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  • 11
    Publication Date: 1988-11-25
    Description: The gp120 envelope glycoprotein of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is expressed on the surface of many HIV-infected cells, binds to the cell surface molecule CD4. Soluble derivatives of recombinant CD4 (rCD4) that bind gp120 with high affinity are attractive vehicles for targeting a cytotoxic reagent to HIV-infected cells. Soluble rCD4 was conjugated to the active subunit of the toxin ricin. This conjugate killed HIV-infected H9 cells but was 1/1000 as toxic to uninfected H9 cells (which do not express gp120) and was not toxic to Daudi cells (which express major histocompatibility class II antigens, the putative natural ligand for cell surface CD4). Specific killing of infected cells can be blocked by rgp120, rCD4, or a monoclonal antibody to the gp120 binding site on CD4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Till, M A -- Ghetie, V -- Gregory, T -- Patzer, E J -- Porter, J P -- Uhr, J W -- Capon, D J -- Vitetta, E S -- CA-09082/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA-28149/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA-41081/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1988 Nov 25;242(4882):1166-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2847316" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/*administration & dosage/immunology ; Binding Sites ; Cell Line ; Cell Survival ; Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel ; HIV/*immunology ; HIV Envelope Protein gp120 ; Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/immunology ; Humans ; Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage/immunology ; Retroviridae Proteins/*immunology/metabolism ; Ricin/metabolism/*pharmacology ; T-Lymphocytes/immunology/microbiology/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 1989-08-18
    Description: CD4 is a cell surface glycoprotein that is thought to interact with nonpolymorphic determinants of class II major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules. CD4 is also the receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), binding with high affinity to the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120. Homolog-scanning mutagenesis was used to identify CD4 regions that are important in class II MHC binding and to determine whether the gp120 and class II MHC binding sites of CD4 are related. Class II MHC binding was abolished by mutations in each of the first three immunoglobulin-like domains of CD4. The gp120 binding could be abolished without affecting class II MHC binding and vice versa, although at least one mutation examined reduced both functions significantly. These findings indicate that, while there may be overlap between the gp120 and class II MHC binding sites of CD4, these sites are distinct and can be separated. Thus it should be possible to design CD4 analogs that can block HIV infectivity but intrinsically lack the ability to affect the normal immune response by binding to class II MHC molecules.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lamarre, D -- Ashkenazi, A -- Fleury, S -- Smith, D H -- Sekaly, R P -- Capon, D J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1989 Aug 18;245(4919):743-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratoire d'Immunologie, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Quebec, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2549633" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antigens, Surface ; Binding Sites ; DNA, Recombinant ; HIV/*metabolism ; HIV Envelope Protein gp120 ; HLA-DP Antigens/immunology ; Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/*immunology ; Humans ; Hybridomas ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Receptors, HIV ; Receptors, Virus/genetics/immunology/*metabolism ; Retroviridae Proteins/immunology/*metabolism ; Rosette Formation ; Structure-Activity Relationship ; T-Lymphocytes/immunology/metabolism ; Transfection
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 1986-07-11
    Description: Mammalian cell lines have been engineered to produce a secreted form of the AIDS retrovirus envelope glycoprotein. The recombinant protein has been isolated from growth-conditioned culture media and used to immunize animals. Antibodies directed against the recombinant molecule were found to react with the envelope glycoprotein produced in virus-infected cells. Furthermore, these antibodies were able to directly inactivate the AIDS retrovirus in a neutralization assay in vitro. The expression system reported here should provide sufficient quantities of the AIDS retrovirus envelope protein for biological and vaccination studies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lasky, L A -- Groopman, J E -- Fennie, C W -- Benz, P M -- Capon, D J -- Dowbenko, D J -- Nakamura, G R -- Nunes, W M -- Renz, M E -- Berman, P W -- HL 33774-01/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1986 Jul 11;233(4760):209-12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3014647" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/*immunology ; Animals ; Antibodies, Viral/*immunology ; Antigens, Viral/biosynthesis/*immunology ; Cricetinae ; Deltaretrovirus/*immunology ; Guinea Pigs ; HIV Antibodies ; HIV Antigens ; Humans ; Immune Sera/immunology ; Male ; Neutralization Tests ; Rabbits ; Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis/immunology ; Viral Envelope Proteins/biosynthesis/*immunology ; Viral Vaccines/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 1987-10-30
    Description: To investigate whether a particular receptor subtype can be coupled to multiple effector systems, recombinant M2 muscarinic receptors were expressed in cells lacking endogenous receptor. The muscarinic agonist carbachol both inhibited adenylyl cyclase and stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis. The stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis was significantly less efficient and more dependent on receptor levels than the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Both responses were mediated by guanine nucleotide binding proteins, as evidenced by their inhibition by pertussis toxin; the more efficiently coupled adenylyl cyclase response was significantly more sensitive. Thus, individual subtypes of a given receptor are capable of regulating multiple effector pathways.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ashkenazi, A -- Winslow, J W -- Peralta, E G -- Peterson, G L -- Schimerlik, M I -- Capon, D J -- Ramachandran, J -- CA16417/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- HL23632/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1987 Oct 30;238(4827):672-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Developmental Biology, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2823384" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenylate Cyclase Toxin ; Adenylyl Cyclases/*metabolism ; Animals ; Carbachol/pharmacology ; Cell Line ; Cricetinae ; Cyclic AMP/biosynthesis ; GTP-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate) ; Guanosine Triphosphate/analogs & derivatives/metabolism ; Oxotremorine/pharmacology ; Pertussis Toxin ; Phosphatidylinositols/*metabolism ; Receptors, Muscarinic/*metabolism ; Recombinant Proteins ; Thionucleotides/metabolism ; Virulence Factors, Bordetella/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 1987-05-01
