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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Results are reported from airborne measurements of NO, NO2, O3, and CO obtained in the free troposphere (FT) and boundary layer (BL) over the western U.S. and eastern Pacific during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 2 (CITE 2) in summer 1986. The aircraft instrumentation and the CITE 2 flight protocols are described, and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs. Over the ocean the median mixing ratios for NO and NO2 were found to be 4.0 and 10.4 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), respectively, in the BL and 12.4 and 18.0 pptv in the FT; the corresponding values over land were 34.5 and 75.0 pptv in the BL and 13.0 and 36.0 pptv in the FT. in continental air masses. NO(x) is shown to be positively correlated with O3 and CO and negatively correlated with dewpoint over the ocean, whereas over land NO(x) was positively correlated with O3, CO, and dewpoint.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 10205-10
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Two techniques designed for measurements of NO(x (NO + NO2) were intercompared during aircraft flights made in the spring of 1984 in the middle free troposphere over the eastern Pacific Ocean and southwestern U.S. One NO chemiluminescence instrument was equipped with a ferrous sulphate converter, another with a photolytic converter. The ferrous sulphate-equipped instrument was apparently much less specific for NO2. It registered levels about three times larger than the photolytic converter and gave NO2/NO ratios that were much larger than photochemical calculations would indicate as reasonable. Additionally, the results imply that active NO(x) was only 10-20 percent of the total odd nitrogen in the middle free troposphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 93; 15803-15
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Results from an intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of carbon monoxide (CO) are discussed. The intercomparison was conducted as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) and was held at Wallops Island, VA, in July 1983. Instruments intercompared included a laser differential absorption method and three grab sample/gas chromatograph methods. The intercomparison consisted of simultaneous measurements of ambient levels of CO and controlled injections of CO from a common manifold. Results from the techniques exhibited a high degree of correlation among themselves and with changes in the CO mixing ratio. The results suggested a level of agreement among the techniques of about 15 percent. However, a day-to-day bias between the techniques was observed, which resulted in differences between techniques as large as 38 percent.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 90; 12
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Results from an intercomparison of methods to measure carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and the hydroxyl radical (OH) are discussed. The intercomparison was conducted at Wallops Island, Virginia, in July 1983 and included a laser differential absorption and three grab sample/gas chromatograph methods for CO, a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and two chemiluminescence methods for NO, and two LIF methods and a radiocarbon tracer method for OH. The intercomparison was conducted as a field measurement program involving ambient measurements of CO (150-300 ppbv) and NO (10-180 pptv) from a common manifold with controlled injection of CO in incremental steps from 20 to 500 ppbv and NO in steps from 10 to 220 pptv. Only ambient measurements of OH were made. The agreement between the techniques was on the order of 14 percent for CO and 17 percent for NO. Hardware difficulties during the OH tests resulted in a data base with insufficient data and uncertanties too large to permit a meaningful intercomposition.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 89; 11819-11
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Samples of stratospheric trace gases were obtained on eight flights of NASA high-altitude aircraft from April 16 through December 13, 1982. The sampling occurred at altitudes from 15 to 22 km, latitudes from 23 to 52 deg N, and longitudes from 108 to 130 deg W. The cryogenically concentrated samples were analyzed by gas chromatography for SO2, a primary precursor of the gas-to-particle conversion process. The measured mixing ratio of SO2 varied between 8 and 132 pptv. Evidence from aerosol measurements indicates that a few of our early samples may have been collected in the fringes of the volcanic cloud from El Chichon. Samples obtained on some later flights may have been from the eruption cloud but were taken at times when most of the volcanically injected SO2 should have been converted to H2SO4.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 10; 1045-104
