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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2014-08-15
    Description: Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels of the Cys-loop receptor family mediate fast neurotransmission throughout the nervous system. The molecular processes of neurotransmitter binding, subsequent opening of the ion channel and ion permeation remain poorly understood. Here we present the X-ray structure of a mammalian Cys-loop receptor, the mouse serotonin 5-HT3 receptor, at 3.5 A resolution. The structure of the proteolysed receptor, made up of two fragments and comprising part of the intracellular domain, was determined in complex with stabilizing nanobodies. The extracellular domain reveals the detailed anatomy of the neurotransmitter binding site capped by a nanobody. The membrane domain delimits an aqueous pore with a 4.6 A constriction. In the intracellular domain, a bundle of five intracellular helices creates a closed vestibule where lateral portals are obstructed by loops. This 5-HT3 receptor structure, revealing part of the intracellular domain, expands the structural basis for understanding the operating mechanism of mammalian Cys-loop receptors.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hassaine, Gherici -- Deluz, Cedric -- Grasso, Luigino -- Wyss, Romain -- Tol, Menno B -- Hovius, Ruud -- Graff, Alexandra -- Stahlberg, Henning -- Tomizaki, Takashi -- Desmyter, Aline -- Moreau, Christophe -- Li, Xiao-Dan -- Poitevin, Frederic -- Vogel, Horst -- Nury, Hugues -- England -- Nature. 2014 Aug 21;512(7514):276-81. doi: 10.1038/nature13552. Epub 2014 Aug 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Polymers and Membranes, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland [2] [3] Theranyx, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille, France. ; 1] Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Polymers and Membranes, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland [2]. ; Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Polymers and Membranes, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. ; Center for Cellular Imaging and NanoAnalytics, Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland. ; Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5234 Villigen, Switzerland. ; Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, CNRS UMR 7257 and Universite Aix-Marseille, F-13288 Marseille, France. ; 1] Universite Grenoble Alpes, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France [2] CNRS, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France [3] CEA, DSV, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France. ; Laboratory of Biomolecular Research, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland. ; Unite de Dynamique Structurale des Macromolecules, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR3528, F-75015 Paris, France. ; 1] Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Polymers and Membranes, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland [2] Universite Grenoble Alpes, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France [3] CNRS, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France [4] CEA, DSV, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25119048" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Subunits/chemistry/metabolism ; Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3/*chemistry/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1996-11-08
    Description: A recently assembled data set of inner core-sensitive free oscillation splitting measurements and body wave differential travel times provides constraints on the patterns of anisotropy in the Earth's inner core. Applying a formalism that allows departures from radial symmetry and cylindrical anisotropy results in models with P-wave velocity distributions whose strength and pattern are incompatible with frozen-in anisotropy, but rather suggest a simple large-scale convection regime in the inner core.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Romanowicz -- Li -- Durek -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1996 Nov 8;274(5289):963-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉B. Romanowicz, Seismographic Station and Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. X.-D. Li and J. Durek, Seismographic Station, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8875934" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2009-03-28
    Description: The spread of HIV between immune cells is greatly enhanced by cell-cell adhesions called virological synapses, although the underlying mechanisms have been unclear. With use of an infectious, fluorescent clone of HIV, we tracked the movement of Gag in live CD4 T cells and captured the direct translocation of HIV across the virological synapse. Quantitative, high-speed three-dimensional (3D) video microscopy revealed the rapid formation of micrometer-sized "buttons" containing oligomerized viral Gag protein. Electron microscopy showed that these buttons were packed with budding viral crescents. Viral transfer events were observed to form virus-laden internal compartments within target cells. Continuous time-lapse monitoring showed preferential infection through synapses. Thus, HIV dissemination may be enhanced by virological synapse-mediated cell adhesion coupled to viral endocytosis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2756521/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2756521/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hubner, Wolfgang -- McNerney, Gregory P -- Chen, Ping -- Dale, Benjamin M -- Gordon, Ronald E -- Chuang, Frank Y S -- Li, Xiao-Dong -- Asmuth, David M -- Huser, Thomas -- Chen, Benjamin K -- 5R24 CA095823-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- AI074420-02/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- DP1 DA028866/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI074420/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI074420-01A2/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI074420-02/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- S10RR09145-01/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- ULRR024146/PHS HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Mar 27;323(5922):1743-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1167525.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Immunology Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19325119" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*physiology/ultrastructure/*virology ; *Cell Adhesion ; Coculture Techniques ; Cytochalasin D/pharmacology ; Endocytosis ; HIV/*physiology/ultrastructure ; Humans ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional ; Jurkat Cells ; Microscopy, Confocal ; Microscopy, Electron, Transmission ; Microscopy, Video ; Receptors, CCR5/metabolism ; Receptors, CXCR4/metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; *Virus Internalization ; gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2014-12-20
