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  • 11
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Zusammenfassung JungeGalium aparine-Pflanzen weisen nach Behandlung der Sämlinge mit 2,4-D-Lösungen Blätter mit verschmälerten Spreiten und (oder) tütenartig verwachsene bzw. reduzierte Blattwirtel auf. Da die Keimpflanzen nur während einer relativ kurzen Zeit ihrer Entwicklung auf die 2,4-D-Applikation reagieren, konnte gezeigt werden, daß die Anomalien jeweils nur an dem Blattwirtel entstehen, der zur Behandlungszeit gerade ein für die Induktion der betreffenden Aberration empfindliches Stadium erreicht hat. Die sehr kurze Sensibilitätsphase machte es möglich, das Ausgangsstadium der beobachteten Fehlentwicklungen festzustellen und anatomisch zu untersuchen. Befindet sich der Vegetationspunkt zur Zeit der 2,4-D-Anwendung gerade in dem zwischen der Ausgliederung zweier Wirtel liegenden Plastochronabschnitt, dann ist eine Reduktion der Gliederzahl des folgenden Wirtels zu erwarten. Das Induktionsstadium für die Ausbildung kongenital verwachsener Blatt-Tüten (Gamophyllie) ist charakterisiert durch die der Anlegung eines Wirtels unmittelbar vorangehende maximale Streckung des Vegetationskegels. Diese Phase ist bereits mit Beginn einer mikroskopisch erkennbaren Hervorwölbung von Blattanlagen abgeschlossen. Junge noch nicht differenzierte Primordien sind nicht beeinflußbar, jedenfalls zeigen sie später keine erkennbaren Veränderungen. Erst mit der Anlegung der Spreitensäume treten sie wieder in eine neue Sensibilitätsphase ein. Es kommt zu einer Hemmung der Mesophylldifferenzierung und infolgedessen zu verschmälerten Blattspreiten. Fragen der Homologisierung 2,4-D-induzierter Blattverwachsungen und ihrer morphologischen Klassifizierung werden diskutiert.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Liebigs Annalen 167 (1873), S. 89-117 
    ISSN: 0075-4617
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The resolution power of a video camera (Hamamatsu) was investigated under the aspect of employing the camera for the densitometric evaluation of two-dimensional electrophoretic patterns of proteins. The features of the camera were tested on the illuminated glass pane of a light box and on specimens such as a blank film (X-ray film), a blank gel (polyacrylamide gel plate) and a bar raster. The digitized values were analysed by a computer. While the hardware permits a half-tone resolution from 0 (dark) to 255 (bright) grey levels, the values obtained experimentally showed that only 90 (glass pane), 70 (gel) or 60 (film) reproducible grey levels can be resolved, depending on the features of the supporting material of the two-dimensional electrophoresis pattern. The addressable spatial resolution of the camera comprises 1024 × 1024 pixels. Under experimental conditions, however, only 570 × 700 pixels were resolved. Further investigation in necessary to prove whether the resolution power of a video camera is sufficient for a precise analysis of two-dimensional protein patterns.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract From 14 deeps and other regions of the Red Sea totally 226 samples from 28 cores recovered during the VALDIVIA cruises (1971, 1972) were investigated according to their clay mineral content (〈2μm resp. 〈 6.3 μm) after carbonate dissolution. Three facies groups are to distinguish: a) normal sediments: dominance of chlorite, kaolinite, illite, small amounts of smectite and sepiolite. Two palygorskite types are present only in a few samples. b) normal sediments with hydrothermal influence: clay mineral paragenesis similar like that of normal sediments; but increase of smectite and presence of goethite in each sample; partly small contents of talc. c) heavy metal deposits: dominance of iron-bearing smectite, partly with amorphous components resp. pure ore mineral assemblages with authigenic silicates (talc, quartz, opal, chrysotile, sepiolite, palygorskite, chlorite). Crystallinity of the clay and ore minerals is independent from sedimentary overburden. Sepiolite shows in small amounts a wide distribution; palygorskite2 (d110=11.3 Å) yields locally an increased concentration in the range of pteropod layers cemented by aragonite. The environment of ore deposits is characterized by iron-bearing smectite besides the ore minerals.
