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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Tests were conducted at 350 K (170 F) with three groups of 8.9 cm (3.5 in.) pitch diameter spur gears made of vacuum induction melted (VIM) consumable-electrode vacuum-arc melted (VAR), AISI M-50 steel and one group of vacuum-arc remelted (VAR) AISI 9310 steel. The pitting fatigue life of the standard forged and ausforged gears was approximately five times that of the VAR AISI 9310 gears and ten times that of the bending fatigue life of the standard machined VIM-VAR AISI M-50 gears run under identical conditions. There was a slight decrease in the 10-percent life of the ausforged gears from that for the standard forged gears, but the difference is not statistically significant. The standard machined gears failed primarily by gear tooth fracture while the forged and ausforged VIM-VAR AISI M-50 and the VAR AISI 9310 gears failed primarily by surface pitting fatigue. The ausforged gears had a slightly greater tendency to fail by tooth fracture than the standard forged gears.
    Keywords: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: E-8258 , NASA-TM-X-71748
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Tests were conducted with two groups of 8.89-centimeter (3.5-in.) pitch diameter spur gears with standard 20 deg involute profile with tip relief made of CVM Super-Nitralloy (5Ni-2Al) and CVM AISI M-50 at a temperature of 350 K (170 F). Super-Nitralloy gears with tip relief had a life 150 percent that of gears without tip relief. An increased scoring phenomenon was noted with the Super-Nitralloy gears with tip relief. Through-hardened AISI M-50 gears with tip relief failed due to tooth fracture. AISI M-50 gears without tip relief had a life approximately 40 times greater than the AISI M-50 gears with tip relief.
    Keywords: MACHINE ELEMENTS AND PROCESSES
    Type: NASA-TN-D-7535
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The NASA spinning torque apparatus was modified to measure the spinning torque on a cageless ball thrust bearing. Friction torque was measured for thrust loads varying from 44.5 to 403 newtons (10 to 90 lb) at speeds of 1000, 2000, and 3000 rpm. Tests were conducted with di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate and a synthetic paraffinic oil. These tests were run with either oil jet lubrication or with a thin surface film of lubricant only. An analytical model which included rolling resistance was developed and extended from previous models for spinning torque and lubricant rheology. The model was extended by the inclusion of rolling resistance. The computed values were in fair agreement with the experimental results and confirmed previous hypotheses that a thin lubricant film gives minimum bearing torque and an oil jet flow of a viscous lubricant will result in considerable rolling torque in addition to the torque due to ball spin.
    Keywords: MACHINE ELEMENTS AND PROCESSES
    Type: E-7284 , NASA-TN-D-7356
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The elastohydrodynamic theory for predicting the spinning friction of a ball in a nonconforming groove was modified to incorporate a rheological model. The rheological model is based on the exponential pressure viscosity relation for low shear stresses, but at high shear rates and pressures, the relation is altered to one in which the shear stress is porportional to the normal stress. The model was fitted to experimental spinning torques for four different lubricants: a synthetic paraffinic lubricant, di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate, a super-refined naphthenic mineral oil, and a polyphenyl ether (5P4E). Good agreement between the model and experiment was found.
    Keywords: MACHINE ELEMENTS AND PROCESSES
    Type: NASA-TN-D-7280 , E-7256
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Elastohydrodynamic analysis and experimental speed effects on ball spinning friction coefficients and torque
    Keywords: MACHINE ELEMENTS AND PROCESSES
    Type: NASA-TN-D-5527
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Endurance tests were conducted with four groups of spur gears manufactured from three heats of consumable electrode vacuum melted (CVM) modified Vasco X-2. Endurance tests were also conducted with gears manufactured from CVM AISI 9310. Bench type rolling element fatigue tests were conducted with both materials. Hardness measurements were made to 811 K. There was no statistically significant life difference between the two materials. Life differences between the different heats of modified Vasco X-2 can be attributed to heat treat variation and resultant hardness. Carburization of gear flanks only can eliminate tooth fracture as a primary failure mode for modified Vasco X-2. However, a tooth surface fatigue spall can act as a nucleus of a tooth fracture failure for the modified Vasco X-2.
    Keywords: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: NASA-TP-1731 , E-070
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The OH-58 main transmission gearbox was run at varying output torques, speeds, and oil cooling rates. The gearbox was subsequently run to destruction by draining the oil from the gearbox while operating at a speed of 6200 revs per minute and 36,000 inch-pounds output torque. Primary cause of gearbox failure was overheating and melting of the planet bearing aluminum cages. Complete failure of the gearbox occurred in 28 1/2 minutes after the oil pressure dropped to zero. The alternating and maximum stresses in the gearbox top case were approximately 10 percent of the endurance limit for the material. Deflection of the bevel gear at 67000 inch-pounds output torque indicate a marginal stiffness for the bevel gear supporting system.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: E-8633 , NASA-TM-X-71867
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Spur-gear surface fatigue tests were conducted with five lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The lot of gears was divided into five groups, each of which was tested with a different lubricant. The test lubricants are classified as either a synthetic hydrocarbon, mineral oil, or ester-based lubricant. All five lubricants have imilar viscosity and pressure-viscosity coefficients. A pentaerythritol base stock without sufficient antiwear additives produced a surface fatigue life pproximately 22 percent that of the same base stock with chlorine and phosphorus type additives. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears tested. No statistical difference in the 10-percent surface fatigue life was produced with four of the five lubricants.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA-TP-2419 , E-2183 , NAS 1.60:2419
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Surface fatigue tests were conducted on two groups of AISI 9310 spur gears. Both groups were manufactured with standard ground tooth surfaces, with the second group subjected to an additional shot peening process on the gear tooth flanks. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm (3.5 in.). Test conditions were a gear temperature of 350 K (170 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 billion N/sq m (248,000 psi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The shot peened gears exhibited pitting fatigue lives 1.6 times the life of standard gears without shot peening. Residual stress measurements and analysis indicate that the longer fatigue life is the result of the higher compressive stress produced by the shot peening. The life for the shot peened gear was calculated to be 1.5 times that for the plain gear by using the measured residual stress difference for the standard and shot peened gears. The measured residual stress for the shot peened gears was much higher than that for the standard gears.
    Keywords: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: NASA-TP-2047 , E-936 , NAS 1.60:2047
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The design of a gear mesh is treated with the objective of minimizing the gear size for a given gear ratio, pinion torque, pressure angle, and allowable tooth lengths. Tooth strengths considered include scoring, pitting fatigue, and bending fatigue. Kinematic involute interference is avoided. The design variation on standard spur gear teeth called the long and short addendum system, is considered. In this system the mesh center distance and pressure angle are maintained as is the ability to manufacture the teeth with standard tooling. However, the pinion and gear tooth proportions are altered in order to obtain fewer teeth numbers for the same ratio as standard gears without kinematic involute interference. The effect of this nonstandard gearing geometry with on tooth strengths and gear mesh size are studied. For a 2:1 gearing ratio, the optimal nonstandard gear design is compared with the optimal standard gear design.
    Keywords: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: AVRADCOM-TR-82-C-7 , NAS 1.15:82866 , E-1235 , NASA-TM-82866
    Format: application/pdf
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