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  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-9672
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Polar Ionospheric X-ray Imaging Experiment (PIXIE) is an X-ray multiple-pinhole camera designed to image simultaneously an entire auroral region from high altitudes. It will be mounted on the despun platform of the POLAR spacecraft and will measure the spatial distribution and temporal variation of auroral X-ray emissions in the 2 to 60 keV energy range on the day side of the Earth as well as the night. PIXIE consists of two pinhole cameras integrated into one assembly, each equipped with an adjustable aperture plate that allows an optimum number of nonoverlapping images to be formed in the detector plane at each phase of the satellite's eccentric orbit. The aperture plates also allow the pinhole size to be adjusted so that the experimenter can trade off spatial resolution against instrument sensitivity. In the principal mode of operation, one aperture plate will be positioned for high spatial resolution and the other for high sensitivity. The detectors consist of four stacked multiwire position-sensitive proportional counters, two in each of two separate gas chambers. The front chamber operates in the 2–12 keV energy range and the rear chamber in the 10–60 keV range. All of the energy and position information for each telemetered X-ray event is available on the ground. This enables the experimenter to adjust the exposure timepostfacto so that energy spectra of each X-ray emitting region can be independently accumulated. From these data PIXIE will provide, for the first time, global images of precipitated energetic electron spectra, energy inputs, ionospheric electron densities, and upper atmospheric conductivities.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The Siple riometer operates at 30 MHz and has a response time of 0.25 s to increases or decreases in signal intensity1. It utilises a zenith-directed dipole antenna with half-power at 30. The antenna pattern projected to 100km altitude covers a circular area of approximately 120 km diameter. The ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2006-01-12
    Description: As a working definition of the extent of the middle atmosphere (MA), the height range from 30 to 100 km was adopted. The neutral and ionic composition and the dynamics within this height range are, for the most part, poorly understood. From available information, the importance of various particle and photon energy sources, including their variability, for ionization of the neutral atmosphere in this height range is assessed. The following topics are discussed: (1) penetration of the MA by particle and electromagnetic energy; (2) ionization sources for the MA; (3) galactic cosmic rays; (4) solar H Ly alpha, other EUV, and X-rays; (5) magnetospheric electrons and bremsstrahlung X-rays; and (6) solar cosmic rays.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Middle Atmosphere Electrodyn.; p 43-70
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-06-27
    Description: The effect of trapped and precipitated particles in the magnetosphere on the measurement of galactic X-rays and gamma rays is discussed. To minimize contamination caused by electron precipitation, most galactic X-ray and gamma ray measurements are conducted at equatorial or relatively low to middle latitudes where the influence of auroral effects is expected to be small. Substorm-related VLF phase perturbations also affect the measurements. If such perturbation are indicative of electron precipitation at middle to low latitudes, then their relatively high frequency of occurrence, as many as 100 per year, is evidence that electron precipitation at these latitudes may pose a problem to some galactic X-ray and gamma ray measurements. Charts and maps are presented to show: (1) phase recordings from sixteen sub-ionospheric VLF propagation paths, (2) map of great circle propagation paths, (3) ionization rates in the nighttime ionosphere due to several sources, and (4) computer phase variation for the NLK-APL path versus electron flux for different e-folding energies.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Proc. of the Workshop on Electron Contamination in X-ray Astronomy Expt.; 14 p
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Magnetospheric substorms relationship to interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind plasma parameters, noting dominant effect of interplanetary southward component
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: ; 331-335. (
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: HF wave propagation experiments were conducted on Mother-Daughter rockets in the polar ionosphere. Swept frequency transmissions from the Mother, nominally covering the range from 0.5 to 5 MHz in both CW and pulse modes, are received by the Daughter. In the most recent rocket of the series, the Mother also contained an AC electric field spectrometer covering the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz in four decade bands. The low frequency response of the ionosphere with respect to waves emitted from the onboard HF transmitter is examined.
    Keywords: COMMUNICATIONS AND RADAR
    Type: AGARD Artificial Modification of Propagation Media; 11 p
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: The National Collaboratory concept has great potential for enabling 'critical mass' working groups and highly interdisciplinary research projects. We report here on a new program to build a prototype collaboratory using the Sondrestrom Upper Atmospheric Research Facility in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland and a group of associated scientists. The Upper Atmospheric Research Collaboratory (UARC) is a joint venture of researchers in upper atmospheric and space science, computer science, and behavioral science to develop a testbed for collaborative remote research. We define the 'collaboratory' as an advanced information technology environment which enables teams to work together over distance and time on a wide variety of intellectual tasks. It provides: (1) human-to-human communications using shared computer tools and work spaces; (2) group access and use of a network of information, data, and knowledge sources; and (3) remote access and control of instruments for data acquisition. The UARC testbed is being implemented to support a distributed community of space scientists so that they have network access to the remote instrument facility in Kangerlussuaq and are able to interact among geographically distributed locations. The goal is to enable them to use the UARC rather than physical travel to Greenland to conduct team research campaigns. Even on short notice through the collaboratory from their home institutions, participants will be able to meet together to operate a battery of remote interactive observations and to acquire, process, and interpret the data.
    Keywords: Documentation and Information Science
    Type: ; 105-112
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Search coil magnetometer, riometer, photometer, and ELF-VLF receiver data obtained at South Pole Station and McMurdo, Antarctica during selected days in March and April 1986 are compared. Narrow-band magnetic pulsations in the Pc 3 period range are observed simultaneously at both stations in the dayside sector during times of low IMF cone angle, but are considerably stronger at South Pole, which is located at a latitude near the nominal foot point of the dayside cusp/cleft region. Pulsations in auroral light at 427.8 nm wavelength are often observed with magnetic pulsations at South Pole, but such optical pulsations are not observed at McMurdo. The observations suggest that precipitating magnetosheathlike electrons at nominal dayside cleft latitudes are at times modulated with frequencies similar to those of upstream waves. These particles may play an important role, via modification of ionospheric currents and conductivities, in the transmission of upstream wave signals into the magnetosphere and in the generation of dayside high-latitude Pc 3 pulsations.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 2447-245
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Ground-based magnetometer, photometer, and riometer data are combined with low-altitude particle and electric and magnetic field data from the DE-2 spacecraft to provide a more complete characterization of the magnetospheric and tropospheric environment in which morning sector asymmetric Pi 1 pulsations are observed. The results of the study are in agreement with recent conclusions that morning sector asymmetric Pi 1 pulsations are physically related to pulsating aurorae. Precipitation of energetic electrons (E greater than 35 keV) coincides in every instance with the occurrence of these pulsations.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 91; 1535-154
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-08-16
    Description: We have developed a low-power. programmable radio "microreceiver" that combines the functionality of two science instruments: a Relative Ionospheric Opacity Meter (riometer) and a swept-frequency, VTF/HF radio spectrometer. The radio receiver, calibration noise source, data acquisition and processing, and command and control functions are all contained on a single circuit board. This design is suitable for miniaturizing as a complete flight instrument. Several of the subsystems were implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), including the receiver detector, the control logic, and the data acquisition and processing blocks. Considerable efforts were made to reduce the power consumption of the instrument, and eliminate or minimize RF noise and spurious emissions generated by the receiver's digital circuitry. A prototype instrument was deployed at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, and operated in parallel with a traditional riometer instrument for approximately three weeks. The attached paper (accepted for publication by Radio Science) describes in detail the microreceiver theory of operation, performance specifications and test results.
    Keywords: Communications and Radar
    Type: C96-01AR03
    Format: application/pdf
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