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  • 1995-1999  (44)
  • 1990-1994  (33)
  • 1
    Unknown
    Duesseldorf : Data Becker
    Call number: 92-0026
    Pages: 1113 S. mit Diskette ; 24 cm
    ISBN: 3890113559
    Series Statement: Data Becker 355
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Mitochondria ; Ribosomal protein ; Nuclear gene ; pet mutant ; yeast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear gene MRP-L6 was cloned by complementation of the respiratory-deficient mutant pet-ts 2523 with a library of wildtype yeast genomic DNA. The isolated gene was part of a 3.8-kb sequenced DNA fragment containing, in addition to MRP-L6, two unassigned reading frames, ORF1 and ORF2. MRP-L6 codes for a basic protein of 205 amino acids and a molecular mass of 22.8 kDa. The protein exhibits significant sequence similarity to the ribosomal protein L6 of bacteria and chloroplasts. Unlike the corresponding bacterial proteins, however, the MRP-L6 protein (MRP-L6p) contains at its N-terminus a 16 amino-acid leader sequence exhibiting the known characteristics of mitochondrial import signals. Disruption of MRP-L6 leads to the phenotype of a mitochondrial translation-defective, rho-negative yeast mutant. The results are consistent with MRP-L6p representing an essential component of yeast mitochondrial ribosomes. Expression of MRP-L6 was examined, under conditions of glucose repression and derepression, in wild-type cells and in a series of catabolite repression-defective yeast mutants. In most cases, a distinct though small influence of the carbon source on the expression of an MRP-L6/lacZ reporter construct was observed.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Transcriptional regulation ; Phospholipid biosynthesis ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; INO2
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Expression of structural genes of phospholipid biosynthesis in yeast is mediated by the inositol/choline-responsive element (ICRE). ICRE-dependent gene activation, requiring the regulatory genes INO2 and INO4, is repressed in the presence of the phospholipid precursors inositol and choline. INO2 and, to a less extent, INO4 are positively autoregulated by functional ICRE sequences in the respective upstream regions. However, an INO2 allele devoid of its ICRE functionally complemented an ino2 mutation and completely restored inositol/choline regulation of Ino2p-dependent reporter genes. Low-level expression of INO2 and INO4 genes, each under control of the heterologous MET25 promoter, did not alter the regulatory pattern of target genes. Thus, upstream regions of INO2 and INO4 are not crucial for transcriptional control of ICRE-dependent genes by inositol and choline. Interestingly, over-expression of INO2, but not of INO4, counteracted repression by phospholipid precursors. Possibly, a functional antagonism between INO2 and a negative regulator is the key event responsible for repression or de-repression.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: RFLP marker ; Barley ; Powdery mildew ; Mla locus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary To identify the mildew resistance locus Mla in barley with molecular markers, closely linked genomic RFLP clones were selected with the help of near-isogenic lines having the ‘Pallas’ and ‘Siri’ background. Out of 22 polymorphic clones 3 were located around the Mla locus on chromosome 5 with a distance of 5.1 + 2.9 cM (MWG 1H068), 4.2±1.7 cM (MWG 1H060) and 0.7 ± 0.7 cM (MWG 1H036), respectively. The polymorphic clone MWG 1H036 displayed the same RFLP pattern in both ‘Pallas’ and ‘Siri’ near-isogenic lines and in different varieties digested with six restriction enzymes possessing the same mildew resistance gene. The alleles of the Mla locus were grouped in 11 classes according to their specific RFLP patterns; 3 of these groups contain the majority of Mla alleles already used in barley breeding programs in Europe.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Barley ; Multigene family ; Mla locus ; Recombination ; RFLP marker
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The complex structure of the multigene family at the Mla locus conferring powdery mildew resistance in barley was studied by making diallel crosses between several near-isogenic lines carrying different Mla alleles. The mode of inheritance of the Mla alleles investigated was determined to be dominant for Mla1, Mla6, Mla7 and Mla13 and semidominant for Mla3, Mla12 and Mla20. F1 plants were backcrossed to the susceptible recurrent parent in order to identify susceptible and double-resistant recombinants in the BC1F1 generation. Out of 17605 progenies tested in the BC1F1 generation, two susceptible recombinants, one between Mla1 and Mla12 and one between Mla13 and Mla20 were confirmed. The former was also verified by RFLP analysis.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase ; Glucose repression ; Gene activation ; Gluconeogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is a key enzyme in gluconeogenesis and the FBP1 gene is not transcribed during growth with glucose. Genetic analysis indicated a positive regulation of FBP1 expression after exhaustion of glucose. By linker-deletion analysis, two upstream activation sites (UAS1 and UAS2) were localized and the respective UAS-binding factors (DAP I and DAP II for derepression activating protein) were identified by gel retardation. UAS1 and UAS2 span about 30 bp each, and are separated by approximately 30 bp. Both UAS sites act synergistically. Although UAS1 showed some similarities to the DNA-binding consensus for the general yeast activator Rap1, competition experiments and DEAE-chromatography proved that DAP I and Rap1 correspond to different proteins. Gel retardation by DAP I depended on carbon sources and did not occur in cells growing logarithmically with glucose, whereas a strong retardation signal was obtained with ethanol-grown cells. The present results suggest that DAP I and DAP II are the final regulatory elements for glucose derepression.