. The main objective of this work is to develop a low-cost solution to enable the monitorization of a whole herd. An IoT-based system, which requires some animals of the herd being fitted with GPS collars connected to a Sigfox network and the rest with low-cost Bluetooth tags, has been developed. Its performance has been tested in two commercial farms, raising sheep and beef cattle, through the monitorization of 50 females in each case. Several collar/tag ratios, which define the cost per animal of the solution, have been simulated. Results demonstrate that a low collar/tag ratio enable the monitorization of a whole sheep herd. A larger ratio is needed for beef cows because of their grazing behavior. Nevertheless, the optimal ratio depends on the purpose of location data. Large variability has been observed for the number of hourly and daily messages from collars and tags. The system effectiveness for the monitorization of all the animals in a herd has been certainly proved.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-07-30
    Description: Author(s): José Antonio Vélez Pérez, Orlando Guzmán, and Fernando Navarro-García Protein translocation from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or vice versa, an essential process for cell function, includes the transport of preproteins destined to become secretory, luminal, or integral membrane proteins (translocation) or misfolded proteins returned to the cytoplasm t... [Phys. Rev. E 88, 012725] Published Mon Jul 29, 2013
    Keywords: Biological Physics
    Print ISSN: 1539-3755
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-2376
    Topics: Physics
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 12 (1996), S. 1677-1702 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: No Abstract
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; HIS4 ; complementation ; molecular biology tools ; topological marker ; amino acid biosynthesis general control ; PEX5 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We have isolated the Candida albicans HIS4 (CaHIS4) gene by complementation of a his4-34 Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant. The sequenced DNA fragment contains a putative ORF of 2514 bp, whose translation product shares a global identity of 44% and 55% to the His4 protein homologs of S. cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis, respectively. Analysis of CaHIS4 sequence suggests that, similarly to S. cerevisiae HIS4, it codes for a polypeptide having three separate enzymatic activities (phosphoribosyl-AMP cyclohydrolase, phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphohydrolase and histidinol dehydrogenase) which reside in different domains of the protein. A C. albicans his4 strain is complemented with this gene when using a C. albicans-S. cerevisiae-Escherichia coli shuttle vector, thus enabling the construction of a host system for C. albicans genetic manipulation. In addition, upstream of the sequenced CaHIS4 sequence, we have found the 3′-terminal half of a gene encoding a PEX5-like protein. The EMBL/DDJB/GenBank Accession Number of this sequence is AJ003115. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-08-18
    Description: SUMMARYAustralia has a role to play in future global food security as it contributes 0·12 of global wheat exports. How much more can it contribute with current technology and varieties? The present paper seeks to quantify the gap between water-limited yield potential (Yw) and farmer yields (Ya) for wheat in Australia by implementing a new protocol developed by the Global Yield Gap and Water Productivity Atlas (GYGA) project. Results of past Australian yield gap studies are difficult to compare with studies in other countries because they were conducted using a variety of methods and at a range of scales. The GYGA project protocols were designed to facilitate comparisons among countries through the application of a consistent yet flexible methodology. This is the first implementation of GYGA protocols in a country with the high spatial and temporal climatic variability that exists in Australia.The present paper describes the application of the GYGA protocol to the whole Australian grain zone to derive estimates of rainfed wheat yield gap. The Australian grain zone was partitioned into six key agro-climatic zones (CZs) defined by the GYGA Extrapolation Domain (GYGA-ED) zonation scheme. A total of 22 Reference Weather Stations (RWS) were selected, distributed among the CZs to represent the entire Australian grain zone. The Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) Wheat crop model was used to simulate Yw of wheat crops for major soil types at each RWS from 1996 to 2010. Wheat varieties, agronomy and distribution of wheat cropping were held constant over the 15-year period. Locally representative dominant soils were selected for each RWS and generic sowing rules were specified based on local expertise. Actual yield (Ya) data were sourced from national agricultural data sets. To upscale Ya and Yw values from RWS to CZs and then to national scale, values were weighted according to the area of winter cereal cropping within RWS buffer zones. The national yield gap (Yg = Yw–Ya) and relative yield (Y% = 100 × Ya/Yw) were then calculated from the weighted values.The present study found that the national Yg was 2·0 tonnes (t)/ha and Y% was 47%. The analysis was extended to consider factors contributing to the yield gap. It was revealed that the RWS 15-year average Ya and Yw were strongly correlated (R2 = 0·76) and that RWS with higher Yw had higher Yg. Despite variable seasonal conditions, Y% was relatively stable over the 15 years. For the 22 RWS, average Yg correlated positively and strongly with average annual rainfall amount, but surprisingly it correlated poorly with RWS rainfall variability. Similarly, Y% correlated negatively but less strongly (R2 = 0·33) with RWS average annual rainfall, and correlated poorly with RWS rainfall variability, which raises questions about how Australian farmers manage climate risk. Interestingly a negative relationship was found between Yg and variability of Yw for the 22 RWS (R2 = 0·66), and a positive relationship between Y% and Yw variability (R2 = 0·23), which suggests that farmers in lower yielding, more variable sites are achieving yields closer to Yw. The Yg estimates appear to be quite robust in the context of estimates from other Australian studies, adding confidence to the validity of the GYGA protocol. Closing the national yield gap so that Ya is 0·80 of Yw, which is the level of Yg closure achieved consistently by the most progressive Australian farmers, would increase the average annual wheat production (20·9 million t in 1996/07 to 2010/11) by an estimated 15·3 million t, which is a 72% increase. This indicates substantial potential for Australia to increase wheat production on existing farmland areas using currently available crop varieties and farming practices and thus make a substantial contribution to achieving future global food security.
