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  • 11
    ISSN: 1072-8368
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] The Camelidae is the only taxonomic family known to possess functional heavy-chain antibodies, lacking light chains. We report here the 2.5 Å resolution crystal structure of a camel VH in complex with its antigen, lysozyme. Compared to human and mouse VH domains, there are no major backbone ...
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Amyloid diseases are characterized by an aberrant assembly of a specific protein or protein fragment into fibrils and plaques that are deposited in various organs and tissues, often with serious pathological consequences. Non-neuropathic systemic amyloidosis is associated with single point ...
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Key words: HTLV-II; IIa and IIb subtypes — Restriction analysis — Phylogenetic analysis — Maximum likelihood — Neighbour-joining — Parsimony — Molecular clock — Fixation rate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. Seven new Italian and two new British HTLV-II isolates were obtained from injecting drug users and the entire long terminal repeat (LTR) region was sequenced. Restriction analysis showed that all the Italian isolates are of the IIb subtype, whereas the British isolates are of the IIa subtype. To understand whether the further differentiation of each two principal HTLV-II subtypes in several subgroups could be statistically supported by phylogenetic analysis, the neighbor-joining, parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods were used. The separation between IIa and IIb is very well supported by all three methods. At least two phylogenetic subgroups exist within the HTLV-IIa and at least three within the HTLV-IIb subtype. In the present analysis, no statistical support was obtained for additional phylogroups. Two particular subgroups seem interesting because they include all European and North American injecting drug user strains within the IIa and IIb subtypes, respectively. These data confirm that European HTLV-II infection among drug users is probably derived from North America. They also suggest that though a certain differentiation by restriction analysis in different subgroups is possible, carefully interpreted phylogenetic analyses remain necessary. Using the likelihood ratio test, a molecular clock for the drug user strains was calibrated. A fixation rate between 1.08 × 10−4 and 2.7 × 10−5 nucleotide substitutions per site per year was calculated for the IIa and IIb injecting drug user strains. This is the lowest fixation rate so far reported for RNA viruses, including for HIV, which typically range between 10−2 and 10−4.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: Pisum sativum L. ; frost resistance ; floral initiation ; photoperiod ; temperature
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Frost is one of the main climatic stresses which has to be overcome by a winter pea crop. Some forage lines show a delayed floral initiation, which helps them to escape the main winter freezing periods, as a higher susceptibility to frost is observed after floral initiation commences. Frost tolerant forage peas have been used in all winter pea breeding programs in France and our main purpose was to evaluate to what extent those lines and the current winter varieties are variable for the date of floral initiation in field conditions. A field experiment was carried out during two years at the INRA experimental station of Mons (northern France). Different genotypes (9 in 1995–1996 and 12 in 1996–1997) were sown at approximately monthly intervals between September and June to provide a range of photothermal conditions. The date of floral initiation was determined by destructive sampling. We observed variability for the date of floral initiation among the different genotypes and sowing dates. Our data particularly highlighted the different reactions to photoperiod. Three varieties had no detectable reaction. Six varieties exhibited a quantitative response, with varied intensities. Lastly, the three forage varieties showed a qualitative, high response to photoperiod, which indicated the presence of the Hr allele, already described in Pisum.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1545-9985
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Lactococcus lactis is a Gram-positive bacterium used extensively by the dairy industry for the manufacture of fermented milk products. The double-stranded DNA bacteriophage p2 infects specific L. lactis strains using a receptor-binding protein (RBP) located at the tip of its noncontractile tail. We ...
