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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2012-09-18
    Description: There is evidence across several species for genetic control of phenotypic variation of complex traits, such that the variance among phenotypes is genotype dependent. Understanding genetic control of variability is important in evolutionary biology, agricultural selection programmes and human medicine, yet for complex traits, no individual genetic variants associated with variance, as opposed to the mean, have been identified. Here we perform a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of phenotypic variation using approximately 170,000 samples on height and body mass index (BMI) in human populations. We report evidence that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7202116 at the FTO gene locus, which is known to be associated with obesity (as measured by mean BMI for each rs7202116 genotype), is also associated with phenotypic variability. We show that the results are not due to scale effects or other artefacts, and find no other experiment-wise significant evidence for effects on variability, either at loci other than FTO for BMI or at any locus for height. The difference in variance for BMI among individuals with opposite homozygous genotypes at the FTO locus is approximately 7%, corresponding to a difference of approximately 0.5 kilograms in the standard deviation of weight. Our results indicate that genetic variants can be discovered that are associated with variability, and that between-person variability in obesity can partly be explained by the genotype at the FTO locus. The results are consistent with reported FTO by environment interactions for BMI, possibly mediated by DNA methylation. Our BMI results for other SNPs and our height results for all SNPs suggest that most genetic variants, including those that influence mean height or mean BMI, are not associated with phenotypic variance, or that their effects on variability are too small to detect even with samples sizes greater than 100,000.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3564953/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3564953/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yang, Jian -- Loos, Ruth J F -- Powell, Joseph E -- Medland, Sarah E -- Speliotes, Elizabeth K -- Chasman, Daniel I -- Rose, Lynda M -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur -- Magi, Reedik -- Waite, Lindsay -- Smith, Albert Vernon -- Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M -- Monda, Keri L -- Hadley, David -- Mahajan, Anubha -- Li, Guo -- Kapur, Karen -- Vitart, Veronique -- Huffman, Jennifer E -- Wang, Sophie R -- Palmer, Cameron -- Esko, Tonu -- Fischer, Krista -- Zhao, Jing Hua -- Demirkan, Ayse -- Isaacs, Aaron -- Feitosa, Mary F -- Luan, Jian'an -- Heard-Costa, Nancy L -- White, Charles -- Jackson, Anne U -- Preuss, Michael -- Ziegler, Andreas -- Eriksson, Joel -- Kutalik, Zoltan -- Frau, Francesca -- Nolte, Ilja M -- Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V -- Hottenga, Jouke-Jan -- Jacobs, Kevin B -- Verweij, Niek -- Goel, Anuj -- Medina-Gomez, Carolina -- Estrada, Karol -- Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer Lynn -- Sanna, Serena -- Sidore, Carlo -- Tyrer, Jonathan -- Teumer, Alexander -- Prokopenko, Inga -- Mangino, Massimo -- Lindgren, Cecilia M -- Assimes, Themistocles L -- Shuldiner, Alan R -- Hui, Jennie -- Beilby, John P -- McArdle, Wendy L -- Hall, Per -- Haritunians, Talin -- Zgaga, Lina -- Kolcic, Ivana -- Polasek, Ozren -- Zemunik, Tatijana -- Oostra, Ben A -- Junttila, M Juhani -- Gronberg, Henrik -- Schreiber, Stefan -- Peters, Annette -- Hicks, Andrew A -- Stephens, Jonathan -- Foad, Nicola S -- Laitinen, Jaana -- Pouta, Anneli -- Kaakinen, Marika -- Willemsen, Gonneke -- Vink, Jacqueline M -- Wild, Sarah H -- Navis, Gerjan -- Asselbergs, Folkert W -- Homuth, Georg -- John, Ulrich -- Iribarren, Carlos -- Harris, Tamara -- Launer, Lenore -- Gudnason, Vilmundur -- O'Connell, Jeffrey R -- Boerwinkle, Eric -- Cadby, Gemma -- Palmer, Lyle J -- James, Alan L -- Musk, Arthur W -- Ingelsson, Erik -- Psaty, Bruce M -- Beckmann, Jacques S -- Waeber, Gerard -- Vollenweider, Peter -- Hayward, Caroline -- Wright, Alan F -- Rudan, Igor -- Groop, Leif C -- Metspalu, Andres -- Khaw, Kay Tee -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Borecki, Ingrid B -- Province, Michael A -- Wareham, Nicholas J -- Tardif, Jean-Claude -- Huikuri, Heikki V -- Cupples, L Adrienne -- Atwood, Larry D -- Fox, Caroline S -- Boehnke, Michael -- Collins, Francis S -- Mohlke, Karen L -- Erdmann, Jeanette -- Schunkert, Heribert -- Hengstenberg, Christian -- Stark, Klaus -- Lorentzon, Mattias -- Ohlsson, Claes -- Cusi, Daniele -- Staessen, Jan A -- Van der Klauw, Melanie M -- Pramstaller, Peter P -- Kathiresan, Sekar -- Jolley, Jennifer D -- Ripatti, Samuli -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- de Geus, Eco J C -- Boomsma, Dorret I -- Penninx, Brenda -- Wilson, James F -- Campbell, Harry -- Chanock, Stephen J -- van der Harst, Pim -- Hamsten, Anders -- Watkins, Hugh -- Hofman, Albert -- Witteman, Jacqueline C -- Zillikens, M Carola -- Uitterlinden, Andre G -- Rivadeneira, Fernando -- Kiemeney, Lambertus A -- Vermeulen, Sita H -- Abecasis, Goncalo R -- Schlessinger, David -- Schipf, Sabine -- Stumvoll, Michael -- Tonjes, Anke -- Spector, Tim D -- North, Kari E -- Lettre, Guillaume -- McCarthy, Mark I -- Berndt, Sonja I -- Heath, Andrew C -- Madden, Pamela A F -- Nyholt, Dale R -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Martin, Nicholas G -- McKnight, Barbara -- Strachan, David P -- Hill, William G -- Snieder, Harold -- Ridker, Paul M -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Stefansson, Kari -- Frayling, Timothy M -- Hirschhorn, Joel N -- Goddard, Michael E -- Visscher, Peter M -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 14136/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- AA014041/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- AA07535/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- AA10248/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- AA13320/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- AA13321/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- AA13326/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- CZB/4/710/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- DA12854/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- F32 AR059469/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- F32 DK079466/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- G0601261/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1000143/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- GM057091/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100005C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100006C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100007C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100008C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100009C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100010C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100011C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN268201100012C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K05 AA017688/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- K23 DK080145/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- MC_PC_U127561128/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106179471/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U127561128/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- N01 AG012100/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC015103/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC025195/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC035129/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC045133/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC055222/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC075150/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC085079/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HG065403/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- N01HC85086/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N02 HL64278/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK063491/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK072488/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 AA007535/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AA013320/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AA013321/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AA013326/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AA014041/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG015928/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG020098/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG023629/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG027058/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA012854/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK062370/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK072193/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK073490/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK075681/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK075787/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002651/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL043851/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL059367/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL075366/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL080295/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL086694/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087641/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087647/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087652/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087676/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087679/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL105756/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 