    Description: Multivalent molecules with repetitive structures including bacterial capsular polysaccharides and viral capsids elicit antibody responses through B cell receptor (BCR) crosslinking in the absence of T cell help. We report that immunization with these T cell-independent type 2 (TI-2) antigens causes up-regulation of endogenous retrovirus (ERV) RNAs in antigen-specific mouse B cells. These RNAs are detected via a mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)-dependent RNA sensing pathway or reverse-transcribed and detected via the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway, triggering a second, sustained wave of signaling that promotes specific immunoglobulin M production. Deficiency of both MAVS and cGAS, or treatment of MAVS-deficient mice with reverse transcriptase inhibitors, dramatically inhibits TI-2 antibody responses. These findings suggest that ERV and two innate sensing pathways that detect them are integral components of the TI-2 B cell signaling apparatus.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4391621/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4391621/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zeng, Ming -- Hu, Zeping -- Shi, Xiaolei -- Li, Xiaohong -- Zhan, Xiaoming -- Li, Xiao-Dong -- Wang, Jianhui -- Choi, Jin Huk -- Wang, Kuan-wen -- Purrington, Tiana -- Tang, Miao -- Fina, Maggy -- DeBerardinis, Ralph J -- Moresco, Eva Marie Y -- Pedersen, Gabriel -- McInerney, Gerald M -- Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B -- Chen, Zhijian J -- Beutler, Bruce -- P01 AI070167/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI093967/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA157996/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI100627/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Dec 19;346(6216):1486-92. doi: 10.1126/science.346.6216.1486.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for the Genetics of Host Defense, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-8502, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics and Children's Medical Center Research Institute, and McDermott Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-8502, USA. ; Center for the Genetics of Host Defense, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-8502, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-9148, USA. ; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Nobels vag 16, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Center for the Genetics of Host Defense, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-8502, USA. Bruce.Beutler@UTSouthwestern.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25525240" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics/*immunology ; Animals ; Antibody Formation ; Antigens, T-Independent/*immunology ; B-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Cytosol/immunology ; DNA/immunology ; Endogenous Retroviruses/genetics/*immunology ; Lymphocyte Activation ; Membrane Proteins/immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; NF-kappa B/metabolism ; Nucleotides, Cyclic/immunology ; Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics/*immunology ; RNA, Viral/genetics/*immunology ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2015-11-10
    Description: The Handan-Xingtai district in the North China craton is one of the most important concentrations of iron skarn deposits in China, with proven reserves of 900 to 1,000 Mt at an average of 40 to 55 wt % Fe. The iron mineralization occurs predominantly along contact zones between Early Cretaceous intermediate-silicic intrusions and Middle Ordovician marine carbonates intercalated with numerous evaporite beds. In this paper, we present textural features and laser ablation ICP-MS U-Pb dating results of hydrothermal zircon from five major iron skarn deposits to place tight constraints on the timing and duration of the district-scale iron mineralization. Zircon grains from the mineralized skarns are anhedral to subhedral crystals and euhedral tetragonal bipyramids. They are closely intergrown or texturally associated with diopside, garnet, epidote, calcite, albite, and phlogopite. Other common minerals in the skarn assemblages include F-rich hornblende, wilkeite-F, F-apatite, and fluorite. Zircon grains typically contain abundant inclusions of skarn minerals and daughter mineral-rich (mostly magnetite, halite, and sylvite) fluid inclusions. Compositionally, these zircon grains have moderately to extremely high Th (518–7,477 ppm) and U (109–25,610 ppm) contents, with highly variable Th/U ratios ranging from 0.01 to 5.23. The morphological, textural, and geochemical features of the zircons confirm their hydrothermal origin and indicate that they most likely precipitated from high-temperature, F-rich, magmatic-derived ore-forming fluids. The hydrothermal zircon grains yield well-defined concordant U-Pb ages for the five studied iron skarn deposits, with weighted mean 206 Pb/ 238 U dates ranging from 133.6 ± 0.9 to 128.5 ± 1.4 Ma (2 ). These ages are remarkably consistent with U-Pb ages (134.1 ± 1.2 to 128.5 ± 0.9 Ma; 2 ) of magmatic zircon grains from the ore-related intrusions in each deposit, demonstrating that iron skarn mineralization was genetically related to the coeval magmatism. Our new geochronological data, when combined with existing isotopic ages, indicate that iron mineralization and associated magmatism in the Handan-Xingtai district took place mainly at the ca. 137–133 and 131–128 Ma intervals. Iron skarn deposits of similar ages also occur widely in other parts of the eastern North China craton, forming the only known giant Mesozoic iron skarn province in a cratonic block on the Earth. The formation of these iron skarn deposits and associated intrusions coincided in time with lithospheric thinning or destruction of the North China craton, strongly suggesting a causal link between the two processes.
