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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: KEY WORDS: Legal limit values; Benefit threshold; Social acceptance; Social tolerability; Adverse effect threshold; Avoidable exposure; Tolerance threshold; Environmental hygiene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Water-soluble protein (WSP) ; Barley ; β Amylase ; Linkage ; Spring/winter habit
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Water-soluble proteins (WSP-2 and WSP-3) and β-amylase (β-AMY-1) were extracted from mature endosperms of 44 spring and 39 winter barley genotypes. The protein and enzyme isoforms were separated in isoelectric focusing gels with a pH gradient of 4–6.5. The Wsp-3 and β-Amy-1 loci were located to chromosomes 4H using the wheat/barley chromosome addition lines. Segregation analysis of F2 and doubled haploid populations showed Wsp-2 and β-Amy-1 to be tightly linked, with a map distance of 11 cMorgans. Isoforms of WSP-2 possessed similar pIs to that of WSP-3 and overlapping bands were observed in the gels. These bands segregated independently in F2 and doubled haploid populations, implying two unlinked genes. All three loci were found to be polymorphic: two alleles were detected at the Wsp-2 locus, three at Wsp-3 and two at β-Amy-1. The frequency of alleles at all three loci was found to be different in winter and spring genotypes. Spring genotypes possessed a wider range of phenotypes than winter genotypes. Spring and winter genotypes could be distinguished on the basis of WSP-3 and β- AMY-1 phenotypes. The linkage between Wsp-3 and β-Amy-1 loci and genes controlling spring/winter habit on chromosome 4H is discussed. It is concluded that Wsp-3 and β-Amy-1 can be used as genetic markers for spring/winter habit in barley genetic research and breeding.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Doubled haploids ; Microspore ; Isozymes ; RFLPs ; Barley
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Biochemical, molecular and morphological markers have been used to monitor the segregation of alleles at major gene loci in microspore-derived lines of four spring barley crosses and their parents. Significant deviations from the expected Mendelian ratios were observed for four of the ten markers studied in the cross. Distorted ratios were associated with loci located on chromosomes 4H and 6H. The differential transmission of alleles was in favour of the responsive parent (Blenheim) used in the anther culture studies. For the α-Amy-1 locus on chromosome 6H, the preferential transmission of Blenheim alleles was most pronounced in the haploid regenerants that were colchicine treated. These results are discussed in relation to the genetic control of androgenetic response in barley and with respect to the exploitation of another culture in barley improvement.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary 3′-Aminoglycoside phosphotransferase [APH(3′)] enzymes are a group responsible for resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin (Km) and neomycin (Nm) in bacteria. Escherichia coli ECT24, originally isolated from a meat sample, harboured an 83-kb conjugative R-plasmid (pRPJ24) that carries transferable resistance to Km and Nm. Plasmid pRPJ24 was transferred by conjugation to Enterobacter cloacae 94R, which was used as the source of plasmid DNA in development of a probe for the Km-resistance determinant. Random cloning of BamHI and HindIII double-digest restriction fragments of pRPJ24 in the pUC18 vector plasmid produced clones resistant to both Nm and Km carrying a 1.9-kb DNA insert. Southern hybridization of pRPJ24 cloned chimeric plasmid DNA (pKPJ94) showed homology with the APH(3′)II gene from transposon Tn5. A PstI digest of pKPJ94 produced a 920-bp fragment which hybridized with the APH(3′)II structural gene, and was used as a DNA probe for the APH(3′)II subclass gene. A 980-bp BamHI fragment from plasmid pGH54 carrying the APH(3′)I gene from transposon Tn903 was used as a subclass I probe. Total DNA from 206 randomly screened Km-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates from raw ground beef and chicken meat samples were examined for the occurrence of APH(3′) subclass I and II using non-radioactively-labelled DNA probes. Thirty-six percent and 60% of the isolates examined carried subclass I and II resistances, respectively, in the isolates from chicken meat samples. The corresponding values for bacterial strains from raw ground beef samples were 51% and 72%, respectively. Four percent of the resistant bacterial isolates from chicken samples did not display homology to either probe. This value was 28% for bacterial isolates from ground beef. Three percent of bacterial isolates from chicken samples and 44% from ground beef samples displayed homology to both APH(3′) I and II DNA probes.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1359-5997
