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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The time variation of the sea-ice concentration and multiyear ice fraction within the pack ice in the Arctic Basin is examined, using microwave images of sea ice recently acquired by the Nimbus-5 spacecraft and the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The images used for these studies were constructed from data acquired from the Electrically Scanned Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) which records radiation from earth and its atmosphere at a wavelength of 1.55 cm. Data are analyzed for four seasons during 1973–1975 to illustrate some basic differences in the properties of the sea ice during those times. Spacecraft data are compared with corresponding NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory data obtained over wide areas in the Arctic Basin during the Main Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment (1975) to illustrate the applicability of passive-microwave remote sensing for monitoring the time dependence of sea-ice concentration (divergence). These observations indicate significant variations in the sea-ice concentration in the spring, late fall and early winter. In addition, deep in the interior of the Arctic polar sea-ice pack, heretofore unobserved large areas, several hundred kilometers in extent, of sea-ice concentrations as low as 50% are indicated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract During the AIDJEX Main Experiment, April 1975 through May 1976, a comprehensive microwave sensing program was performed on the sea ice of the Beaufort Sea. Surface and aircraft measurements were obtained during all seasons using a wide variety of active and passive microwave sensors. The surface program obtained passive microwave measurements of various ice types using four antennas mounted on a tracked vehicle. In three test regions, each with an area of approximately 1.5 × 104 m2, detailed ice crystallographic, dielectric properties, and brightness temperatures of first-year, multiyear, and first-year/multiyear mixtures were measured. A NASA aircraft obtained passive microwave measurements of the entire area of the AIDJEX manned station array (triangle) during each of 18 flights. This verified the earlier reported ability to distinguish first-year and multiyear ice types and concentration and gave new information on ways to observe ice mixtures and thin ice types. The active microwave measurements from aircraft included those from an X- and L-band radar and from a scatterometer. The former is used to study a wide variety of ice features and to estimate deformations, while both are equally usable to observe ice types. With the present data, only the scatterometer can be used to distinguish positively multiyear from first-year and various types of thin ice. This is best done using coupled active and passive microwave sensing.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract This paper presents: (1) a short historical review of the passive microwave research on sea ice which established the observational and theoretical base permitting the interpretation of the first passive microwave images of Earth obtained by the Nimbus-5 ESMR; (2) the construction of a time-lapse motion picture film of a 16-month set of serial ESMR images to aid in the formidable data analysis task; and (3) a few of the most significant findings resulting from an early analysis of these data, using selected ESMR images to illustrate these findings.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 16 (1965), S. 191-204 
    ISSN: 0022-2852
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0032-0633
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2005-11-30
    Description: The feasibility of carrying microwave radiometers on Nimbus E and F missions for sea ice surveys was studied in the arctic using aircraft. It was found that passive microwave signatures of Arctic Sea ice relate specifically to the structure and type of ice. It is concluded that a new tool for conducting ice surveys from aircraft and satellites with remote sensors was discovered.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Significant Accomplishments in Sci., 1970; p 18-21
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Passive microwave measurements of the Bering Sea were made with the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory during February. Microwave data were obtained with imaging and dual-polarized, fixed-beam radiometers in a range of frequencies from 10 to 183 GHz. The high resolution imagery at 92 GHz provides a particularly good description of the marginal ice zone delineating regions of open water, ice compactness, and ice-edge structure. Analysis of the fixed-beam data shows that spectral differences increase with a decrease in ice thickness. Polarization at 18 and 37 GHz distinguishes among new, young, and first-year ice types.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0196-2892); GE-24; 368-377
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-23
    Description: From November 1978 through December 1996, the areal extent of sea ice decreased by 2.9 +/- 0.4 percent per decade in the Arctic and increased by 1.3 +/- 0.2 percent per decade in the Antarctic. The observed hemispheric asymmetry in these trends is consistent with a modeled response to a carbon dioxide-induced climate warming. The interannual variations, which are 2.3 percent of the annual mean in the Arctic, with a predominant period of about 5 years, and 3.4 percent of the annual mean in the Antarctic, with a predominant period of about 3 years, are uncorrelated.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes Research Publications; 21-22
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Aircraft remote sensing data collected during the 1984 summer Marginal Ice Zone Experiment in the Fram Strait are used to compare ice concentration estimates derived from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, passive microwave imagery at several frequencies, aerial photography, and spectral photometer data. The comparison is carried out not only to evaluate SAR performance against more established techniques but also to investigate how ice surface conditions, imaging geometry, and choice of algorithm parameters affect estimates made by each sensor.Active and passive microwave sensor estimates of ice concentration derived using similar algorithms show an rms difference of 13 percent. Agreement between each microwave sensor and near-simultaneous aerial photography is approximately the same (14 percent). The availability of high-resolution microwave imagery makes it possible to ascribe the discrepancies in the concentration estimates to variations in ice surface signatures in the scene.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 92; 6843-685
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A technique is presented which improves existing methods of calculating sea ice concentrations from microwave radiances by reducing weather-related effects over open ocean areas and in the vicinity of marginal sea ice zones. Winds, atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water, and rain increase the microwave emission over these regions and thus result in erroneous values of computed sea ice concentration. The method described is based on the microwave spectral properties of sea ice and ice-free ocean and utilizes ratios of the polarized radiances at the 0.81-cm (37 GHz) and 1.7-cm (18 GHz) wavelengths. Following a discussion of the physical basis for this technique, examples are provided which demonstrate its utility. While the technique was developed for use with the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer data, it is applicable also to data from other microwave radiometers operating in a similar wavelength range.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 91; 3913-391
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