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  • 1
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    Cleveland: International Association for Energy Economics | ZBW - Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-08-13
    Description: We analyze various regulatory regimes for electricity transmission investment in the context of a power system transformation toward renewable energy. Distinctive developments of the generation mix are studied, assuming that a shift toward renewables may have temporary or permanent impacts on network congestion. We specifically analyze the relative performance of a combined merchant-regulatory price-cap mechanism, a cost-based rule, and a non-regulated approach in dynamic generation settings. We find that incentive regulation may perform better than cost-based regulation but only when appropriate weights are used. While quasi-ideal weights generally restore the beneficial properties that incentive regulatory mechanisms are well-known for, pure Laspeyres weights may either lead to over-investment or delayed investments as compared to the welfare-optimum benchmark. Laspeyres-Paasche weights, in turn, seem appropriate under permanently or temporarily increased network congestion. Thus, our analysis provides motivation for further research in order to characterize optimal regulation for transmission expansion in the context of renewable integration.
    Description: This is the postprint of an article published in Energy Journal 36 (2015), 4, p. 105-128, available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.5547/01956574.36.4.jege
    Keywords: Q40 ; Q42 ; L51 ; ddc:330 ; Electricity transmission ; Incentive regulation ; Renewable integration ; Laspeyres-Paasche weights ; Ideal weights ; Energieökonomik ; Erneuerbare Ressourcen
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-08-10
    Description: We use a game-theoretic model to analyze the impacts of a hypothetical fleet of plug-in electric vehicles on the imperfectly competitive German electricity market. Electric vehicles bring both additional demand and additional storage capacity to the market. We determine the effects on prices, welfare, and electricity generation for various cases with different players in charge of vehicle operations. Vehicle loading increases generator profits, but decreases consumer surplus in the power market. If excess vehicle batteries can be used for storage, welfare results are reversed: generating firms suffer from the price-smoothing effect of additional storage, whereas power consumers benefit despite increasing overall demand. Strategic players tend to under-utilize the storage capacity of the vehicle fleet, which may have negative welfare implications. In contrast, we find a market power-mitigating effect of electric vehicle recharging on oligopolistic generators. Overall, electric vehicles are unlikely to be a relevant source of market power in Germany in the foreseeable future.
    Description: © 2015.This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
    Keywords: Q40 ; Q41 ; L13 ; D43 ; ddc:330 ; Electric vehicles ; Vehicle-to-Grid ; Market power ; Elektroindustrie ; Mobilität ; Kraftfahrzeug ; Elektrofahrzeug
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: [Introduction] This data documentation describes a data set of the German electricity, heat, and natural gas sectors compiled within the research project ‘LKD-EU’ (Long-term planning and short-term optimization of the German electricity system within the European framework: Further development of methods and models to analyze the electricity system including the heat and gas sector). The project is a joined effort by the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), the Workgroup for Infrastructure Policy (WIP) at Technische Universität Berlin (TUB), the Chair of Energy Economics (EE2) at Technische Universität Dresden (TUD), and the House of Energy Markets & Finance at University of Duisburg-Essen. The project was funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy through the grant ‘LKD-EU’, FKZ 03ET4028A. The objective of this paper is to document a reference data set representing the status quo of the German energy sector. We also update and extend parts of the previous DIW Data Documentation 75 (Egerer et al. 2014). While the focus is on the electricity sector, the heat and natural gas sectors are covered as well. With this reference data set, we aim to increase the transparency of energy infrastructure data in Germany. On the one hand, this documentation presents sources of original data and information used for the data set. On the other hand, it elaborates on the methodologies which have been applied to derive the data from respective sources in order to make it useful for modeling purposes and to promote a discussion about the underlying assumptions. Furthermore, we briefly discuss the underlying regulations with regard to data transparency in the energy sector. Where not otherwise stated, the data included in this report is given with reference to the year 2015 for Germany. This document is structured as follows: Section 2 describes data of the German electricity sector and explains the methods for deriving this data. Section 3 discusses the data preparation for German heating networks. Section 4 covers the natural gas system in Germany. While Sections 2 to 4 focus on Germany, interactions on a European level are considered in a stylized way. Finally, Section 5 introduces some research questions to be answered with the help of the presented data set and discusses a range of limitations. The data set described in the following chapters can be downloaded from the Zenodo repository under the DOI https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1044463.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-18
    Description: In Germany and beyond, various capacity mechanisms are currently being discussed with a view to improving the security of electricity supply. One of these mechanisms is a strategic reserve that retains generation capacity for use in times of critical supply shortage. We argue that strategic reserves have specific advantages compared to other capacity mechanisms in the context of the European energy transition. To date, however, the debate on capacity mechanisms has largely been restricted to national contexts. Against this background, we discuss the feasibility and potential benefits of coordinated cross-border strategic reserves to safeguard electricity supply and aid the energy transition in Germany and neighboring countries at large. Setting aside strategic reserve capacity which is deployed only in the event of extreme supply shortages could improve the security of electricity supply without distorting the EU's internal electricity market. In addition, overall costs may decrease when reserve procurement and activation are coordinated among countries, particularly if combined with flow-based market coupling.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Capacity mechanisms ; Energy transition ; Strategic reserve
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-11
    Description: We examine the role of prosumage of solar electricity, i.e. PV self-generation combined with distributed storage, in the context of the low-carbon energy transformation. First, we devise a qualitative account of arguments in favor of and against prosumage. Second, we give an overview of prosumage in Germany. Prosumage will likely gain momentum as support payments expire for an increasing share of PV capacities after 2020. Third, we model possible system effects in a German 2035 scenario. Prosumage batteries allow for a notable substitution of other storage facilities only if fully available for market interactions. System-friendly operation would also help limiting cost increases. We conclude that policymakers should not unnecessarily restrict prosumage, but consider system and distributional aspects.