    Print ISSN: 0021-8596
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-5146
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-05-18
    Description: Animal location technologies have evolved considerably in the last 60 years. Nowadays, animal tracking solutions based on global positioning systems (GPS) are commercially available. However, existing devices have several constraints, mostly related to wireless data transmission and financial cost, which make impractical the monitorization of all the animals in a herd. The main objective of this work is to develop a low-cost solution to enable the monitorization of a whole herd. An IoT-based system, which requires some animals of the herd being fitted with GPS collars connected to a Sigfox network and the rest with low-cost Bluetooth tags, has been developed. Its performance has been tested in two commercial farms, raising sheep and beef cattle, through the monitorization of 50 females in each case. Several collar/tag ratios, which define the cost per animal of the solution, have been simulated. Results demonstrate that a low collar/tag ratio enable the monitorization of a whole sheep herd. A larger ratio is needed for beef cows because of their grazing behavior. Nevertheless, the optimal ratio depends on the purpose of location data. Large variability has been observed for the number of hourly and daily messages from collars and tags. The system effectiveness for the monitorization of all the animals in a herd has been certainly proved.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Analysis of the initial interaction betweenEntamoeba histolytica trophozoites and the large intestine is impossible in humans and very difficult in experimental animals. To circumvent this obstacle we treated the luminal side of full-thickness rabbit colon segments mounted in Ussing-type chambers with trophozoite lysates of theE. histolytica HM1 virulent strain. Exposure to lysates for up to 90 min produced dose- and time-dependent effects on the colon, consisting of (a) increased decay rates for potential difference, short-circuit current, and transmural resistance and (b) mucosal damage ranging from vacuolation at the bases and shortening of epithelial cells to the loss of intercellular junctions, destruction of microvilli, and necrosis of interglandular epithelial zones. This acute model of intestinal amebiasis is sensitive, fast, and reliable.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract   One of the main drawbacks of experimental amebiasis is the lack of an adequate animal model for invasive intestinal lesions. Mongolian gerbils are useful because both intestinal and hepatic amebiasis can be produced experimentally with Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. In this paper we show results obtained with in vivo and in vitro models of intestinal amebiasis in gerbils. We inoculated gerbils intracecally with monoxenic cultures of a highly virulent E. histolytica HM1:IMSS substrain. In the in vivo model an increase in mucus production was observed during the first 6 h of interaction. Microulcerative mucosal lesions appeared at 24–72 h postinoculation. Inflammatory infiltrate and edema of the lamina propria were associated with superficial foci of necrosis. At 96 h the cecal mucosa had an almost normal appearance and live amebas were no longer detected. In the in vitro model, early damage was detected in cecal strips mounted in Ussing chambers as a rapid fall in potential difference, short-circuit current, and transepithelial resistance that correlated with the extent of the microscopic lesions produced. The latter consisted of cellular edema and the appearance of small, translucent vacuoles at the base of epithelial cells. Further damage led to loss of intercellular junctions, destruction of interglandular epithelial cells, and edema of the lamina propria. The present results demonstrate that the gerbil is useful as an experimental model for the analysis of early stages of invasive intestinal amebiasis both in vivo and in vitro.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Firefly luciferase ; yeast expression ; gene reporter ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The LUC gene coding for Photinus pyralis firefly luciferase was cloned in different yeast episomal plasmids in order to assess its possibilities as an in vivo reporter gene. Activity of the enzyme in transformed cells in vivo was measured by following light emission and assay conditions optimized in intact cells, with regard to oxygen concentration, temperature, cell concentration in assay mixtures and external ATP concentration. Among the factors tested, light emission was drastically influenced by the external pH in the assay (which resulted in a ten-fold amplification signal) and by substrate permeability. The growth phase of the cells was also important for the level of activity detected. Cloning of firefly luciferase gene under the control of different yeast-regulated promoters (ADH1, GAL1-10) enabled us to measure their strength which correlated well with previously described data. We conclude that firefly luciferase is an adequate gene reporter for the in vivo sensitive determination of gene expression and promoter strength in yeast.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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