    Abstract: Résumé 226 échantillons provenant de 28 carrottes de sondage recueillies dans 14 fonds et d'autres parties de la mer Rouge pendant les croisières de VALDIVIA (1971, 1972) ont été examinés leur contenu quant à en minéraux argileux (fractions 2 nm resp. 6,3 nm) après la dissolution du carbonate. Il s'ensuit une subdivision en trois groupes de faciès: a) Sédiments normaux: Prédominance de chlorite/Kaolinite/illite avec peu de smectite et de sépiolite; présence de deux types de paligorskite dans quelques échantillons. b) Sédiments normaux avec influence hydrothermale: paragénèse de minéraux argileux d'argile pareille à celle des sédiments normaux; mais avec plus de smectite et, dans chaque échantillon, présence de goethite de concentration différente et d'un peu de talc de néoformation. c) Boues de minérai: Prédominance de montmorillonite ferrugineuse, en partie avec des éléments amorphes resp. de pures paragenese de minéraux argileux avec silicates authigènes (talc, quartz, opale, chrysotile, sépiolite, paligorskite, chlorite). La cristallinité des minéraux argileux ne dépend pas de la profondeur. Dans les sédiments de la mer Rouge la sépiolite est très répandue mais avec une concentration faible; sporadiquement la paligorskite2 (d110= 11.3 Å) montre une concentration forte au niveau de couches à ptéropodes consolidés par de l'aragonite. La minéralisation est caractérisée par la montmorillonite ferrugineuse aussi bien que par les minerais.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Aus 14 Soletiefs und weiteren Bereichen des Roten Meeres wurden insgesamt 226 Proben von 28, bei den VALDIVIA-Fahrten (1971, 1972) gewonnenen Kernen nach Weglösen des Karbonatanteils tonmineralogisch (Fraktionen 〈 2μm resp. 〈 6,3 μm) untersucht. Es ergibt sich eine Unterteilung in drei Faziesgruppen: a) Normalsedimente: Chlorit/Kaolinit/Illit-Vormacht mit geringen Smektit- und Sepiolithgehalten; vereinzeltes Auftreten von zwei Palygorskittypen. b) Hydrothermal beeinflußte Normalsedimente: ähnliche Tonmineral-Paragenese wie unter a); jedoch höherer Smektitanteil und in jeder Probe röntgenographisch nachweisbarer Goethit in unterschiedlichen Konzentrationen sowie vereinzelt neugebildeter Talk. c) Erzschlämme: Fe-Montmorillonit-Vormacht, z. T. mit amorphen Bestandteilen bzw. reine Erzmineral-Paragenesen mit authigenen Silikaten (Talk, Quarz, Opal, Chrysotil, Sepiolith, Palygorskit, Chlorit). Die Kristallinität der Ton- und Erzminerale ist teufenunabhängig. Sepiolith weist bei allgemein geringen Konzentrationen eine weite Verbreitung auf; Palygorskit2 (d110= 11,3 Å) zeigt stellenweise erhöhte Konzentrationen im Bereich aragonitisch verfestigter Pteropodenlagen auf. Das Lagerstättenmilieu ist neben den Erzmineralen durch Fe-Montmorillonit gekennzeichnet.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract The represented correlation and regression analysis allows an evaluation of the mutual statistical dependence of random variables. As a numerical example, such investigations have been made on authigenic quartz from Devonian limestones of the Eastern Rhenish Schiefergebirge. For statistical evaluation it is necessary to check the normal distribution of test results. The applied method makes possible to control a twodimensional Gauß-distribution with the aid of the central limit theorem. The problems to find out empirical equations are discussed; this case is restricted to curves based on linear correlations. The confidence ranges depending on statistical probabilities are calculated for the curves of interpolation. Statistical differences of test samples are proved by a generalised variated analysis. The numerical evaluation and the plotting of the investigated samples have been performed by a computer, type ICL 1907, in ALGOL 60 symbol language. Thereby it is easy to survey representation of test results, statistical connections and efficient evaluation of similar data.