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
    Description / Table of Contents: Resume L’utilisation de la protection cathodique pour neutraliser la corrosion de l’acier dans le béton provoquée par le chlorure entraîne la formation d’ions hydroxyles à la surface du métal enrobé. Les essais préliminaires décrits dans cette note avaient pour but d’évaluer un éventuel effet secondaire de ce processus dans les cas où le béton contient un granulat réactif. Pour les échantillons de béton contenant un granulat de silex calciné, on a montré que l’expansion locale nocive du matériau était provoquée par la réaction silicoalcaline qui se produit dans le voisinage de l’acier enrobé quand celui-ci est soumis à une polarisation potentiostatique pendant une durée de plusieurs mois à −850 mV (échelle SCE). Des études se poursuivent dans le but d’obtenir une connaissance plus approfondie de ce phénomène et contribuer à l’évaluation de ses conséquences pratiques.
    Notes: Abstract The use of cathodic protection as a method of countering chloride-induced corrosion of steel in concrete causes the formation of hydroxyl ions at the surface of the embedded metal. The preliminary experiments described in this note were aimed at evaluating a possible side-effect of this process under circumstances where the concrete contains a potentially reactive aggregate. For concrete specimens containing calcined flint aggregate, it was shown that deleterious local expansion of the material was generated owing to alkali-silica reaction induced in the vicinity of embedded steel when the latter was subjected to potentiostatic polarization for a period of several months at −850 mV (SCE scale). Continuing investigations are aimed at providing further insight into this phenomenon to aid the assessment of its practical implications.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 78.60 ; 79.40 ; 81
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Measurement of the photoyield of flexurally fatigued aluminum is reported as a function of photon energy for two different initial microstructures of the material. It was found that for photon energies less than about 9 eV fatigue enhances the photoemission. It was also observed that this “photo-stimulated exoelectron emission” is quite sensitive to the initial microstructure. The enhancement occurs much more rapidly with fatigue for well-annealed Al than for work hardened specimens. The results appear to be consistent with a model, to be presented in Part II which is based on a resonant coupling between the surface electromagnetic modes (plasmons) of the metal and the incident photon. This resonance is made possible by the development of dislocation slip steps on the surface during fatigue. The effect of material condition is shown to be primarily a difference in the kinetics of slip step formation. The effects of ion sputtering to remove oxides and of the angle of incidence of the photons are also reported. Above 9 eV the photoyield was found to be almost insensitive to fatigue, usually decreasing slightly.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: In the northern parts of the Needwood and Stafford/Eccleshall Basins, England, the Pebble Beds of the Sherwood Sandstone Group contain thick successions of texturally mature, fluvial pebble/cobble conglomerates which are organized into either horizontal or cross-stratified sets. The horizontally lying sets, generally coarser grained and more poorly sorted than the cross-bedded sets, are usually disorganized and either matrix- or clast-supported, although thin lenses of well-sorted, occasionally openwork units, interpreted as falling stage phenomena, are often present. The cross-stratified conglomerates have foresets exhibiting remarkable textural organization, with a coarse, bimodal (sometimes matrix-supported) part grading upwards or being abruptly overlain by a finer, well-sorted (occasionally openwork) part and finally capped by sandstone. These rhythmic textural changes are attributed partly to an avalanche process at high stage and partly to falling stage conditions. The most common types of vertical association are thick successions of horizontally bedded conglomerates (up to 20 m) and sequences of an upwards coarsening nature (2-12 m) in which cross-stratified sets are overlain by flat-lying sets.The environment of deposition of the gravels is interpreted as one in which water depths at high stage were greater than depths in most modern braided stream plains (proglacial or alluvial fan) but shallower than depths associated with the Pleistocene