LM010098/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH063706/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- RL1 MH083268/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062418/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004402/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL054527/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL069757/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL072515/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL084729/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL084756/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U54 RR020278/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR033176/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Z01 HG000024-14/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Oct 11;490(7419):267-72. doi: 10.1038/nature11401. Epub 2012 Sep 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland 4102, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22982992" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Body Height/genetics ; *Body Mass Index ; Co-Repressor Proteins ; Female ; *Genetic Variation ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Humans ; Male ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics ; *Phenotype ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Proteins/*genetics ; Repressor Proteins/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2010-08-06
    Description: Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are among the most important risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and are targets for therapeutic intervention. We screened the genome for common variants associated with plasma lipids in 〉100,000 individuals of European ancestry. Here we report 95 significantly associated loci (P 〈 5 x 10(-8)), with 59 showing genome-wide significant association with lipid traits for the first time. The newly reported associations include single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near known lipid regulators (for example, CYP7A1, NPC1L1 and SCARB1) as well as in scores of loci not previously implicated in lipoprotein metabolism. The 95 loci contribute not only to normal variation in lipid traits but also to extreme lipid phenotypes and have an impact on lipid traits in three non-European populations (East Asians, South Asians and African Americans). Our results identify several novel loci associated with plasma lipids that are also associated with CAD. Finally, we validated three of the novel genes-GALNT2, PPP1R3B and TTC39B-with experiments in mouse models. Taken together, our findings provide the foundation to develop a broader biological understanding of lipoprotein metabolism and to identify new therapeutic opportunities for the prevention of CAD.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3039276/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3039276/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Teslovich, Tanya M -- Musunuru, Kiran -- Smith, Albert V -- Edmondson, Andrew C -- Stylianou, Ioannis M -- Koseki, Masahiro -- Pirruccello, James P -- Ripatti, Samuli -- Chasman, Daniel I -- Willer, Cristen J -- Johansen, Christopher T -- Fouchier, Sigrid W -- Isaacs, Aaron -- Peloso, Gina M -- Barbalic, Maja -- Ricketts, Sally L -- Bis, Joshua C -- Aulchenko, Yurii S -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Feitosa, Mary F -- Chambers, John -- Orho-Melander, Marju -- Melander, Olle -- Johnson, Toby -- Li, Xiaohui -- Guo, Xiuqing -- Li, Mingyao -- Shin Cho, Yoon -- Jin Go, Min -- Jin Kim, Young -- Lee, Jong-Young -- Park, Taesung -- Kim, Kyunga -- Sim, Xueling -- Twee-Hee Ong, Rick -- Croteau-Chonka, Damien C -- Lange, Leslie A -- Smith, Joshua D -- Song, Kijoung -- Hua Zhao, Jing -- Yuan, Xin -- Luan, Jian'an -- Lamina, Claudia -- Ziegler, Andreas -- Zhang, Weihua -- Zee, Robert Y L -- Wright, Alan F -- Witteman, Jacqueline C M -- Wilson, James F -- Willemsen, Gonneke -- Wichmann, H-Erich -- Whitfield, John B -- Waterworth, Dawn M -- Wareham, Nicholas J -- Waeber, Gerard -- Vollenweider, Peter -- Voight, Benjamin F -- Vitart, Veronique -- Uitterlinden, Andre G -- Uda, Manuela -- Tuomilehto, Jaakko -- Thompson, John R -- Tanaka, Toshiko -- Surakka, Ida -- Stringham, Heather M -- Spector, Tim D -- Soranzo, Nicole -- Smit, Johannes H -- Sinisalo, Juha -- Silander, Kaisa -- Sijbrands, Eric J G -- Scuteri, Angelo -- Scott, James -- Schlessinger, David -- Sanna, Serena -- Salomaa, Veikko -- Saharinen, Juha -- Sabatti, Chiara -- Ruokonen, Aimo -- Rudan, Igor -- Rose, Lynda M -- Roberts, Robert -- Rieder, Mark -- Psaty, Bruce M -- Pramstaller, Peter P -- Pichler, Irene -- Perola, Markus -- Penninx, Brenda W J H -- Pedersen, Nancy L -- Pattaro, Cristian -- Parker, Alex N -- Pare, Guillaume -- Oostra, Ben A -- O'Donnell, Christopher J -- Nieminen, Markku S -- Nickerson, Deborah A -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Meitinger, Thomas -- McPherson, Ruth -- McCarthy, Mark I -- McArdle, Wendy -- Masson, David -- Martin, Nicholas G -- Marroni, Fabio -- Mangino, Massimo -- Magnusson, Patrik K E -- Lucas, Gavin -- Luben, Robert -- Loos, Ruth J F -- Lokki, Marja-Liisa -- Lettre, Guillaume -- Langenberg, Claudia -- Launer, Lenore J -- Lakatta, Edward G -- Laaksonen, Reijo -- Kyvik, Kirsten O -- Kronenberg, Florian -- Konig, Inke R -- Khaw, Kay-Tee -- Kaprio, Jaakko -- Kaplan, Lee M -- Johansson, Asa -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- Janssens, A Cecile J W -- Ingelsson, Erik -- Igl, Wilmar -- Kees Hovingh, G -- Hottenga, Jouke-Jan -- Hofman, Albert -- Hicks, Andrew A -- Hengstenberg, Christian -- Heid, Iris M -- Hayward, Caroline -- Havulinna, Aki S -- Hastie, Nicholas D -- Harris, Tamara B -- Haritunians, Talin -- Hall, Alistair S -- Gyllensten, Ulf -- Guiducci, Candace -- Groop, Leif C -- Gonzalez, Elena -- Gieger, Christian -- Freimer, Nelson B -- Ferrucci, Luigi -- Erdmann, Jeanette -- Elliott, Paul -- Ejebe, Kenechi G -- Doring, Angela -- Dominiczak, Anna F -- Demissie, Serkalem -- Deloukas, Panagiotis -- de Geus, Eco J C -- de Faire, Ulf -- Crawford, Gabriel -- Collins, Francis S -- Chen, Yii-der I -- Caulfield, Mark J -- Campbell, Harry -- Burtt, Noel P -- Bonnycastle, Lori L -- Boomsma, Dorret I -- Boekholdt, S Matthijs -- Bergman, Richard N -- Barroso, Ines -- Bandinelli, Stefania -- Ballantyne, Christie M -- Assimes, Themistocles L -- Quertermous, Thomas -- Altshuler, David -- Seielstad, Mark -- Wong, Tien Y -- Tai, E-Shyong -- Feranil, Alan B -- Kuzawa, Christopher W -- Adair, Linda S -- Taylor, Herman A Jr -- Borecki, Ingrid B -- Gabriel, Stacey B -- Wilson, James G -- Holm, Hilma -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Gudnason, Vilmundur -- Krauss, Ronald M -- Mohlke, Karen L -- Ordovas, Jose M -- Munroe, Patricia B -- Kooner, Jaspal S -- Tall, Alan R -- Hegele, Robert A -- Kastelein, John J P -- Schadt, Eric E -- Rotter, Jerome I -- Boerwinkle, Eric -- Strachan, David P -- Mooser, Vincent -- Stefansson, Kari -- Reilly, Muredach P -- Samani, Nilesh J -- Schunkert, Heribert -- Cupples, L Adrienne -- Sandhu, Manjinder S -- Ridker, Paul M -- Rader, Daniel J -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Peltonen, Leena -- Abecasis, Goncalo R -- Boehnke, Michael -- Kathiresan, Sekar -- 068545/Z/02/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 076113/B/04/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077016/Z/05/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 079895/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1Z01 HG000024/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- 5R01DK06833603/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- 5R01DK07568102/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- 5R01HL087679-02/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- 5R01HL08770003/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- 5R01HL08821502/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- CA 047988/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CZB/4/710/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- DK062370/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK063491/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK072193/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK078150/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK56350/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- ES10126/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- G0000934/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0401527/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0601966/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700931/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701863/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0801056/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0801566/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9521010/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9521010D/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- HHSN268200625226C/PHS HHS/ -- HL 04381/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL 080467/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-54776/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL085144/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K99 HL098364/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K99 