    Abstract: Résumé Les analyses de regression et correlation décrites rendent possible une évaluation de caractères observés portant sur leur dépendance mutuelle. Une telle analyse a été exécutée sur des quartz authigènes de calcaires devoniens de la Schiefergebirge située à l'est du Rhin. Pour l'évaluation statistique il est nécessaire d'examiner la distribution normale des résultats de recherche trouvés. Une méthode d'investigation est présentée qui contrôle aussi la distribution bidimensionale de « Gauss » en utilisant le théorème limitrophe central. Les problèmes concernant l'équation empirique sont discutés, limités à des courbes basées sur la corrélation linéaire. Les domaines de confiance dépendant d'une sûreté statistique ont été calculés pour les lignes d'interpolation. Des différences éventuelles statistiques entre les échantillons de recherche peuvent être prouvées par une analyse de variations généralisées. L'évaluation numérique et l'exposition graphique des résultats d'investigation sont faites par un computeur du type ICL 1907 en langue symbolique ALGOL 60. Par cette méthode une présentation plus claire des résultats, des connexions statistiques et une évaluation plus effective de données similaires sont rendues possible.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die dargestellten Regressions- und Korrelationsrechnungen ermöglichen eine Beurteilung von Beobachtungsmerkmalen hinsichtlich ihrer gegenseitigen Abhängigkeit. Eine solche Untersuchung wurde am Beispiel authigener Quarze aus devonischen Massenkalken des ostrheinischen Schiefergebirges ausgeführt. Für die statistische Auswertung ist das Vorliegen von Normalverteilung der Kollektive zu überprüfen. Es wird ein Testverfahren aufgezeigt, das unter Verwendung des Zentralen Grenzwertsatzes auch die zweidimensionale Dichteverteilung nachweist. Die Probleme bei der Aufstellung empirischer Formeln werden erläutert, wobei nur auf linearer Korrelation basierende Ausgleichskurven erfaßt werden. Die von einer geforderten statistischen Sicherheit abhängigen Vertrauensbereiche der Interpolationskurven werden ermittelt. Etwaige statistisch gesicherte Unterschiede zwischen den Beobachtungskollektiven können mit einer verallgemeinerten Variationsanalyse nachgewiesen werden. Die numerische Auswertung und die graphische Darstellung von Beispielergebnissen erfolgt mit Hilfe eines Computers, Typ ICL 1907, über Programme der Symbolsprache ALGOL 60. Dadurch wird eine übersichtlichere Darstellung von Meßergebnissen, eine bessere Einsicht in statistische Zusammenhänge und eine effektivere Auswertung anfallender Daten ähnlicher Art möglich.
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: Studies of animal behavior in remote polar regions are essential to understand ecologic change, yet they require significant human and logistic resources. Behavioral data are mostly gathered by tagging single animals, such as penguins and whales. While tagging delivers high-accuracy data for single animals, it cannot be used to study collective behavior in social species due to high costs and the often time-consuming or disturbing tagging process. We present an alternative approach to study animal behavior using automated, remotely operated and energetically independent image acquisition systems. We developed a land-based system for studying penguins, and a sea-based system to study whales. The sea-based system employs a rotating infrared camera (5 rev/s, 360°) for the automatic detection of whales within a radius of up to 3 nautical miles during day and night, and a high-resolution CCD camera equipped with a telephoto lens. Upon detection of a whale in the thermal image, the CCD-camera is automatically pointed at the respective location, and triggered to acquire photos at 5 Hz, allowing species identification up to several miles distance The imaging system is mounted on an active tilt stage to counteract ship movements in heavy seas, which allows to calculate absolute whale positions with an accuracy of ~10%. From the trajectory of an individual whale, likely areas of subsequent surfacing positions are estimated, providing proactive tracing of the whale, which improves the likelyhood of capturing it on photo and and its identification. Automatic whale detection and identification data may then be used to conduct autonomous line transect surveys throughout the cruise. Continuous automatic whale detections during recent expeditions contibuted significantly to the amount of data available for density calculations and habitat suitability modeling. We will present data from three expeditions on RV Polarstern during the years 2009-2011, including several tens of ship-whale encounters. The system will be used during two more expeditions in early 2012, for automatic marine mammal detection, localization and identification purposes. Our land-based system employed a simpler image acquisition and automated analysis technology and was first used to study the collective behavior of Emperor penguins during huddling. The system is capable of simultaneously tracking the positions of more than 1400 huddling emperor penguins. The trajectories revealed that Emperor penguins move collectively in a highly coordinated manner to ensure mobility while at the same time keeping the huddle tightly packed. Every 30–60 seconds, all penguins make small steps, which travel as a wave through the entire huddle. Over time, these small movements lead to large-scale reorganization of the huddle. Moreover, from the high-resolution images is it possible to obtain a precise count of the penguin colony, and to obtain morphometric data from individual penguins to monitor their nutritional state. Thus far, we built five observatories that are currently being shipped to an Adélie penguin (Adélie Land), King penguin (Crozet Island) and Emperor penguin (Atka Bay, Adélie Land) colony, respectively. All three observatories are designed for year-round operations.