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  • 11
    ISSN: 1434-4483
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary A simple water balance method is used to compute the dates of the onset and termination and length of the growing season from long-term rainfall series in northern Nigeria. For most of the stations, the time series of onset and termination dates and growing season length are homogeneous and random, and can be taken as normally distributed. There is a progressive decrease in the length of the growing season from a mean of about 200 days in the south to less than 155 days in the extreme northern part. While there is no statistically significant trend in the onset dates, there is some evidence for statistically significant decreasing trend in the termination dates and the length of the growing season over the region. The results indicate that recent trends in the length of the growing season are more sensitive.to large interannual fluctuations in the start of the rains than to variations in the cessation dates.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1434-4483
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Drei unabhängige Techniken werden in Spektralanalysen von Zeitreihen verwendet: Die konventionelle Periodogramm-Methode, die Maximalentropie-Spektralanalyse und die Non-Integer-Methode werden auf Zeitserien des Trockenheits-Index angewandt und die Resultate verglichen. Diese Resultate zeigen, daß die drei Verfahren grundsätzlich zu vergleichbaren Ergebnissen führen, v.a. im Hochfrequenz-Bereich. Der wesentliche Nachteil der Periodogramm-Methode ist ihre Frequenzungenauigkeit, besonders im Fall kurzer Aufzeichnungszeiträume. Daraus folgt, daß die im Periodogramm ausgewiesenen Positionen der Sinuskurven-Frequenzen genau zu stimmen scheinen, die Spitzen aber ungenau bleiben, v. a. auf Grund begrenzter Datenerhebungen. Die Maximalentropie-Spektralanalyse wiederum weist höhere Frequenzgenauigkeit als die beiden anderen Methoden auf, reagiert jedoch äußerst sensibel auf die Anzahl der Filterterme wodurch die Qualität der Spektren stark beeinflußt wird. Die Non-Integer-Spektren sind den Maximalentropie-Spektren höherer Ordnung vergleichbar. Da jedoch die niedrigste Frequenz, die auf den Non-Integer-Spektren gemessen werden kann, reziprok zur Aufzeichnungsdauer ist, sind diese Spektren (bei kurzer Aufzeichnungsdauer) im Niederfrequenzbereich nicht so zuverlässig wie jene der Maximalentropie-Spektralanalysen. Daraus ergibt sich, daß bei Vorliegen kurzer klimatologischer Zeitserien der Maximalentropie-Spektralanalyse der Vorzug vor den beiden anderen Methoden zu geben ist. Ein Vergleich der Ergebnisse der Maximalentropie mit jenen der Non-Integer-Methode scheint empfehlenswert, da dies verstärkt Rückschlüsse auf die Art der Periodiziät in den untersuchten klimatologischen Zeitreihen erlaubt.
    Notes: Summary Three independent techniques used in spectral analysis of time series, the conventional periodogram, the maximum entropy spectral analysis and the non-integer method, are applied to a drought index time series and the results are compared. The results reveal that in general the three approaches give similar estimates, especially in the high frequency domain. The main drawback of the periodogram method is its poor frequency resolution, especially in case of short records. Consequently, while the position of the sinewave frequencies computed by the periodogram seems accurate, the peaks are broad mainly because of the limited length of the data sample. The maximum entropy spectral analysis on the other hand, gives better frequency resolution than either the periodogram or the non-integer method. This method is, however, sensitive to the number of terms of the filter and this has a great influence on the quality of the spectrum. The non-integer spectra are comparable to higher order maximum entropy spectra. However, because the lowest frequency at which the non-integer spectra can be estimated is the inverse of the length of record, their spectra (for short records) may not be as reliable as those resolved by the maximum entropy spectral analysis in the low frequency domain. Overall, it is suggested that the maximum entropy spectral analysis is preferable to either the periodogram or the noninteger method when one deals with short climatological time series. A good practice will be to compare the results of the maximum entropy with those of the non-integer method in order to strengthen inferences about the nature of periodicity in the analysed climatological time series.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We report on the band structure and wave functions of positrons, annihilating with electrons, from the thermalized state k+ = 0. We find that the bottom of the band to which the positron thermalizes in this metal is definitely nonambiguous. It is also found that even though the first few Bloch terms in the wave function can give the gross shape of the positron annihilation curve for this metal, the higher momentum components of high orders are definitely important if one is to assay the fine details of the curve.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Berkeley, Calif. : Berkeley Electronic Press (now: De Gruyter)
    Global economy journal 7 (2007), S. 4 
    ISSN: 1524-5861
    Source: Berkeley Electronic Press Academic Journals
