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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: Copernicus UV data on interstellar lines toward HD 50896, a Wolf-Rayet star, are analyzed to study abundances and physical conditions in the line of sight. About 20% of the low-velocity neutral gas is contained in a dense cloud with 10% to 50% of its hydrogen in molecular form; the atomic abundances show typical interstellar depletions. The low-velocity H II gas may be associated with the high ionizing flux of the Wolf-Rayet star or with H II regions along the line of sight. Si III exhibits strong absorption shortward of the low-velocity H II gas, characteristic of a collisionally ionized component at 30,000 to 80,000 K; the possible connections with an unobserved supernova remnant or stellar mass loss are discussed. High-velocity features at 78 and -96 km/sec, in which Fe and Si are near their cosmic abundances, are also indicative of strong shocks.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 212
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 211
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Interstellar gas may be in a variety of thermal phases, depending on how it is heated and ionized; here a unified picture of the equation of state of interstellar and quasar gas is presented for a variety of such mechanisms over a broad range of temperatures, densities, and column densities of absorbing matter. It is found that for select ranges of gas pressure, photoionizing flux, and heating, three thermally stable phases are allowed: coronal gas (T above 100,000 K); warm gas (T about 10,000 K); and cold gas (T less than 100 K). With attenuation of ultraviolet and X-ray radiation, the cold phase may undergo a transition to molecules. In quasar broad-line clouds, this transition occurs at column density N(H) = about 10 to the 23rd/sq cm and could result in warm molecular cores and observable emission from H2 and OH. The underlying atomic physics behind each of these phase transitions and their relevance to interstellar matter and quasars are discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 288; 58-64
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  • 14
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Theoretical and observational evidence is presented that shock processing of interstellar dust grains by supernova blast waves affects both heavy element depletions and ultraviolet extinction curves. By coupling a realistic model of grain sizes and populations with a radiative shock code, significant grain destruction at velocities as low as 40 km/s is demonstrated. Nonthermal sputtering and grain-grain collisions destroy relatively more large grains than small, and more silicates than graphite. Consequently, both the 2175 A extinction 'bump' and the far-ultraviolet normalized extinction are increased in strength. Ultraviolet extinction studies with the International Ultraviolet Explorer of nine stars near three supernova remnants (the Monoceros Loop, Shajn 147, and Vela) exhibit strong 2175 A bumps and normal or high far-ultraviolet extinction. Diffuse bands, if they are created by small grains, should show little correlation with such activity.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 275; 652-660
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Spectra of the Her X-1 pulsations from 0.15 to 4.5 keV have been obtained with the Objective-Grating and Solid State Spectrometers on the HEAO 2 Einstein Observatory. The spectra show no distinct atomic emission or absorption features, except for broad emission near 1 keV possibly due to unresolved Fe L shell emission lines. Spectrally resolved pulse waveforms show a dramatic 240 deg phase shift for E less than 0.85 keV. The soft X-rays are interpreted as the result of the reprocessing of the hard X-ray beam by the inner disk at the magnetospheric boundary of the neutron star, and several spectroscopic and phase observations are suggested which could provide further knowledge of these structures.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 262
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  • 16
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: (Previously announced in STAR as N82-20073)
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 259
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The paper presents new calculations of ionization equilibrium fractions of 11 abundant elements (C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe, Ni) as functions of temperature. Convenient coefficients for fitting the rates of collisional ionization, radiative recombination, and dielectronic recombination are also tabulated. Many of the ionization rates are based on recent experimental measurements of cross sections for collisional ionization and autoionization following inner-shell excitation. These rates are used elsewhere in computations of nonequilibrium ionization, radiative cooling, radiative shock models, and plasma emission diagnostics.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series; 48; Jan. 198
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In 13 years of operation, IUE has gathered approximately 5000 spectra of almost 600 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). In order to undertake AGN studies which require large amounts of data, we are consistently reducing this entire archive and creating a homogeneous, easy-to-use database. First, the spectra are extracted using the Optimal extraction algorithm. Continuum fluxes are then measured across predefined bands, and line fluxes are measured with a multi-component fit. These results, along with source information such as redshifts and positions, are placed in the IUEAGN relational database. Analysis algorithms, statistical tests, and plotting packages run within the structure, and this flexible database can accommodate future data when they are released. This archival approach has already been used to survey line and continuum variability in six bright Seyfert 1s and rapid continuum variability in 14 blazars. Among the results that could only be obtained using a large archival study is evidence that blazars show a positive correlation between degree of variability and apparent luminosity, while Seyfert 1s show an anti-correlation. This suggests that beaming dominates the ultraviolet properties for blazars, while thermal emission from an accretion disk dominates for Seyfert 1s. Our future plans include a survey of line ratios in Seyfert 1s, to be fitted with photoionization models to test the models and determine the range of temperatures, densities and ionization parameters. We will also include data from IRAS, Einstein, EXOSAT, and ground-based telescopes to measure multi-wavelength correlations and broadband spectral energy distributions.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Ames Research Center, The Evolution of Galaxies and Their Environment; p 313-314
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: We propose that turbulent mixing layers are common in the interstellar medium (ISM). Injection of kinetic energy into the ISM by supernovae and stellar winds, in combination with density and temperature inhomogeneities, results in shear flows. Such flows will become turbulent due to the high Reynolds number (low viscosity) of the ISM plasma. These turbulent boundary layers will be particularly interesting where the shear flow occurs at boundaries of hot (approximately 10(exp 6) K) and cold or warm (10(exp 2) - 10(exp 4) K) gas. Mixing will occur in such layers producing intermediate-temperature gas at T is approximately equal to 10(exp 5.0) - 10(exp 5.5) that radiates strongly in the optical, ultraviolet, and EUV. We have modeled these layers under the assumptions of rapid mixing down to the atomic level and steady flow. By including the effects of non-equilibrium ionization and self-photoionization of the gas as it cools after mixing, we predict the intensities of numerous optical, infrared, and ultraviolet emission lines, as well as absorption column densities of C 4, N 5, Si 4, and O 6.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Ames Research Center, The Evolution of Galaxies and Their Environment; p 322-323
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A survey is initiated of interstellar densities, abundances, and cloud structure in the Galaxy, using the International Ultraviolet Explorer. From high-resolution (0.1-A) spectra, interstellar column densities are derived toward 244 early-type stars by fitting the damping wings of the Ly-alpha absorption line. Published B-V photometry is used to derive E(B-V) color excesses, stellar distances r, and the mean hydrogen densities, n-bar = N(H I)/r. The data set includes stars out to r = 8.5 kpc and E(B-V) = 0.86, with 68 stars in the galactic halo (absolute b greater than 20 deg). The statistical sample consists of 205 stars of type O3-B2.5 within 5 kpc (53 stars in the halo). The column densities, log N(H I), range from less than 19.44 per square centimeter for alpha Vir to 21.81 for HD 37061. A statistical analysis of the E(B-V) distribution suggests variations in the line-of-sight cloud density and the mean reddening per cloud.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 294; 599-614
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