    Keywords: C61 ; Q42 ; Q48 ; ddc:330 ; prosumage ; battery storage ; PV ; energy transformation ; DIETER
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-22
    Description: Electric vehicle drives offer a number of advantages over conventional internal combustion engines, especially in terms of lower local emissions, higher energy efficiency, and decreased dependency upon oil. Yet there are significant barriers to the rapid adoption of electric cars, including the limitations of battery technology, high purchase costs, and the lack of recharging infrastructure. With intelligently controlled charging operations, the energy needs of potential electric vehicle fleets could be covered by existing German power plants without incurring large price fluctuations. Over the long term, electric vehicles could represent a sustainable technology path. In the short to mid-term, however, exceedingly optimistic expectations should be avoided, especially with respect to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Electric vehicles as such will not be able to solve all current problems of transportation policy. Yet they may constitute an important component of a larger roadmap for sustainable transportation.
    Keywords: L62 ; Q40 ; R40 ; ddc:330 ; Transportation ; Electric vehicles ; Electricity markets
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-12-07
    Description: Common intuition holds that retail real-time pricing (RTP) of electricity demand should become more beneficial in markets with high variable renewable energy (VRE) supply mainly due to increased price volatility. Using German market data, we test this intuition by simulating long-run electricity market equilibria with carbon-tax-induced VRE investment and real-time price responsive and nonresponsive consumption behavior. We find that the potential welfare gains from RTP are only partially explained by price volatility and are rather driven by opposing wholesale price effects caused by the technology portfolio changes from carbon taxation. Consequently, annual benefits from RTP actually change nonmonotonously with the carbon tax level, implying that increasing RTP at relatively high VRE shares can be both less and much more beneficial than without VRE supply. Nonetheless, as zero marginal cost supply becomes abundant with VRE entry, allocative efficiency increasingly depends on exposing more and more consumers to RTP.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Real-time pricing ; Electricity ; Variable renewables ; Carbon taxation ; Welfare analysis ; Partial equilibrium modeling
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-22
    Description: In the course of current climate negotiations, the world is watching the United States in particular. Together with China, the U.S. is by far the largest emitter of greenhouse gases. Real progress in protecting the global climate requires substantial action on America's part. The U.S. has the potential to significantly reduce emissions. Per capita energy consumption in the U.S. is still about twice that of Europe. An assessment of current energy and climate policies in America is disillusioning. So far, federal and state measures have had only limited success - both in terms of increasing energy efficiency and in the use of renewable energy. While some regional initiatives are promising - for example, the establishment of renewable portfolio standards, or emissions trading schemes in the Northeast and West of the country - they ultimately lack sufficient ambition and scope. Proposals currently under debate in Congress for a national energy and climate protection law are highly contested, even though they do not set particularly demanding goals for reducing emissions in the medium term. Against this backdrop, the U.S. cannot be expected to catch up anytime soon in the area of climate protection.
    Keywords: Q40 ; Q48 ; Q52 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; Climate Policy ; Energy Policy ; Renewable Energy ; USA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-22
    Description: Methane is a greenhouse gas that gets far less public attention than carbon dioxide. This is entirely unwarranted. Being 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide in trapping heat in the atmosphere, methane accounts for about one-sixth of all anthropogenic (i.e. human-induced) greenhouse gas emissions. Methane is also overlooked when it comes to taking concrete measures for climate protection, despite the fact that reducing methane emissions is potentially cheap. Major sources of methane emissions are livestock farming, the natural gas sector, landfills, wetland rice cultivation and coal mining. In many cases, it is possible to mitigate substantial amounts of methane in a cost-effective way. Moreover, captured methane can be used for generating heat and power. In other words, abating one ton of methane emissions is sometimes cheaper than abating an equivalent amount of carbon dioxide. The challenge is to effectively incorporate cutbacks of methane gas emissions into climate policy strategies.
    Keywords: Q52 ; Q53 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; Methane ; Mitigation ; Climate policy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-22
    Description: Energy policy is confronted by two major challenges. First, fossil fuels will become ever more scarce and expensive in coming years, a trend which will intensify conflicts for the control of natural resources. Second, the burning of fossil fuels-particularly coal-is leading to an increase in harmful greenhouse gas emissions. To address these challenges, the share of renewable energy in total energy consumption must be considerably increased. In sharp contrast to fossil fuels, which are becoming ever more depleted, renewable energy sources are essentially inexhaustible. Furthermore, renewable energy produces hardly any greenhouse gases. The large-scale exploitation of solar energy for power generation offers enormous potential. In theory, solar-thermal collectors installed in North Africa over an area roughly the size of New Jersey could meet all of Europe's electricity needs. The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines would be necessary to import power from the Mediterranean region without excessive transmission losses. An expansion of European electricity networks could also yield supplementary benefits, including enhanced integration of domestic renewable energy (such as wind power), and improved competition in electricity markets.
    Keywords: Q40 ; L94 ; Q42 ; P28 ; ddc:330 ; Electricity trade ; Solar energy ; DESERTEC
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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