HL098364-01/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K99HL094535/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- M01-RR00425/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- MC_QA137934/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106179471/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U106188470/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U127561128/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- N01 HC-15103/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01 HC-55222/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-AG-12100/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-25195/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-35129/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-45133/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55015/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55016/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55018/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55019/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55020/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55021/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-55022/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-75150/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85079/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85080/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85081/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85082/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85083/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85084/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85085/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HC-85086/HC/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HG-65403/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- N02-HL-6-4278/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- PG/02/128/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- PG/08/094/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- PG/08/094/26019/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- R01 DK072193/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK078150/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087647/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL087676/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL089650/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL086694/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL087641/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL087652/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL59367/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R24 HD050924/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- RC1 HL099634/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RC1 HL099634-02/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RC1 HL099793/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HL101864,/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HL102419/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RG/07/005/23633/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- RR20649/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- SP/08/005/25115/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- T32 GM007092/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 HG00040/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- T32HL007208/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- TW05596/TW/FIC NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062370/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062418/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL069757/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL080295/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01HG004402/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 RR020278/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1RR025005/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2010 Aug 5;466(7307):707-13. doi: 10.1038/nature09270.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20686565" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: African Americans/genetics ; Animals ; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Cholesterol, HDL/blood ; Cholesterol, LDL/blood ; Coronary Artery Disease/blood/genetics/therapy ; Europe/ethnology ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Female ; Genetic Loci/*genetics ; *Genome-Wide Association Study ; Genotype ; Humans ; Lipid Metabolism/*genetics ; Lipids/*blood ; Liver/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases/genetics/metabolism ; Phenotype ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Protein Phosphatase 1/genetics/metabolism ; Reproducibility of Results ; Triglycerides/blood
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2002-06-01