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2014-08-15
    Description: Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels of the Cys-loop receptor family mediate fast neurotransmission throughout the nervous system. The molecular processes of neurotransmitter binding, subsequent opening of the ion channel and ion permeation remain poorly understood. Here we present the X-ray structure of a mammalian Cys-loop receptor, the mouse serotonin 5-HT3 receptor, at 3.5 A resolution. The structure of the proteolysed receptor, made up of two fragments and comprising part of the intracellular domain, was determined in complex with stabilizing nanobodies. The extracellular domain reveals the detailed anatomy of the neurotransmitter binding site capped by a nanobody. The membrane domain delimits an aqueous pore with a 4.6 A constriction. In the intracellular domain, a bundle of five intracellular helices creates a closed vestibule where lateral portals are obstructed by loops. This 5-HT3 receptor structure, revealing part of the intracellular domain, expands the structural basis for understanding the operating mechanism of mammalian Cys-loop receptors.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hassaine, Gherici -- Deluz, Cedric -- Grasso, Luigino -- Wyss, Romain -- Tol, Menno B -- Hovius, Ruud -- Graff, Alexandra -- Stahlberg, Henning -- Tomizaki, Takashi -- Desmyter, Aline -- Moreau, Christophe -- Li, Xiao-Dan -- Poitevin, Frederic -- Vogel, Horst -- Nury, Hugues -- England -- Nature. 2014 Aug 21;512(7514):276-81. doi: 10.1038/nature13552. Epub 2014 Aug 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Polymers and Membranes, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland [2] [3] Theranyx, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille, France. ; 1] Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Polymers and Membranes, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland [2]. ; Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Polymers and Membranes, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. ; Center for Cellular Imaging and NanoAnalytics, Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland. ; Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5234 Villigen, Switzerland. ; Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, CNRS UMR 7257 and Universite Aix-Marseille, F-13288 Marseille, France. ; 1] Universite Grenoble Alpes, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France [2] CNRS, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France [3] CEA, DSV, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France. ; Laboratory of Biomolecular Research, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland. ; Unite de Dynamique Structurale des Macromolecules, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR3528, F-75015 Paris, France. ; 1] Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Polymers and Membranes, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland [2] Universite Grenoble Alpes, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France [3] CNRS, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France [4] CEA, DSV, IBS, F-38000 Grenoble, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25119048" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Subunits/chemistry/metabolism ; Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3/*chemistry/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2015-07-23
    Description: Bacteria share their ecological niches with other microbes. The bacterial type VI secretion system is one of the key players in microbial competition, as well as being an important virulence determinant during bacterial infections. It assembles a nano-crossbow-like structure in the cytoplasm of the attacker cell that propels an arrow made of a haemolysin co-regulated protein (Hcp) tube and a valine-glycine repeat protein G (VgrG) spike and punctures the prey's cell wall. The nano-crossbow is stably anchored to the cell envelope of the attacker by a membrane core complex. Here we show that this complex is assembled by the sequential addition of three type VI subunits (Tss)-TssJ, TssM and TssL-and present a structure of the fully assembled complex at 11.6 A resolution, determined by negative-stain electron microscopy. With overall C5 symmetry, this 1.7-megadalton complex comprises a large base in the cytoplasm. It extends in the periplasm via ten arches to form a double-ring structure containing the carboxy-terminal domain of TssM (TssMct) and TssJ that is anchored in the outer membrane. The crystal structure of the TssMct-TssJ complex coupled to whole-cell accessibility studies suggest that large conformational changes induce transient pore formation in the outer membrane, allowing passage of the attacking Hcp tube/VgrG spike.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Durand, Eric -- Nguyen, Van Son -- Zoued, Abdelrahim -- Logger, Laureen -- Pehau-Arnaudet, Gerard -- Aschtgen, Marie-Stephanie -- Spinelli, Silvia -- Desmyter, Aline -- Bardiaux, Benjamin -- Dujeancourt, Annick -- Roussel, Alain -- Cambillau, Christian -- Cascales, Eric -- Fronzes, Remi -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jul 30;523(7562):555-60. doi: 10.1038/nature14667. Epub 2015 Jul 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Laboratoire d'Ingenierie des Systemes Macromoleculaires, Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, UMR 7255, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20, France [2] Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, CNRS, UMR 7257, Campus de Luminy, Case 932, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France [3] G5 Biologie structurale de la secretion bacterienne, Institut Pasteur, 25-28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75015 Paris, France [4] UMR 3528, CNRS, Institut Pasteur, 25-28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75015 Paris, France [5] AFMB, Aix-Marseille Universite, IHU Mediterranee Infection, Campus de Luminy, Case 932, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France. ; 1] Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, CNRS, UMR 7257, Campus de Luminy, Case 932, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France [2] AFMB, Aix-Marseille Universite, IHU Mediterranee Infection, Campus de Luminy, Case 932, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France. ; Laboratoire d'Ingenierie des Systemes Macromoleculaires, Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, UMR 7255, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20, France. ; UMR 3528, CNRS, Institut Pasteur, 25-28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75015 Paris, France. ; 1] UMR 3528, CNRS, Institut Pasteur, 25-28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75015 Paris, France [2] Unite de Bioinformatique Structurale, Institut Pasteur, 25-28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75015 Paris, France. ; 1] G5 Biologie structurale de la secretion bacterienne, Institut Pasteur, 25-28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75015 Paris, France [2] UMR 3528, CNRS, Institut Pasteur, 25-28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75015 Paris, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26200339" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Bacterial Secretion Systems ; Cell Membrane/chemistry/metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Cytoplasm/chemistry/metabolism ; Escherichia coli/*chemistry/metabolism ; Escherichia coli Proteins/biosynthesis/*chemistry ; Lipopeptides/biosynthesis/*chemistry ; Membrane Proteins/biosynthesis/*chemistry ; Microscopy, Electron ; Models, Molecular ; Multiprotein Complexes/*biosynthesis/*chemistry ; Periplasm/chemistry/metabolism ; Porosity ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Subunits/biosynthesis/chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2017-05-04
    Description: Autosomal recessive defects of either the B1, E1, M1 or S1 subunit of the Adaptor Protein complex-4 (AP4) are characterized by developmental delay, severe intellectual disability, spasticity, and occasionally ...
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2350
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by BioMed Central
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