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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Branch cross-sectional area ; Leaf area ; Leaf biomass ; Picea abies ; Sapwood area
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The relationship of leaf biomass and leaf area to the conductive area of stems and branches was investigated in Picea abies. A total of 30 trees were harvested to determine if these relationships were different in different crown zones and in trees growing with and without competition for light. Two methods were compared. In the first, data were accumulated from crown zones situated at the top of trees to the bottom; in the second, data were used from individual crown zones. The results indicated that the latter method is much more sensitive in detecting differences in the relationship of leaf biomass or leaf area to conductive area. The analysis also indicated that ratios such as leaf area/sapwood area are frequently size-dependent. This size-dependency can in some cases result in the differences being abscured, but more often leads to the false impression that the relationship between the variables changes. The relationship between leaf biomass and leaf area and conductive area of stems or branches was different in different crown zones and under different growth conditions. The slopes of these regressions appear to increase with decreasing transpirational demand and decrease with increasing hydraulic conductivity. The intercepts are probably related to the amount of identified sapwood actually involved in water conductance.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: P/V curve ; Picea abies ; Aerial uptake ; Bark permeability ; Mass flow
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Uptake of water and magnesium chloride solution was investigated through the outer surface of twigs of Picea abies (L.) Karst. Water uptake was determined by using pressure/volume (P/V) curves of the twigs as a basis for calculation to avoid problems of superficial extraneous water. When water was sprayed on bark and needles of 3- to 7-year-old twigs at a xylem water potential of -1.00 MPa, they absorbed as much as 80 mm3 water in 200 min/g twig dry weight as the twig water potential recovered to -0.15 MPa. With fluorescent dyes, pathways for absorption of water and solutes through the twig bark were found, particularly through the radially orientated ray tissue. In addition to uptake by mass flow, magnesium could also diffuse along a concentration gradient from the twig surface into the xylem. In the field, the magnitude of these uptake processes would depend on the concentration of elements deposited by atmospheric precipitation, the concentration gradient between the plant surface and the xylem sap, the xylem water potential and the intensity and duration of each precipitation event.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Trees 1 (1987), S. 219-224 
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Larix ; Heterosis ; Photosynthesis ; Stomatal conductance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Individual 33-year-old forest trees of the deciduous conifer speciesLarix decidua, Larix leptolepis andLarix decidua x leptolepis were investigated with respect to the phenomenon of stem heterosis in hybrid larch; the first part of this study compares the gas exchange responses of leaves. CO2 assimilation per leaf area was similar in the three larch species, but on a dry weight basis the nitrogen content of the needles and maximum CO2 assimilation rate (Amax) were slightly higher in the hybrid. This increase was accompanied by a higher protein content than in the Japanese and a lower specific leaf weight than in the European larch. All three species were similar in terms of the photosynthetic “nitrogen use” and stomatal conductance atA max. The similar slopes of the area-related steady-state responses of gas exchange against irradiance, evaporative demand and internal CO2 concentration led to similar rates of CO2 uptake under ambient conditions. The natural combinations and variability of the environmental factors also reduced the small dry weight-related difference inA max between hybrid larch and the parent species, such that all trees achieved similar daily carbon gains. Thus, the ecological significance of small interspecific differences in the metabolism of leaves has very little effect under the natural habitat conditions of a temperate climate. The second part of the study will investigate the effect of growth characteristics on the heterosis of hybrid larch.
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  • 4
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    Springer
    Trees 1 (1987), S. 225-231 
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Larix ; Heterosis ; Growth ; Branching pattern ; Needle density
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Among 33-year-old forest trees ofLarix decidua, L. leptolepis andL. decidua x leptolepis, the hybrid possessed an above-ground biomass which was three times greater, although all larches displayed similar relative distributions of biomass. At a “relative growth rate” slightly lower than in the parent species, hybrid larch achieved twice the annual carbon gain, increment in stem length and above-ground production, and its foliage-related stem growth was higher than in European (L. decidua) but similar to Japanese (L. leptolepis) larch. A similar “relative growth efficiency” and foliage-related total above-ground production in all trees did reflect the similarity of photosynthetic capacity of the hybrid found at the leaf level. While the lengths of lateral twigs on hybrid branches were intermediate between the European larch with short, and the Japanese larch with large, twigs the hybrid possessed the longest branches with the highest needle biomass. This resulted in a crown structure of the hybrid crown similar to the Japanese larch together with a high needle density on branches as in the European larch. In total, the foliage biomass per crown length was about 30% higher in hybrid larch than in both of the parent species. Thus, the high carbon input for the stem heterosis was based on a “complementation principle” of advantageous parent features at the crown level. Similar slopes of foliage against sapwood area of stem and branches did not indicate a special need for a thick hybrid stem with respect to water transport.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Larix ; Carbon uptake ; Respiration ; Carbon balances ; Water loss ; Sun and shade branches