    Description: The high degree of similarity between the mouse and human genomes is demonstrated through analysis of the sequence of mouse chromosome 16 (Mmu 16), which was obtained as part of a whole-genome shotgun assembly of the mouse genome. The mouse genome is about 10% smaller than the human genome, owing to a lower repetitive DNA content. Comparison of the structure and protein-coding potential of Mmu 16 with that of the homologous segments of the human genome identifies regions of conserved synteny with human chromosomes (Hsa) 3, 8, 12, 16, 21, and 22. Gene content and order are highly conserved between Mmu 16 and the syntenic blocks of the human genome. Of the 731 predicted genes on Mmu 16, 509 align with orthologs on the corresponding portions of the human genome, 44 are likely paralogous to these genes, and 164 genes have homologs elsewhere in the human genome; there are 14 genes for which we could find no human counterpart.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mural, Richard J -- Adams, Mark D -- Myers, Eugene W -- Smith, Hamilton O -- Miklos, George L Gabor -- Wides, Ron -- Halpern, Aaron -- Li, Peter W -- Sutton, Granger G -- Nadeau, Joe -- Salzberg, Steven L -- Holt, Robert A -- Kodira, Chinnappa D -- Lu, Fu -- Chen, Lin -- Deng, Zuoming -- Evangelista, Carlos C -- Gan, Weiniu -- Heiman, Thomas J -- Li, Jiayin -- Li, Zhenya -- Merkulov, Gennady V -- Milshina, Natalia V -- Naik, Ashwinikumar K -- Qi, Rong -- Shue, Bixiong Chris -- Wang, Aihui -- Wang, Jian -- Wang, Xin -- Yan, Xianghe -- Ye, Jane -- Yooseph, Shibu -- Zhao, Qi -- Zheng, Liansheng -- Zhu, Shiaoping C -- Biddick, Kendra -- Bolanos, Randall -- Delcher, Arthur L -- Dew, Ian M -- Fasulo, Daniel -- Flanigan, Michael J -- Huson, Daniel H -- Kravitz, Saul A -- Miller, Jason R -- Mobarry, Clark M -- Reinert, Knut -- Remington, Karin A -- Zhang, Qing -- Zheng, Xiangqun H -- Nusskern, Deborah R -- Lai, Zhongwu -- Lei, Yiding -- Zhong, Wenyan -- Yao, Alison -- Guan, Ping -- Ji, Rui-Ru -- Gu, Zhiping -- Wang, Zhen-Yuan -- Zhong, Fei -- Xiao, Chunlin -- Chiang, Chia-Chien -- Yandell, Mark -- Wortman, Jennifer R -- Amanatides, Peter G -- Hladun, Suzanne L -- Pratts, Eric C -- Johnson, Jeffery E -- Dodson, Kristina L -- Woodford, Kerry J -- Evans, Cheryl A -- Gropman, Barry -- Rusch, Douglas B -- Venter, Eli -- Wang, Mei -- Smith, Thomas J -- Houck, Jarrett T -- Tompkins, Donald E -- Haynes, Charles -- Jacob, Debbie -- Chin, Soo H -- Allen, David R -- Dahlke, Carl E -- Sanders, Robert -- Li, Kelvin -- Liu, Xiangjun -- Levitsky, Alexander A -- Majoros, William H -- Chen, Quan -- Xia, Ashley C -- Lopez, John R -- Donnelly, Michael T -- Newman, Matthew H -- Glodek, Anna -- Kraft, Cheryl L -- Nodell, Marc -- Ali, Feroze -- An, Hui-Jin -- Baldwin-Pitts, Danita -- Beeson, Karen Y -- Cai, Shuang -- Carnes, Mark -- Carver, Amy -- Caulk, Parris M -- Center, Angela -- Chen, Yen-Hui -- Cheng, Ming-Lai -- Coyne, My D -- Crowder, Michelle -- Danaher, Steven -- Davenport, Lionel B -- Desilets, Raymond -- Dietz, Susanne M -- Doup, Lisa -- Dullaghan, Patrick -- Ferriera, Steven -- Fosler, Carl R -- Gire, Harold C -- Gluecksmann, Andres -- Gocayne, Jeannine D -- Gray, Jonathan -- Hart, Brit -- Haynes, Jason -- Hoover, Jeffery -- Howland, Tim -- Ibegwam, Chinyere -- Jalali, Mena -- Johns, David -- Kline, Leslie -- Ma, Daniel S -- MacCawley, Steven -- Magoon, Anand -- Mann, Felecia -- May, David -- McIntosh, Tina C -- Mehta, Somil -- Moy, Linda -- Moy, Mee C -- Murphy, Brian J -- Murphy, Sean D -- Nelson, Keith A -- Nuri, Zubeda -- Parker, Kimberly A -- Prudhomme, Alexandre C -- Puri, Vinita N -- Qureshi, Hina -- Raley, John C -- Reardon, Matthew S -- Regier, Megan A -- Rogers, Yu-Hui C -- Romblad, Deanna L -- Schutz, Jakob -- Scott, John L -- Scott, Richard -- Sitter, Cynthia D -- Smallwood, Michella -- Sprague, Arlan C -- Stewart, Erin -- Strong, Renee V -- Suh, Ellen -- Sylvester, Karena -- Thomas, Reginald -- Tint, Ni Ni -- Tsonis, Christopher -- Wang, Gary -- Wang, George -- Williams, Monica S -- Williams, Sherita M -- Windsor, Sandra M -- Wolfe, Keriellen -- Wu, Mitchell M -- Zaveri, Jayshree -- Chaturvedi, Kabir -- Gabrielian, Andrei E -- Ke, Zhaoxi -- Sun, Jingtao -- Subramanian, Gangadharan -- Venter, J Craig -- Pfannkoch, Cynthia M -- Barnstead, Mary -- Stephenson, Lisa D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2002 May 31;296(5573):1661-71.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Celera Genomics, 45 West Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA. richard.mural@celera.com〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12040188" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Composition ; Chromosomes/*genetics ; Chromosomes, Human/genetics ; Computational Biology ; Conserved Sequence ; Databases, Nucleic Acid ; Evolution, Molecular ; Genes ; Genetic Markers ; *Genome ; *Genome, Human ; Genomics ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred A/genetics ; Mice, Inbred DBA/genetics ; Mice, Inbred Strains/*genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Physical Chromosome Mapping ; Proteins/chemistry/genetics ; Sequence Alignment ; *Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Species Specificity ; *Synteny