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Measurements of NO, NO(x) (NO + NO2), O3, and CO are presented from seven aircraft flights made over the eastern Pacific Ocean and the southwestern United States in spring of 1984. The sampling region was characterized by large- and small-scale variability for all of the measurements, likely as a result of vigorous synoptic scale meteorology and the influence of tropopause folds. Median values for NO, NO(x), O3, and CO from the flights made over the ocean in the region of 5.8-7.6 km were 10 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), 32 pptv, 46 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), and 120 ppbv, respectively. Corresponding values from two flights made over the continent at similar altitudes were 16 pptv, 38 pptv, 42 ppbv, and 111 ppbv. There was a strong tendency for NO or NO(x) to be correlated positively with O3 and to be anticorrelated with dew-point/frost-point measurements. No significant overall correlation occurred between NO(x) and CO for the ocean data. The variability of NO(x) was such that regions of net destruction and regions of net production of O(3) were sampled both over the ocean and over the continent. However, in the middle free troposphere over the ocean, net O(3) destruction was predominant.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 94; 5043-506
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2006-04-12
    Description: Nineteen stratospheric samples from the eruption plumes of Mount St. Helens were collected in five flight experiments. The plume samples were collected at various altitudes from 13.1 to 20.7 km by using the Ames cryogenic sampling system on board the NASA U-2 aircraft. The enriched, cryogenically collected samples were analyzed by chromatography. The concentrations of aerosols precursor gases (OCS, SO2, and CS2), CH3Cl, N2O, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3 were measured by gas chromatography. Large enhancement of the mixing ratio of SO2 and moderate enhancement of CS2 and OCS were found in the plume samples compared with similar measurement under pre-volcanic conditions. A fast decay rate of the SO2 mixing ratio in the plume was observed. Measurement of Cl(-), SO2(2-), and NO3(-) by ion chromatography was also carried out on water solutions prepared from the plume samples. The results obtained with this technique imply large mixing ratios of HCl, (NO + NO2 + HNO3), and SO2, in which these constituents are the respective sources of the anions. Measurement of the Rn222 concentration in the plume was made. Other stratospheric constituents in the plume samples, such as H2O, CO2, CH4, and CO, were also observed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Atmospheric Effects and Potential Climatic Impact of the 1980 Eruptions of Mt. St. Helens; p 47-54
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Measurements in the stratosphere of gaseous constituents in the plume of Mount St. Helens were obtained during five flights of the NASA U-2 aircraft between 19 May and 17 June 1980. Mixing ratios from gas chromatographic measurements on samples acquired about 24 hours after the initial eruption show considerable enhancement over nonvolcanic concentrations for sulfur dioxide (more than 1000 times), methyl chloride (about 10 times), and carbon disulfide (more than 3 times). The mixing ratio of carbonyl sulfide was comparable to nonvolcanic mixing ratios although 3 days later it was enhanced two to three times. Ion chromatography measurements on water-soluble constituents are also reported. Very large concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions were measured, implying large mixing ratios for the water-soluble gaseous constituents from which the anions are derived. Measurements of radon-222 present in the plume are also reported.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Science; 211; Feb. 20
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: In the airborne detection system of atmospheric constituents and pollutants described, double-ended differential absorption measurement is accomplished by rapidly current tuning the wavelength of a PbSSe diode laser across a single line of the species under consideration. As the laser wavelength sweeps periodically across the absorption line, the laser beam is amplitude modulated and is then synchronously detected. With this technique, a minimum detectable differential transmission of 0.02 percent is obtained for a 1-sec integration time.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: Plenary Meeting; May 29, 1978 - Jun 10, 1978; Innsbruck; Austria
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The instrumental and data-reduction techniques used in obtaining remote measurements of carbon monoxide during the 1979 Summer Monsoon Experiment are described. The form of the signal function (the variation of signal with altitude) and the impact of variations in the vertical distribution of carbon monoxide are discussed. Estimates of the experimental accuracy are made both by assessment of error sources through the use of numerical simulations and by comparison with concurrent measurements made by means of gas chromatography. It is found that the radiometric measurements tend to be about 9 percent lower than the direct measurements and to have a precision of about 8 percent.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 91; 9841-984
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