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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2011-03-30
    Description: The capability of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in the simulation of cirrus clouds has been examined, with a focus on the effects of radiative processes and vertical model resolution. We incorporate in WRF a new radiation module, referred to as the Fu-Liou-Gu scheme, which is an improvement and refinement based on the Fu-Liou scheme, particularly in reference to parameterization of the single-scattering properties of ice crystal size and shape. We conducted a number of real-time WRF simulations for cirrus cases that were observed in the coastal and western United States on 29–30 March 2007, and we compared these with available observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and GOES visible and IR images over the same areas. Simulation results show that WRF is capable of generating reasonable cirrus cloud fields and their movement and dissipation processes, especially those associated with the large-scale frontal system. Radiative processes are important in cirrus cloud simulations by affecting the vertical thermal structure and hence convection. The newly implemented radiation module, the Fu-Liou-Gu scheme, has been demonstrated to work well in WRF and can be effectively used for studies related to cirrus cloud formation and evolution and aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions. With the newly implemented radiation scheme, the simulations of cloud cover and cloud and ice water path (CWP and IWP) have been improved for cirrus clouds, with a more consistent comparison with the corresponding MODIS observations in terms of CWP and IWP means and CWP frequency distribution, especially for optically thin cirrus with an improvement of about 20% in simulated mean IWP. The model-simulated ice crystal sizes have also been shown to be comparable to those determined from MODIS cloud products. Finally, we have demonstrated that model vertical resolution plays a significant role in cirrus cloud simulation in terms of altering vertical velocity field and the associated regional circulation.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2015-11-04
    Description: Silicon, with its great abundance and mature infrastructure, is a foundational material for a range of applications, such as electronics, sensors, solar cells, batteries, and thermoelectrics. These applications rely on the purification of Si to different levels. Recently, it has been shown that nanosized silicon can offer additional advantages, such...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2014-09-17
    Description: Efficacy trials of adenovirus 5-vectored candidate HIV vaccines [recombinant Ad5 (rAd5)-HIV] were halted for futility due to lack of vaccine efficacy and unexpected excess HIV infections in the vaccine recipients. The potential immunologic basis for these observations is unclear. We comparatively evaluated the HIV susceptibility and phenotypes of human CD4...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2014-06-27
    Description: InPBi was predicted to be the most robust infrared optoelectronic material but also the most difficult to synthesize within In-VBi (V = P, As and Sb) 25 years ago. We report the first successful growth of InPBi single crystals with Bi concentration far beyond the doping level by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. The InPBi thin films reveal excellent surface, structural and optical qualities making it a promising new III–V compound family member for heterostructures. The Bi concentration is found to be 2.4 ± 0.4% with 94 ± 5% Bi atoms at substitutional sites. Optical absorption indicates a band gap of 1.23 eV at room temperature while photoluminescence shows unexpectedly strong and broad light emission at 1.4–2.7 μm which can't be explained by the existing theory. Scientific Reports 4 doi: 10.1038/srep05449
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2011-11-19
    Description: The utility of ferroelectric materials stems from the ability to nucleate and move polarized domains using an electric field. To understand the mechanisms of polarization switching, structural characterization at the nanoscale is required. We used aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy to follow the kinetics and dynamics of ferroelectric switching at millisecond temporal and subangstrom spatial resolution in an epitaxial bilayer of an antiferromagnetic ferroelectric (BiFeO(3)) on a ferromagnetic electrode (La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO(3)). We observed localized nucleation events at the electrode interface, domain wall pinning on point defects, and the formation of ferroelectric domains localized to the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic interface. These results show how defects and interfaces impede full ferroelectric switching of a thin film.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nelson, Christopher T -- Gao, Peng -- Jokisaari, Jacob R -- Heikes, Colin -- Adamo, Carolina -- Melville, Alexander -- Baek, Seung-Hyub -- Folkman, Chad M -- Winchester, Benjamin -- Gu, Yijia -- Liu, Yuanming -- Zhang, Kui -- Wang, Enge -- Li, Jiangyu -- Chen, Long-Qing -- Eom, Chang-Beom -- Schlom, Darrell G -- Pan, Xiaoqing -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Nov 18;334(6058):968-71. doi: 10.1126/science.1206980.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22096196" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2003-10-18