    Description: A partial amino acid sequence obtained for porcine atrial muscarinic acetylcholine receptor was used to isolate complementary DNA clones containing the complete receptor coding region. The deduced 466-amino acid polypeptide exhibits extensive structural and sequence homology with other receptors coupled to guanine nucleotide binding (G) proteins (for example, the beta-adrenergic receptor and rhodopsins); this similarity predicts a structure of seven membrane-spanning regions distinguished by the disposition of a large cytoplasmic domain. Stable transfection of the Chinese hamster ovary cell line with the atrial receptor complementary DNA leads to the binding of muscarinic antagonists in these cells with affinities characteristic of the M2 receptor subtype. The atrial muscarinic receptor is encoded by a unique gene consisting of a single coding exon and multiple, alternatively spliced 5' noncoding regions. The atrial receptor is distinct from the cerebral muscarinic receptor gene product, sharing only 38% overall amino acid homology and possessing a completely nonhomologous large cytoplasmic domain, suggesting a role for the latter region in differential effector coupling.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Peralta, E G -- Winslow, J W -- Peterson, G L -- Smith, D H -- Ashkenazi, A -- Ramachandran, J -- Schimerlik, M I -- Capon, D J -- CA16417/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- HL23632/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1987 May 1;236(4801):600-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3107123" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Cell Line ; DNA/genetics ; Exons ; GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Heart Atria/analysis ; Immunosorbent Techniques ; Membrane Proteins ; Molecular Weight ; Nucleic Acid Hybridization ; Peptide Fragments/metabolism ; Quinuclidinyl Benzilate/metabolism ; Receptors, Muscarinic/*genetics/metabolism ; Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid ; Swine ; Transfection
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2017-04-07
    Description: Organic Letters DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.7b00638
    Print ISSN: 1523-7060
    Electronic ISSN: 1523-7052
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2017-09-01
    Description: The Journal of Organic Chemistry DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.7b01793
    Print ISSN: 0022-3263
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-6904
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2016-06-14
    Description: Questions How diverse and resilient is vegetation following a decade of extreme drought along a typical floodplain gradient of semi-arid south-eastern Australia? How do mechanisms of resilience (i.e. persistence and soil seed banks) vary between major plant groups and spatially with respect to habitat type and position along a flood frequency gradient? Location Southern Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Methods We surveyed understorey vegetation and conducted germination trials to examine responses to re-wetting from soil seed banks of seven major habitat types along a typical floodplain gradient of the southern Murray-Darling Basin. We assessed abundance, species richness, functional diversity and composition, including exotic species, within and between extant and germinating assemblages. Results Understorey vegetation was surprisingly diverse, although low in cover, following a decade of extreme drought, with considerable numbers of plant species (61) and functional plant groups represented. Historically drier habitats, towards floodplain margins, had higher species richness and cover overall and for exotic species. Plant assemblages exhibited high heterogeneity between habitats. Soil seed banks were very dissimilar from extant vegetation, comprising mainly amphibious and damp taxa as well as some terrestrial herbs, mostly annuals. Seed banks were most abundant and diverse in intermediate floodplain habitats, and their composition was very distinct between habitat types. Conclusions Semi-arid floodplain vegetation is likely to be highly resilient to prolonged drought. Plants persisting under dry conditions do not appear to rely on local soil seed banks for regeneration and may either tolerate drying in situ or arrive from neighbouring ecosystems. Soil seed banks allow understorey vegetation to respond to re-wetting, especially in intermediate floodplain habitats. Lake bed assemblages and aquatic/amphibious species lacking soil seed banks appear most vulnerable to drought. Vegetation resilience is promoted by landscape heterogeneity. Semi-arid floodplain vegetation of the southern Murray-Darling Basin was found to be highly resilient to prolonged drought. Relatively high species (61) and functional diversity persisted after a decade of drying. Diverse soil seed-banks facilitate understory responses to re-wetting rather than persistence during drought. Lake bed vegetation and non-seed bank aquatic species appear most vulnerable to drought.
    Print ISSN: 1100-9233
    Electronic ISSN: 1654-1103
    Topics: Biology
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2018-08-17
    Description: Inter-Kingdom beach warfare: Microbial chemical communication activates natural chemical defences Inter-Kingdom beach warfare: Microbial chemical communication activates natural chemical defences, Published online: 16 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41396-018-0265-z Inter-Kingdom beach warfare: Microbial chemical communication activates natural chemical defences
    Print ISSN: 1751-7362
    Electronic ISSN: 1751-7370
    Topics: Biology
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2015-12-08
    Description: The Journal of Organic Chemistry DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.5b02367
    Print ISSN: 0022-3263
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-6904
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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