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Shade needles of hybrid larch (Larix decidua × leptolepis) had the same rates of photosynthesis as sun needles per dry weight and nitrogen, and a similar leaf conductance under conditions of light saturation at ambient CO2 (Amax). However, on an area basis, Amax and specific leaf weight were lower in shade than in sun needles. Stomata of sun needles limited CO2 uptake at light saturation by about 20%, but under natural conditions of light in the shade crown, shade needles operated in a range of saturating internal CO2 without stomatal limitation of CO2 uptake. In both needle types, stomata responded similarly to changes in light, but shade needles were more sensitive to changes in vapor pressure deficit than sun needles. Despite a high photosynthetic capacity, the ambient light conditions reduced the mean daily (in summer) and annual carbon gain of shade needles to less than 50% of that in sun needles. In sun needles, the transpiration per carbon gain was about 220 mol mol−1 on an annual basis. The carbon budget of branches was determined from the photosynthetic rate, the needle biomass and respiration, the latter of which was (per growth and on a carbon basis) 1.6 mol mol−1 year−1 in branch and stem wood. In shade branches carbon gains exceeded carbon costs (growth + respiration) by only a factor of 1.6 compared with 3.5 in sun branches. The carbon balance of sun branches was 5 times higher per needle biomass of a branch or 9 times higher on a branch length basis than shade branches. The shade foliage (including the shaded near-stem sun foliage) only contributed approximately 23% to the total annual carbon gain of the tree.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Cell wall relaxation ; Cell elongation ; Glycine (growth control) ; Turgor pressure ; Water potential
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A new guillotine thermocouple psychrometer was used to make continuous measurements of water potential before and after the excision of elongating and mature regions of darkgrown soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) stems. Transpiration could not occur, but growth took place during the measurement if the tissue was intact. Tests showed that the instrument measured the average water potential of the sampled tissue and responded rapidly to changes in water potential. By measuring tissue osmotic potential (Ψ s ), turgor pressure (Ψ p ) could be calculated. In the intact plant, Ψ s and Ψ p were essentially constant for the entire 22 h measurement, but Ψ s was lower and Ψ p higher in the elongating region than in the mature region. This caused the water potential in the elongating region to be lower than in the mature region. The mature tissue equilibrated with the water potential of the xylem. Therefore, the difference in water potential between mature and elongating tissue represented a difference between the xylem and the elongating region, reflecting a water potential gradient from the xylem to the epidermis that was involved in supplying water for elongation. When mature tissue was excised with the guillotine, Ψ s and Ψ p did not change. However, when elongating tissue was excised, water was absorbed from the xylem, whose water potential decreased. This collapsed the gradient and prevented further water uptake. Tissue Ψ p then decreased rapidly (5 min) by about 0.1 MPa in the elongating tissue. The Ψ p decreased because the cell walls relaxed as extension, caused by Ψ p , continued briefly without water uptake. The Ψ p decreased until the minimum for wall extension (Y) was reached, whereupon elongation ceased. This was followed by a slow further decrease in Y but no additional elongation. In elongating tissue excised with mature tissue attached, there was almost no effect on water potential or Ψ p for several hours. Nevertheless, growth was reduced immediately and continued at a decreasing rate. In this case, the mature tissue supplied water to the elongating tissue and the cell walls did not relax. Based on these measurements, a theory is presented for simultaneously evaluating the effects of water supply and water demand associated with growth. Because wall relaxation measured with the psychrometer provided a new method for determining Y and wall extensibility, all the factors required by the theory could be evaluated for the first time in a single sample. The analysis showed that water uptake and wall extension co-limited elongation in soybean stems under our conditions. This co-limitation explains why elongation responded immediately to a decrease in the water potential of the xylem and why excision with attached mature tissue caused an immediate decrease in growth rate without an immediate change in Ψ p
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The responses of leaf conductance, leaf water potential and rates of transpiration and net photosynthesis at different vapour pressure deficits ranging from 10 to 30 Pa kPa-1 were followed in the sclerophyllous woody shrub Nerium oleander L. as the extractable soil water content decreased. When the vapour pressure deficit around a plant was kept constant at 25 Pa kPa-1 as the soil water content decreased, the leaf conductance and transpiration rate showed a marked closing response to leaf water potential at-1.1 to-1.2 MPa, whereas when the vapour pressure deficit around the plant was kept constant at 10 Pa kPa-1, leaf conductance decreased almost linearly from-0.4 to-1.1 MPa. Increasing the vapour pressure deficit from 10 to 30 Pa kPa-1 in 5 Pa kPa-1 steps, decreased leaf conductance at all exchangeable soil water contents. Changing the leaf water potential in a single leaf by exposing the remainder of the plant to a high rate of transpiration decreased the water potential of that leaf, but did not influence leaf conductance when the soil water content was high. As the soil water content was decreased, leaf conductances and photosynthetic rates were higher at equal levels of water potential when the decrease in potential was caused by short-term increases in transpiration than when the potential was decreased by soil drying. As the soil dried and the stomata closed, the rate of photosynthesis decreased with a decrease in the internal carbon dioxide partial pressure, but neither the net photosynthetic rate nor the internal CO2 partial pressure were affected by low water potentials resulting from short-term increases in the rate of transpiration. Leaf conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate showed no unique relationship to leaf water potential, but in all experiments the leaf gas exchange decreased when about one half of the extractable soil water had been utilized. We conclude that soil water status rather than leaf water status controls leaf gas exchange in N. oleander.