    Description: The Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) Rac1 and Rac2 are critical signaling regulators in mammalian cells. The deletion of both Rac1 and Rac2 murine alleles leads to a massive egress of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC/Ps) into the blood from the marrow, whereas Rac1-/- but not Rac2-/- HSC/Ps fail to engraft in the bone marrow of irradiated recipient mice. In contrast, Rac2, but not Rac1, regulates superoxide production and directed migration in neutrophils, and in each cell type, the two GTPases play distinct roles in actin organization, cell survival, and proliferation. Thus, Rac1 and Rac2 regulate unique aspects of hematopoietic development and function.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gu, Yi -- Filippi, Marie-Dominique -- Cancelas, Jose A -- Siefring, Jamie E -- Williams, Emily P -- Jasti, Aparna C -- Harris, Chad E -- Lee, Andrew W -- Prabhakar, Rethinasamy -- Atkinson, Simon J -- Kwiatkowski, David J -- Williams, David A -- DK62757/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2003 Oct 17;302(5644):445-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Experimental Hematology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14564009" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Actins/metabolism ; Animals ; Apoptosis ; Bone Marrow Transplantation ; Cell Adhesion ; Cell Cycle ; Cell Movement ; Cell Size ; Colony-Forming Units Assay ; Cyclin D1/metabolism ; Fibronectins/metabolism ; Hematopoiesis ; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization ; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*physiology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred NOD ; Mice, SCID ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism ; Neutrophils/*physiology ; *Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt ; Recombination, Genetic ; Signal Transduction ; Stem Cell Factor/pharmacology ; Superoxides/metabolism ; rac GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; rac1 GTP-Binding Protein/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2006-07-11
    Description: We investigated extraneural manifestations in scrapie-infected transgenic mice expressing prion protein lacking the glycophosphatydylinositol membrane anchor. In the brain, blood, and heart, both abnormal protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) and prion infectivity were readily detected by immunoblot and by inoculation into nontransgenic recipients. The titer of infectious scrapie in blood plasma exceeded 10(7) 50% infectious doses per milliliter. The hearts of these transgenic mice contained PrPres-positive amyloid deposits that led to myocardial stiffness and cardiac disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1820586/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1820586/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Trifilo, Matthew J -- Yajima, Toshitaka -- Gu, Yusu -- Dalton, Nancy -- Peterson, Kirk L -- Race, Richard E -- Meade-White, Kimberly -- Portis, John L -- Masliah, Eliezer -- Knowlton, Kirk U -- Chesebro, Bruce -- Oldstone, Michael B A -- 5R01HL66424-04/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- AGO4342/PHS HHS/ -- NS041219-05/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG004342/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2006 Jul 7;313(5783):94-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Viral-Immunobiology Laboratory, Departments of Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences and Infectology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16825571" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amyloid/*analysis ; Amyloidosis/blood/etiology/*pathology/physiopathology ; Animals ; Blotting, Western ; Cardiac Catheterization ; Coronary Vessels/chemistry/pathology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Glycosylphosphatidylinositols ; Heart Diseases/blood/etiology/*pathology/physiopathology ; Heart Function Tests ; Immunohistochemistry ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Transgenic ; Microcirculation/chemistry/pathology ; Myocardial Contraction ; Myocardium/*chemistry/*pathology ; PrPC Proteins/chemistry ; PrPSc Proteins/*analysis/blood ; Scrapie/blood/*pathology/physiopathology ; Staining and Labeling ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2015-11-21
    Description: Despite appearing featureless to our eyes, the open ocean is a highly variable environment for polarization-sensitive viewers. Dynamic visual backgrounds coupled with predator encounters from all possible directions make this habitat one of the most challenging for camouflage. We tested open-ocean crypsis in nature by collecting more than 1500 videopolarimetry measurements from live fish from distinct habitats under a variety of viewing conditions. Open-ocean fish species exhibited camouflage that was superior to that of both nearshore fish and mirrorlike surfaces, with significantly higher crypsis at angles associated with predator detection and pursuit. Histological measurements revealed that specific arrangements of reflective guanine platelets in the fish's skin produce angle-dependent polarization modifications for polarocrypsis in the open ocean, suggesting a mechanism for natural selection to shape reflectance properties in this complex environment.