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: The exchange rate pass-through for Nigeria imports is estimated by applying an econometric procedure to sectoral data which avoids the pit-falls in previous studies. We use the mark-up approach, which implies setting export prices as a mark-up on production costs. So, the price facing importers is the exchange rate adjusted production costs where mark-up depends on the competitive pressures in the import's market and the nominal exchange rate. Our results indicate incomplete pass-through at varying degrees across sectors, which implies that the foreign exporters passed on only part of the increase in their costs of production to import prices. Also, it reveals that the effort of the Nigerian government in encouraging companies to use local inputs where possible instead of relying on imported intermediate inputs is gradually yielding positive results. Important policy implications that follow from our results of incomplete pass-through to domestic prices could influence CBN forecasts of future path of inflation, a key element in the conduct of monetary policy. Indeed, the successful implementation of monetary policy presupposes that CBN has not only a good understanding of inflation dynamics but is also relatively successful at predicting the future path of inflation. Also, our results imply that the exchange rate policy may be a blunt instrument when used to restore external balance since relative price adjustments will be limited. Furthermore, the incomplete pass-through suggests that exchange rate changes are likely to lead to smaller real effects on the economy through lower changes in both the terms of trade and import volumes and finally, the extent of inflation (deflation) effects of exchange rate depreciation (appreciation) operating through changes in the prices of imported goods will be moderated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-12-12
    Description: Nigeria is Africa's largest economy and home to approximately 10% of the un-electrified population of Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2017, 77 million Nigerians or 40% of the population had no access to affordable, reliable and sustainable electricity. In practice, diesel- and petrol-fuelled back-up generators supply the vast majority of electricity in the country. In Nigeria's nationally-determined contribution (NDC) under the Paris Agreement, over 60% of the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions are foreseen in the power sector. The goal of this study is to identify and critically examine the pathways available to Nigeria to meet its 2030 electricity access, renewables and decarbonization goals in the power sector. Using published data and stakeholder interviews, we build three potential scenarios for electrification and growth in demand, generation and transmission capacity. The demand assumptions incorporate existing knowledge on pathways for electrification via grid extension, mini-grids and solar home systems (SHS). The supply assumptions are built upon an evaluation of the investment pipeline for generation and transmission capacity, and possible scale-up rates up to 2030. The results reveal that, in the most ambitious Green Transition scenario, Nigeria meets its electricity access goals, whereby those connected to the grid achieve a Tier 3 level of access, and those served by sustainable off-grid solutions (mini-grids and SHS) achieve Tier 2. Decarbonization pledges would be surpassed in all three scenarios but renewable energy goals would only be partly met. Fossil fuel-based back-up generation continues to play a substantial role in all scenarios. The implications and critical uncertainties of these findings are extensively discussed.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0168-583X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0168-1176
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0168-583X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0020-1693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Cowpea (Vigna sinensis) was soaked, dehulled, ground, supplemented with various levels of DL-methionine, drum dried and the powders evaluated fresh and after storage. Chemical determinations indicated that the protein, amino acid composition, available lysine, methionine retention and thiamine content of the cowpea powders, compared to raw cowpeas, were not appreciably affected by the processing and storage conditions, including 24 wk at temperatures up to 37°C. Fresh and stored powders supplemented with up to 0.6% methionine were evaluated in a traditional main-moin recipe by a taste panel of members from several African countries and well rated in terms of color, flavor, consistency and overall acceptability. Nutritional studies indicated that drum drying eliminated trypsin inhibitors and that methionine supplementation produced a concentration dependent effect on protein quality as gauged by weight gains of rats and PER values, which increased from 1.64 without methionine supplementation to 2.65 at the 0.6% addition 1eveL At the 0.6% level, however, fatty infiltration of rat livers occurred. This was also evident but much less pronounced at a level of 0.4% added methionine. Cowpea powders stored 24 wk showed reductions in PER values but even at 37°C protein quality, as measured by PER, was largely retained in methionine-supplemented powders.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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