catastrophic floods from which texturally mature, giant gravel bars have been recorded. Recent braided streams with relatively confined channels and considerable bar/channel relief are better analogues. In particular, medial or mid-channel bars with a two-tier structure (subaqueous and partly emergent portions) may explain the upward-coarsening sequences in which horizontally lying conglomerates overlie cross-stratified conglomerates. The thicker sequences of horizontally stratified conglomerates represent proximal, longitudinal bar deposits.Sheets of pebbly sandstone and argillaceous sandstone lying between the conglomerates, and commonly occurring towards the top of the succession, largely represent deposition from sandwaves and dunes. Finer, interbedded, argillaceous sandstones, siltstones and mudstones are interpreted as overbank and waning-flood deposits.Basin-forming tectonism of increasing intensity probably caused the initial coarsening upwards of the lower part of the succession, whilst more stable tectonic conditions and decreasing relief on the margins of the basins and in the areas of provenance in the Midlands and the Hercynides, account for the upwards-fining of the upper part of the succession.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Grass and forage science 49 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) sown at 2·8-11·2 kg ha−1 in spring was thinned in the autumn by digging plants from alternate 15- or 30-cm lengths of row. Both thinning treatments decreased the subsequent year stand density by 34%. Yields the following year were reduced by 24 and 17% for the 15- and 30-cm treatments respectively, and the next year by 10% for both treatments. Thinning effects were similar at all sowing rates. During the year following thinning, plants did not grow larger in response to the thinning. Thus, development of compensatory growth by lucerne plants following sudden stand thinning is slow.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1365-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Six annual legumes were evaluated as components of cereal-grass-legume intercrops in two experiments at two sites differing in elevation by 789 m. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Westerwolds rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) were seeded on all intercrop plots. Dry-matter (DM) yield, crude protein (CP) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) were measured. DM yield and N content were used to estimate legume N fixation. Experiment 1 was conducted at both sites. At the lower site, Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L.) and annual alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) accounted for 70% of the DM yield in harvest 1 (July), increased CP and OMD, but did not affect intercrop yield. They increased harvest 2 (August/September) intercrop yield by 263% and CP concentration by 65 g kg−1 DM. They increased harvest 3 (October) yield by 275% and CP concentration by 78 g kg−1 DM. Inclusion of striate lespedeza (Lespedeza striata) did not affect intercrop yield or quality. Annual legumes failed to establish at the higher elevation site and therefore had no effect on DM yield or forage quality. In Experiment 2, in which the performance of Westerwolds ryegrass was also compared with that of Italian ryegrass, and conducted at the lower site only, Persian clover and berseem clover (T. alexandrinum L.) increased CP of all three of the year's harvests. These two species contributed 29% of the DM yield in the first harvest (July) but did not affect total intercrop yield. They increased harvest 2 (August) yield by 313%. Persian clover increased harvest 3 (October) yield by 318% and berseem clover increased harvest 3 yield by 405%. Barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) and snail medic (M. scutellata) contributed 29% of harvest 1 yield, and increased both DM yield and CP content. Medics did not regrow. Aubade Westerwolds ryegrass contributed a greater percentage of the DM yield than did Maris Ledger Italian ryegrass at harvests 1 and 2. Ryegrass type did not affect total DM yield but did affect forage quality; intercrops containing the Italian ryegrass had higher CP at harvest 2 and higher OMD at harvest 3 than those containing the Westerwolds ryegrass. Over both experiments, at the lower elevation site, stands with Persian clover, berseem clover or alfalfa produced 80% of the yield of barley-ryegrass receiving 250 kg N ha−1, and 165% of the yield of unfertilized barley-ryegrass. Berseem and Persian clover fixed about the same amount of N over the growing season; 188 kg N ha−1 in Experiment 1 and 134 kg N ha−1 in Experiment 2.
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