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  • 1
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    In:  [Talk] In: Ocean Science Meeting, Orlando, Florida, USA .
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Earth System Science Data, 2 (1). pp. 1-15.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant parameters have been collected and merged into a new database called CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic). In order to provide a consistent data set, all data have been examined for systematic biases and adjusted if necessary (secondary quality control (QC)). The CARINA data set is divided into three regions: the Arctic/Nordic Seas, the Atlantic region and the Southern Ocean. Here we present the CFC data for the Atlantic region, including the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 as well as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The methods applied for the secondary quality control, a crossover analyses, the investigation of CFC ratios in the ocean and the CFC surface saturation are presented. Based on the results, the CFC data of some cruises are adjusted by a certain factor or given a “poor” quality flag.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
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    AGU (American Geological Union)
    In:  Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23 (GB3010).
    Publication Date: 2018-03-20
    Description: The oceans absorb and store a significant portion of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, but large uncertainties remain in the quantification of this sink. An improved assessment of the present and future oceanic carbon sink is therefore necessary to provide recommendations for long‐term global carbon cycle and climate policies. The formation of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is a unique fast track for transporting anthropogenic CO2 into the ocean's interior, making the deep waters rich in anthropogenic carbon. Thus the Atlantic is presently estimated to hold 38% of the oceanic anthropogenic CO2 inventory, although its volume makes up only 25% of the world ocean. Here we analyze the inventory change of anthropogenic CO2 in the Atlantic between 1997 and 2003 and its relationship to NADW formation. For the whole region between 20°S and 65°N the inventory amounts to 32.5 ± 9.5 Petagram carbon (Pg C) in 1997 and increases up to 36.0 ± 10.5 Pg C in 2003. This result is quite similar to earlier studies. Moreover, the overall increase of anthropogenic carbon is in close agreement with the expected change due to rising atmospheric CO2 levels of 1.69% a−1. On the other hand, when considering the subpolar region only, the results demonstrate that the recent weakening in the formation of Labrador Sea Water, a component of NADW, has already led to a decrease of the anthropogenic carbon inventory in this water mass. As a consequence, the overall inventory for the total water column in the western subpolar North Atlantic increased only by 2% between 1997 and 2003, much less than the 11% that would be expected from the increase in atmospheric CO2 levels.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
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    In:  [Talk] In: EGU General Assembly, 16.04, Vienna, Austria .
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    157, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U. S. Department of Energy
    In:  ORNL/CDIAC . 157, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U. S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN, USA, VII, 11 pp.
    Publication Date: 2019-10-10
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-01-09
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Biogeosciences (BG), 12 . pp. 7519-7533.
    Publication Date: 2016-01-22
    Description: Upwelling is an important process, bringing gases and nutrients into the ocean mixed layer. The upwelling velocities, however, are too small to be measured directly. Here we use the surface disequilibrium of the 3He / 4He ratio measured in two coastal upwelling regions off Peru in the Pacific ocean and off Mauritania in the Atlantic ocean to calculate the regional distribution of vertical velocities. To also account for the fluxes by diapycnal mixing, microstructure-based observations of the vertical diffusivity have been performed on all four cruises analysed in this study. The upwelling velocities in the coastal regions vary between 1.1 ± 0.3 × 10−5 and 2.8 ± 1.5 × 10−5 m s−1 for all cruises. Vertical velocities are also inferred from the divergence of the wind-driven Ekman transport. In the coastal regimes, both methods agree within the error range. Further offshore, the helium-derived vertical velocity still reaches 1 × 10−5 m s−1, whereas the wind-driven upwelling from Ekman suction is smaller by up to 1 order of magnitude. One reason for this difference is ascribed to eddy-induced upwelling. Both advective and diffusive nutrient fluxes into the mixed layer are calculated based on the helium-derived vertical velocities and the vertical diffusivities. The advective part of these fluxes makes up at about 50 % of the total. The nutrient flux into the mixed layer in the coastal upwelling regimes is equivalent to a net community production (NCP) of 1.3 ± 0.3 g C m2 d−1 off Peru and 1.6–2.1 ± 0.5 g C m2 d−1 off Mauritania.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
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    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Ocean Science, 10 (1). pp. 1-16.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Significant changes in the overturning circulation of the Mediterranean Sea has been observed during the last few decades, the most prominent phenomena being the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) in the early 1990s and the Western Mediterranean Transition (WMT) during the mid-2000s. During both of these events unusually large amounts of deep water were formed, and in the case of the EMT, the deep water formation area shifted from the Adriatic to the Aegean Sea. Here we synthesize a unique collection of transient tracer (CFC-12, SF6 and tritium) data from nine cruises conducted between 1987 and 2011 and use these data to determine temporal variability of Mediterranean ventilation. We also discuss biases and technical problems with transient tracer-based ages arising from their different input histories over time; particularly in the case of time-dependent ventilation. We observe a period of low ventilation in the deep eastern (Levantine) basin after it was ventilated by the EMT so that the age of the deep water is increasing with time. In the Ionian Sea, on the other hand, we see evidence of increased ventilation after year 2001, indicating the restarted deep water formation in the Adriatic Sea. This is also reflected in the increasing age of the Cretan Sea deep water and decreasing age of Adriatic Sea deep water since the end of the 1980s. In the western Mediterranean deep basin we see the massive input of recently ventilated waters during the WMT. This signal is not yet apparent in the Tyrrhenian Sea, where the ventilation seems to be fairly constant since the EMT. Also the western Alboran Sea does not show any temporal trends in ventilation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-10-10
    Description: Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean). The data have gone through rigorous quality control procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the three data products: merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions, i.e. the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. These products have been corrected to be internally consistent. Ninety-eight of the cruises in the CARINA database were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean, defined here as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30° S. Here we present an overview of the Atlantic Ocean synthesis of the CARINA data and the adjustments that were applied to the data product. We also report the details of the secondary QC (Quality Control) for salinity for this data set. Procedures of quality control – including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data – are briefly described. Adjustments to salinity measurements were applied to the data from 10 cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal consistency of the CARINA-ATL salinity data to be 4.1 ppm. With these adjustments the CARINA data products are consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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