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: Despite the enormous popularity of penguins, their social behaviour remains poorly understood. Video recordings of penguins and penguin colonies are sporadic, of insufficient resolution and duration, and suffer from camera movements that may be artistically motivated but make them scientifically worthless. Recordings of penguin colonies during the winter months are particularly short in supply. Here we present three different observatories that are able to automatically take time-lapse recording over prolonged time periods under harsh climatic conditions. i) The microbs is a very low cost observatory (~700 US$), capable of recording high-resolution (12 MPix) time-lapse data. It features a water-proof Canon D10 consumer-grade camera that we programmed through a bootable SD-card. The camera is powered by a 40 W solar panel and a 100 Ah 12V battery. The microbs can record up to 32 GB of data (approximately one month at a rate of 1 image/min) before the memory card has to be changed manually. ii) To enable even longer observations at very remote locations where a regular change of the SD-card is not feasible, we designed the Mobile Emperor Penguin Observatory (MEPO). It is equipped with a night vision (b/w) and daylight (color) CCD-sensor. Images are recorded on a solid-state PC with very low energy consumption, or they can be sent via satellite (Inmarsat) that is available on large parts of the Antarctic coast. The observatory is remote-operated through the satellite link to adjust parameters such as image frame rate, to select the images to be sent via satellite or to power the observatory up or down. iii) The Single Penguin Observation & Tracking (SPOT) observatory is used to track the movements of individual penguins over prolonged time periods and count the present number of individual penguins. The observatory consists of a wide-angle (45°) camera and a high-speed (5 images/s) high resolution (11 MPix) camera equipped with a telephoto lens (400-600mm). We deployed several microbs, one MEPO and three SPOT observatory between 2011-13 at Crozet Island, Adelie Land and Atka Bay, respectively, and will present first results.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: In polar regions, highly adapted social behavior is crucial for the survival of several species. One prominent example is the huddling behavior of Emperor penguins. To understand how Emperor penguins solve the physical problem of movement in densely packed huddles, we observed an Emperor penguin colony (Atka Bay) with time-lapse imaging and tracked the positions of more than 1400 huddling penguins. The trajectories revealed that Emperor penguins move collectively in a highly coordinated manner to ensure mobility while at the same time keeping the huddle tightly packed. Every 30 - 60 seconds, all penguins make small steps, which travel as a wave through the entire huddle. Over time, these small movements lead to large-scale reorganization of the huddle. Our data show that the dynamics of penguin huddling is governed by intermittency and approach to kinetic arrest in striking analogy with inert non-equilibrium systems. We will also present observations from a different Emperor penguin colony (Adélie Land), an Adélie penguin colony (Adélie Land), and a King penguin colony (Crozet Island).
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: Despite the enormous popularity of penguins, their social behaviour remains poorly understood. Video recordings of penguins and penguin colonies are sporadic, of insufficient resolution and duration, and suffer from camera movements that may be artistically motivated but make them scientifically worthless. Recordings of penguin colonies during the winter months are particularly short in supply. Here we present three different observatories that are able to automatically take time-lapse recording over prolonged time periods under harsh climatic conditions. i) The microbs is a very low cost observatory (~700 US$), capable of recording high-resolution (12 MPix) time-lapse data. It features a water-proof Canon D10 consumer-grade camera that we programmed through a bootable SD-card. The camera is powered by a 40 W solar panel and a 100 Ah 12V battery. The microbs can record up to 32 GB of data (approximately one month at a rate of 1 image/min) before the memory card has to be changed manually. ii) To enable even longer observations at very remote locations where a regular change of the SD-card is not feasible, we designed the Mobile Emperor Penguin Observatory (MEPO). It is equipped with a night vision (b/w) and daylight (color) CCD-sensor. Images are recorded on a solid-state PC with very low energy consumption, or they can be sent via satellite (Inmarsat) that is available on large parts of the Antarctic coast. The observatory is remote-operated through the satellite link to adjust parameters such as image frame rate, to select the images to be sent via satellite or to power the observatory up or down. iii) The Single Penguin Observation & Tracking (SPOT) observatory is used to track the movements of individual penguins over prolonged time periods and count the present number of individual penguins. The observatory consists of a wide-angle (45°) camera and a high-speed (5 images/s) high resolution (11 MPix) camera equipped with a telephoto lens (400-600mm). We are currently deploying three microbs, one MEPO and one SPOT observatory during the Antarctic summer 2011 at Crozet Island, Adelie Land and Atka Bay, respectively, and will present first results.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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