    Print ISSN: 0361-0128
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2015-11-26
    Description: Author(s): J.-Y. Yang, C. Terakura, M. Medarde, J. S. White, D. Sheptyakov, X.-Z. Yan, N.-N. Li, W.-G. Yang, H.-L. Xia, J.-H. Dai, Y.-Y. Yin, Y.-Y. Jiao, J.-G. Cheng, Y.-L. Bu, Q.-F. Zhang, X.-D. Li, C.-Q. Jin, Y. Taguchi, Y. Tokura, and Y.-W. Long A series of high-pressure measurements including resistivity, ac and dc magnetic susceptibility, neutron powder diffraction, and synchrotron x-ray diffraction were performed to investigate the crystal structure and electronic states of the itinerant ferromagnet SrCo O 3 . Two pressure-induced phase tra… [Phys. Rev. B 92, 195147] Published Tue Nov 24, 2015
    Keywords: Electronic structure and strongly correlated systems
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Invasion of microbial DNA into the cytoplasm of animal cells triggers a cascade of host immune reactions that help clear the infection; however, self DNA in the cytoplasm can cause autoimmune diseases. Biochemical approaches led to the identification of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) as a cytosolic DNA sensor that triggers innate immune responses. Here, we show that cells from cGAS-deficient (cGas(-/-)) mice, including fibroblasts, macrophages, and dendritic cells, failed to produce type I interferons and other cytokines in response to DNA transfection or DNA virus infection. cGas(-/-) mice were more susceptible to lethal infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) than wild-type mice. We also show that cGAMP is an adjuvant that boosts antigen-specific T cell activation and antibody production in mice.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3863637/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3863637/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Xiao-Dong -- Wu, Jiaxi -- Gao, Daxing -- Wang, Hua -- Sun, Lijun -- Chen, Zhijian J -- 5T32AI070116/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI-093967/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI093967/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Sep 20;341(6152):1390-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1244040. Epub 2013 Aug 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9148, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23989956" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis ; DNA, Viral/genetics/immunology ; Dendritic Cells/immunology ; Fibroblasts/immunology ; Herpes Simplex/*immunology ; *Herpesvirus 1, Human ; Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics ; Interferon-beta/*biosynthesis/genetics ; Lymphocyte Activation ; Macrophages/immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics/*immunology ; Signal Transduction ; T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Transfection
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1432-0495
    Keywords: Keywords China ; Geochemistry ; River ; Sediment ; Trace metals
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  A total of 26 geographically and hydrologically diverse sediment samples were collected from 12 major rivers in eastern China. The 〈63-μm fraction of the sediments was analysed for both total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, and their associations with various geochemical phases. The geographical variations of sediment-bound trace metals can be related to the bedrock types and weathering processes in the corresponding river basins. The rivers in southern China had notably higher concentrations of trace metals in sediments because of abundant non-ferrous mineral deposits and stronger weathering process in the region. A large proportion of trace metals in these sediments was associated with iron and manganese oxides and organic matter. Relative low levels of trace metals were found in river sediments in northern China, and a significant proportion of the metals was bound to organic matter, carbonates, and the residual fraction. The sediments in the Yellow River, originating from special loess, had the lowest concentrations of trace metals. Most of the trace metals were associated with the carbonates and residual phases.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0021-9673
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Splitting functions retrieved from spectra of the free oscillations are sensitive to the lateral variations in P velocity (α), S velocity (β), and density (ρ) simultaneously. In this study they are used to constrain the values of the ratios d ln α/d ln β and d ln ρ/d ln α for the lower mantle. Assuming that the upper mantle structure is obtainable from model M84A (this is not a crucial assumption as experiments indicate), the optimal value of d ln α/d ln β inferred from the modal data is 0.44 and d ln α/d ln β lies in the interval (0.39, 0.60) with 75 per cent confidence, strongly discriminating against the value (0.8) often used. The constraints on density structure of the current data are insufficient to yield new definitive results. The analysis demonstrates, however, that the value of d ln ρ/d ln α could be estimated from a larger set of modal data.
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