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Isocitrate lyase ; Gene regulation ; Ethanol induction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The ICL1 gene encoding the isocitrate lyase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cloned and sequenced. A reading frame of 557 amino acids showing significant similarity to isocitrate lyases from seven other species could be identified. Construction of icl1 null mutants led to growth defects on C2 carbon sources while utilization of sugars or C3 substrates remained unaffected. Using an ICL1-lacZ fusion integrated at the ICL1 locus, a more than 200-fold induction of β-galactosidase activity was observed after growth on ethanol when compared with glucose-repressed conditions. A preliminary analysis of the ICL1 upstream region identified a 364-bp fragment necessary and sufficient for this regulatory phenotype. Sequence motifs also present in the upstream regions of co-regulated genes were found within this region.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archive of applied mechanics 69 (1999), S. 765-784 
    ISSN: 1432-0681
    Keywords: Key words Finite elements, statistical equivalent linearization, component-mode synthesis, complex modal analysis, random eigenvalue problem, hysteresis, damping
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Summary This paper focuses on the stochastic dynamic response of structures modeled by finite elements with a relatively large number of degrees of freedom. FE models with nonlinearities and uncertain (stochastic) system properties are discussed. It is shown that component mode synthesis can be used most advantageously to solve the issue of computational efficiency and feasibility. The stochastic response due to stochastic loading of large FE models with nonlinear elements is determined by statistical equivalent linearization (EQL). The developed component-mode synthesis allows to determine the complex modal properties of arbitrary large linearized finite element models. Nonsymmetric structural matrices, as a result of the EQL, and filters for modeling of filtered white noise can be treated by the suggested approach. Since the efficiency of the procedure is nearly independent of the number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF) involved, statistical equivalent linearization becomes applicable for arbitrary detailed FE models. Furthermore, the dynamic response of FE models with uncertain or stochastic system properties is discussed. In this case, Monte Carlo simulation is suggested as the most appropriate approach for FE models. The paper focuses on the random eigenvalue problem for large FE systems as the computationally most demanding part of the dynamic analysis. Component-mode synthesis is used to provide in an efficient manner all the eigenvalue solutions of the FE system needed by the Monte Carlo simulation.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Prolidase ; Metalloprotease ; Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ; Nucleotide sequence analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract From a genomic library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (DSM7290) DNA, in the low-copy-number vector pLG339, a recombinant clone was selected, which complemented a mutation in the prolidase gene (pepQ) of Escherichia coli UK173. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1104 nucleotides corresponding to a protein of 368 amino acids with a calculated pI of 4.64 and a molecular mass of 41087 Da. The start site of pepQ transcription was determined by primer extension analysis with mRNA prepared from L. delbrueckii. Based on homology of the gene product to various peptidases and on the substrate specificity determined, the peptidase was designated PepQ. The influence of various protease inhibitors and cations on peptidase activity indicated that PepQ is a metalloprotease. The absence of a membrane-spanning domain and a signal peptide sequence argues for a cytoplasmic localization of the enzyme.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key wordsSaccharomyces cerevisiae ; Gluconeogenesis ; Malate synthase ; Transcriptional regulation ; MLS1
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The malate synthase gene, MLS1, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is transcriptionally regulated by the carbon source in the growth medium. A MLS1-lacZ fusion gene, expressed at a basal level in the presence of 2% glucose, is derepressed more than 100-fold under conditions of sugar limitation. No evidence for MLS1 induction by oleic acid was found. By deletion analysis of the MLS1 control region, we identified two sites, UAS1 and UAS2, as important for efficient derepression of the gene. Both sites contain sequences that resemble the previously characterized carbon source-responsive element (CSRE) found in the promoter of the isocitrate lyase gene ICL1. Indeed, UAS1 and UAS2 in the MLS1 upstream region turn out to be functional CSRE sequence variants. This finding allowed us to define a modified version of the CSRE consensus sequence (CCRTYSRNCCG). Protein binding to UAS1MLS1 was observed with extracts from derepressed but not from repressed cells, and could be competed for by an excess of the unlabelled CSRE(ICL1) sequence. No competition was observed with a mutated CSRE variant. Site-directed mutagenesis of both CSREs in the MLS1 promoter reduced gene activation under derepressing conditions to 20% of the wild-type level. The same decrease was observed with the wild-type MLS1 promoter in a cat8 mutant, lacking an activator of CSRE-dependent transcription. The CSRE/Cat8p-independent activation of MLS1 is mediated by constitutive UAS elements. The pleiotropic transcription factor Abf1p, which binds to the MLS1 upstream region, may contribute to constitutive activation. Thus, in order to ensure the severe glucose repression of MLS1 observed, repressor elements that respond to the carbon source must counteract constitutive activation. In summary, ICL1 and MLS1 share common cis-acting elements, although a distinct mechanism of carbon source control also contributes to MLS1 regulation.
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