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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The advantages and disadvantages of three different approaches to solving the problem of the radiometric correction of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of varying terrain heights are presented. The first approach involves registration of a digital elevation model (DEM) of the terrain to the image, determination of the local elevation and incidence angles, and appropriate radiometric correction. The second approach uses a DEM generated from interferometric SAR data to derive the elevation and incidence angle maps. In the third approach, a monopulse technique is employed to determine the elevation angle only. The relative errors in radiometric correction between these approaches are assessed. Calibration errors are estimated using corner reflectors deployed within some of the scenes imaged by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne SAR (JPL AIRSAR).
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 1 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 271-273.
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: As Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system performance and experience in SAR signature evaluation increase, quantitative analysis becomes more and more important. Such analyses require an absolute radiometric calibration of the complete SAR system. To keep the expenditure on calibration of future multichannel and multisensor remote sensing systems (e.g., X-SAR/SIR-C) within a tolerable level, data from different tracks and different sensors (channels) must be cross calibrated. The 1989 joint E-SAR/DC-8 SAR calibration campaign gave a first opportunity for such an experiment, including cross sensor and cross track calibration. A basic requirement for successful cross calibration is the stability of the SAR systems. The calibration parameters derived from different tracks and the polarimetric properties of the uncalibrated data are used to describe this stability. Quality criteria for a successful cross calibration are the agreement of alpha degree values and the consistency of radar cross sections of equally sized corner reflectors. Channel imbalance and cross talk provide additional quality in case of the polarimetric DC-8 SAR.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0196-2892); 31; 1; p. 237-245.
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The POLCAL crosstalk removal algorithm is based on the statistical properties of the image background and does not need any corner reflector or active radar calibrator deployed in the scene. The advantage of being able to remove the crosstalk contamination without using external calibration targets gives rise to the consideration of algorithms based on clutter statistics in polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images in more detail. The basic assumption of the POLCAL procedure is the decorrelation of copolarized and cross-polarized backscatter, which is valid for natural targets with azimuthal symmetry. This assumption and others regarding the properties of the imaged surface are examined. An improved version called POLCALII is presented, and its performance is compared with POLCAL.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 2 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 1171-1173.
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  • 14
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Results from the 1989 Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Calibration Campaign at the DLR test site in Oberpfaffenhofen are presented. Passive corner reflectors were used to derive the receiver and transmitter distortion matrices and the absolute calibration factor of the multispectral polarimetric DC-8 SAR from the complex high resolution data. A basic requirement for cross-calibration of data from different tracks is the stability of the SAR system. The polarimetric properties of the uncalibrated data were used to describe this stability. Quality criteria for a successful polarimetric calibration were provided by the channel balance and cross-talk parameters.
    Keywords: COMMUNICATIONS AND RADAR
    Type: JPL, Proceedings of the Third Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) Workshop; p 147-156
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  • 15
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Terrain height variations in mountainous areas cause two problems in the radiometric correction of SAR images: the first being that the wrong elevation angle may be used in correcting for the radiometric variation of the antenna pattern; the second that the local incidence angle used in correcting the projection of the pixel area from slant range to ground range coordinates may vary from that given by the flat earth assumption. We propose a novel design of a SAR system which exploits the monopulse principle to determine the elevation angle and thus the height at the different parts of the image. The key element of such a phase monopulse system is an antenna, which can be divided into a lower and upper half in elevation using a monopulse comparator. In addition to the usual sum pattern, the elevation difference pattern can be generated by a -pi phase shift on one half of the antenna. From the ratios of images radiometrically modulated by the difference and sum antenna pattern in cross-track direction, we can derive the appropriate elevation angle at any point in the image. Together with the slant range we can calculate the height of the platform above this point using information on the antenna pointing and the platform attitude. This operation, repeated at many locations throughout the image, allows us to build up a topographic map of the height of the aircraft above each location. Inversion of this map, using the precisely determined aircraft altitude and the accurate flight path, leads to the actual topography of the imaged surface. The precise elevation of one point in the image could also be used to convert the height map to a topographic map. In this paper, we present design considerations for a corresponding airborne SAR system in X-Band and give estimates of the error due to system noise and azimuth ambiguities as well as the expected performance and precision in topographic mapping.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: gress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS); p 256
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: The reported results are mainly based on data obtained during the first part of the Helios-1 mission. The sun was very quiet during the considered period. The data are, therefore, representative for comparatively stationary conditions in the solar corona. Data obtained concerning the protons were evaluated by means of a special computer routine. The significance of the data is discussed, taking into account the status of the corona and the interplanetary plasma during the considered part of the Helios-1 mission, fast stream structures in the region between 0.3 and 1 AU, radial gradients of fast and slow solar wind, and the separation of proton double streams and alpha-particles. Attention is also given to the 'strahl' in the electron distribution, differences between fast streams and slow plasma on the basis of the observed electron distributions, and radial gradients in the case of solar wind electron parameters.
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysics - Zeitschrift fuer Geophysik; 42; 6, 19; 1977
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: Observational evidence favoring the local regulation of solar-wind heat flux at 1 AU is reviewed, and four months of IMP 6 plasma and magnetic-field data are merged and analyzed in order to investigate what might be regulating the heat flux. A statistical analysis of the data shows that the solar-wind Alfven speed is probably regulating the heat flux locally at 1 AU and that the Alfven speed, the velocity difference between the peak of low-energy electrons and the bulk plasma velocity, and the solar-wind velocity component projected along the local spiral angle are statistically well correlated for Alfven speeds not exceeding about 70 km/s. A time-series analysis of the data indicates that only the Alfven speed and the velocity difference between the peak of low-energy electrons and the bulk plasma velocity are well correlated both qualitatively and quantitatively on a microscopic time scale. It is strongly suggested that, at times, the solar-wind heat flux is locally regulated by the magnitude of the Alfven speed at 1 AU. Uncertainties in the results are discussed.
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; 81; Oct. 1
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-05-23
    Description: NASA desalting kit development - container and processor design
    Keywords: CHEMISTRY
    Type: NASA-CR-65022
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A summary of NASA's High Speed Aeroservoelasticity (ASE) project is provided with a focus on a low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed-Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. The summary includes details of the computational models developed to date including a linear finite element model (FEM), linear unsteady aerodynamic models, structured and unstructured CFD grids, and discussion of the FEM development including sizing and structural constraints applied to the N+2 configuration. Linear results obtained to date include linear mode shapes and linear flutter boundaries. In addition to the tasks associated with the N+2 configuration, a summary of the work involving the development of AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) models is also discussed.
    Keywords: Aerodynamics
    Type: AIAA Paper 2014-0675 , NF1676L-16637 , AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting; 13-17 Jan. 2014; National Harbor, MD; United States
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: High-accuracy absorption spectroscopy of CH3OH in the far infrared is discussed. In addition to 22 transitions in the ground state, the frequency of the (n, tau, J, K), (0, 1, 16, 8) to (0, 2, 15, 7) transition in the nu5 excited vibrational level, which is responsible for the laser emission at 119 microns, was measured. The measured frequency is 2,522,782.57(10) MHz at zero pressure, with a pressure shift of 6.1(32) kHz/Pa (0.805/420/ MHz/torr). An accurate remeasurement of the laser emission frequency has also been performed, and the results are in good agreement.
    Keywords: LASERS AND MASERS
    Type: IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (ISSN 0018-9197); 26; 575-579
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