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary In Australia, diurnal courses of leaf conductance and transpiration of hemiparasitic mistletoes (Loranthaceae) and their hosts were measured using steady-state porometers under conditions of partial drought and high evaporative demand. The sites spanned a diversity of climatic regions ranging from the subtropical arid zone with winter rainfall, through the subtropical arid zone with summer rainfall to the tropical summer rainfall zone. With one exception (Acacia farnesiana with deciduous leaves), the hosts were trees or shrubs with evergreen, sclerophyllous leaves or phyllodes. The measurements confirm previous observations that mistletoes transpire at higher rates than their hosts. For adult leaves from all of the 18 different host/mistletoe pairs investigated, the daily average leaf conductances were higher in the parasites than in their hosts. The ratios ranged from 1.5 to 7.9. In the most extreme case,Amyema maidenii had a daily rate of water loss 8.9 times higher than its hostAcacia cowleana. Hoever, the parasites did not exhibit unlimited transpiration. Despite high water loss rates, leaf conductance showed large and consistent changes during the course of the day, indicating definite stomatal regulation. The typical diurnal pattern of conductance in both mistletoes and hosts consisted of an early morning peak followed by a continuous decrease throughout the remainder of the day. There was no abrupt decrease in leaf conductance of the parasites that might be interpreted as a threshold response with respect to internal water potential. In most cases, the continuous stomatal closure occurred without substantial changes in leaf water potential over a time span of several hours. The decrease in leaf conductance was correlated with an increase in leaf-to-air water vapor difference, which was associated with increasing leaf temperatures. It seems probable that external humidity plays a major role in the stomatal response. Diurnal courses of leaf conductance of the host/parasite pairs usually showed similar general patterns, even when the absolute rates were quite different. Thus, mistletoes not only control their water loss by stomatal action but this regulation seems to occur in coordination with the stomatal response of their hosts. The integrated mistletoe/host system must also endure severe drought conditions. Controlled water use is necessary for long-term survival of the host. Assuming stomatal behavior in the host is well adapted to ensure its existence, then similar performance in the mistletoe would promote survival of both host and parasite.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Biennial plants ; Carbon partitioning ; Nitrogen partitioning ; Storage ; Harvest index
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Growth and nitrogen partitioning were investigated in the biennial monocarp Arctium tomentosum in the field, in plants growing at natural light conditions, in plants in which approximately half the leaf area was removed and in plants growing under 20% of incident irradiation. Growth quantities were derived from splined cubic polynomial exponential functions fitted to dry matter, leaf area and nitrogen data. Main emphasis was made to understanding of the significance of carbohydrate and nitrogen storage of a large tuber during a 2-years' life cycle, especially the effect of storage on biomass and seed yield in the second season. Biomass partitioning favours growth of leaves in the first year rosette stage. Roots store carbohydrates at a constant rate and increase storage of carbohydrates and nitrogen when the leaves decay at the end of the first season. In the second season the reallocation of carbohydrates from storage is relatively small, but reallocation of nitrogen is very large. Carbohydrate storage just primes the growth of the first leaves in the early growing season, nitrogen storage contributes 20% to the total nitrogen requirement during the 2nd season. The efficiency of carbohydrate storage for conversion into new biomass is about 40%. Nitrogen is reallocated 3 times in the second year, namely from the tuber to rosette leaves and further to flower stem leaves and eventually into seeds. The harvest index for nitrogen is 0.73, whereas for biomass it is only 0.19.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Forest decline ; Carbohydrates ; Picea abies ; Growth ; Leaf area index
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary This is the first in a series of papers on the growth, photosynthetic rate, water and nutrient relations, root distribution and mycorrhizal frequency of two Norway spruce forests at different stages of decline. One of the stands was composed of green trees only while the other included trees ranging in appearance from full green crowns to thin crowns with yellow needles. In this paper we compare the growth and carbohydrate relations of the two stands and examine relationships among growth variables in ten plots. The declining stand produced 65 percent of the wood per ground area compared with the stand in which all trees were green because its foliage produced less wood at any level of leaf area index. The difference in foliage efficiency between the sites could not be explained by differeneces in climate, competition or stand structure. The declining stand appeared to have lower carbon gain as indicated by a smaller increase in reserve carbohydrates before bud break, and weaker sinks for carbohydrates as indicated by less use of the stored carbohydrates than the healthy stand. Thus, growth reduction was probably related to factors which affect both photosynthesis and, even more, the sinks for carbohydrate.
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