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brady, Parrish C -- Gilerson, Alexander A -- Kattawar, George W -- Sullivan, James M -- Twardowski, Michael S -- Dierssen, Heidi M -- Gao, Meng -- Travis, Kort -- Etheredge, Robert Ian -- Tonizzo, Alberto -- Ibrahim, Amir -- Carrizo, Carlos -- Gu, Yalong -- Russell, Brandon J -- Mislinski, Kathryn -- Zhao, Shulei -- Cummings, Molly E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 20;350(6263):965-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5284. Epub 2015 Nov 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA. ; Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory, the City College of New York-CUNY, New York, NY 10031, USA. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy and Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242, USA. ; Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, Florida Atlantic University, Ft. Pierce, FL 34946, USA. ; Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut Avery Point, 1080 Shennecossett Road, Groton, CT 06340-6048, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586762" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Mimicry ; Blood Platelets/cytology ; Ecosystem ; Fishes/*physiology ; Oceans and Seas ; Predatory Behavior ; *Selection, Genetic ; Skin/anatomy & histology/blood supply ; Vision, Ocular
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2015-09-19
    Description: The enhancement of the functional properties of materials at reduced dimensions is crucial for continuous advancements in nanoelectronic applications. Here, we report that the scale reduction leads to the emergence of an important functional property, ferroelectricity, challenging the long-standing notion that ferroelectricity is inevitably suppressed at the scale of a few nanometers. A combination of theoretical calculations, electrical measurements, and structural analyses provides evidence of room-temperature ferroelectricity in strain-free epitaxial nanometer-thick films of otherwise nonferroelectric strontium titanate (SrTiO3). We show that electrically induced alignment of naturally existing polar nanoregions is responsible for the appearance of a stable net ferroelectric polarization in these films. This finding can be useful for the development of low-dimensional material systems with enhanced functional properties relevant to emerging nanoelectronic devices.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, D -- Lu, H -- Gu, Y -- Choi, S-Y -- Li, S-D -- Ryu, S -- Paudel, T R -- Song, K -- Mikheev, E -- Lee, S -- Stemmer, S -- Tenne, D A -- Oh, S H -- Tsymbal, E Y -- Wu, X -- Chen, L-Q -- Gruverman, A -- Eom, C B -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Sep 18;349(6254):1314-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa6442.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588, USA. ; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA. ; Department of Materials Modeling and Characterization, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831, Korea. ; Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA. ; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784, Korea. ; Materials Department, University of California-Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5050, USA. ; Department of Physics, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725-1570, USA. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588, USA. agruverman2@unl.edu eom@engr.wisc.edu. ; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. agruverman2@unl.edu eom@engr.wisc.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26383947" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2014-06-03
    Description: A stochastic approach has been developed to model the positions of BC/dust internally mixed with two snow-grain types: hexagonal plate/column (convex) and Koch snowflake (concave). Subsequently, light absorption and scattering analysis can be followed by means of an improved geometric-optics approach coupled with Monte Carlo photon tracing to determine BC/dust single-scattering properties. For a given shape (plate, Koch snowflake, spheroid, or sphere), the action of internal mixing absorbs substantially more light than external mixing. The snow-grain shape effect on absorption is relatively small, but its effect on asymmetry factor is substantial. Due to a greater probability of intercepting photons, multiple inclusions of BC/dust exhibit a larger absorption than an equal-volume single inclusion. The spectral absorption (0.2 – 5  μ m) for snow grains internally mixed with BC/dust is confined to wavelengths shorter than about 1.4  μ m, beyond which ice absorption predominates. Based on the single-scattering properties determined from stochastic and light absorption parameterizations and using the adding/doubling method for spectral radiative transfer, we find that internal mixing reduces snow albedo substantially more than external mixing and that the snow-grain shape plays a critical role in snow albedo calculations through its forward scattering strength. Also, multiple inclusion of BC/dust significantly reduces snow albedo as compared to an equal-volume single sphere. For application to land/snow models, we propose a two-layer spectral snow parameterization involving contaminated fresh snow on top of old snow for investigating and understanding the climatic impact of multiple BC/dust internal mixing associated with snow grain metamorphism, particularly over mountain/snow topography.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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