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2015-09-15
    Description: The extent to which low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) between 1-5%) and rare (MAF 〈/= 1%) variants contribute to complex traits and disease in the general population is mainly unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) is highly heritable, a major predictor of osteoporotic fractures, and has been previously associated with common genetic variants, as well as rare, population-specific, coding variants. Here we identify novel non-coding genetic variants with large effects on BMD (ntotal = 53,236) and fracture (ntotal = 508,253) in individuals of European ancestry from the general population. Associations for BMD were derived from whole-genome sequencing (n = 2,882 from UK10K (ref. 10); a population-based genome sequencing consortium), whole-exome sequencing (n = 3,549), deep imputation of genotyped samples using a combined UK10K/1000 Genomes reference panel (n = 26,534), and de novo replication genotyping (n = 20,271). We identified a low-frequency non-coding variant near a novel locus, EN1, with an effect size fourfold larger than the mean of previously reported common variants for lumbar spine BMD (rs11692564(T), MAF = 1.6%, replication effect size = +0.20 s.d., Pmeta = 2 x 10(-14)), which was also associated with a decreased risk of fracture (odds ratio = 0.85; P = 2 x 10(-11); ncases = 98,742 and ncontrols = 409,511). Using an En1(cre/flox) mouse model, we observed that conditional loss of En1 results in low bone mass, probably as a consequence of high bone turnover. We also identified a novel low-frequency non-coding variant with large effects on BMD near WNT16 (rs148771817(T), MAF = 1.2%, replication effect size = +0.41 s.d., Pmeta = 1 x 10(-11)). In general, there was an excess of association signals arising from deleterious coding and conserved non-coding variants. These findings provide evidence that low-frequency non-coding variants have large effects on BMD and fracture, thereby providing rationale for whole-genome sequencing and improved imputation reference panels to study the genetic architecture of complex traits and disease in the general population.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4755714/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4755714/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zheng, Hou-Feng -- Forgetta, Vincenzo -- Hsu, Yi-Hsiang -- Estrada, Karol -- Rosello-Diez, Alberto -- Leo, Paul J -- Dahia, Chitra L -- Park-Min, Kyung Hyun -- Tobias, Jonathan H -- Kooperberg, Charles -- Kleinman, Aaron -- Styrkarsdottir, Unnur -- Liu, Ching-Ti -- Uggla, Charlotta -- Evans, Daniel S -- Nielson, Carrie M -- Walter, Klaudia -- Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika -- McCarthy, Shane -- Eriksson, Joel -- Kwan, Tony -- Jhamai, Mila -- Trajanoska, Katerina -- Memari, Yasin -- Min, Josine -- Huang, Jie -- Danecek, Petr -- Wilmot, Beth -- Li, Rui -- Chou, Wen-Chi -- Mokry, Lauren E -- Moayyeri, Alireza -- Claussnitzer, Melina -- Cheng, Chia-Ho -- Cheung, Warren -- Medina-Gomez, Carolina -- Ge, Bing -- Chen, Shu-Huang -- Choi, Kwangbom -- Oei, Ling -- Fraser, James -- Kraaij, Robert -- Hibbs, Matthew A -- Gregson, Celia L -- Paquette, Denis -- Hofman, Albert -- Wibom, Carl -- Tranah, Gregory J -- Marshall, Mhairi -- Gardiner, Brooke B -- Cremin, Katie -- Auer, Paul -- Hsu, Li -- Ring, Sue -- Tung, Joyce Y -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Enneman, Anke W -- van Schoor, Natasja M -- de Groot, Lisette C P G M -- van der Velde, Nathalie -- Melin, Beatrice -- Kemp, John P -- Christiansen, Claus -- Sayers, Adrian -- Zhou, Yanhua -- Calderari, Sophie -- van Rooij, Jeroen -- Carlson, Chris -- Peters, Ulrike -- Berlivet, Soizik -- Dostie, Josee -- Uitterlinden, Andre G -- Williams, Stephen R -- Farber, Charles -- Grinberg, Daniel -- LaCroix, Andrea Z -- Haessler, Jeff -- Chasman, Daniel I -- Giulianini, Franco -- Rose, Lynda M -- Ridker, Paul M -- Eisman, John A -- Nguyen, Tuan V -- Center, Jacqueline R -- Nogues, Xavier -- Garcia-Giralt, Natalia -- Launer, Lenore L -- Gudnason, Vilmunder -- Mellstrom, Dan -- Vandenput, Liesbeth -- Amin, Najaf -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Karlsson, Magnus K -- Ljunggren, Osten -- Svensson, Olle -- Hallmans, Goran -- Rousseau, Francois -- Giroux, Sylvie -- Bussiere, Johanne -- Arp, Pascal P -- Koromani, Fjorda -- Prince, Richard L -- Lewis, Joshua R -- Langdahl, Bente L -- Hermann, A Pernille -- Jensen, Jens-Erik B -- Kaptoge, Stephen -- Khaw, Kay-Tee -- Reeve, Jonathan -- Formosa, Melissa M -- Xuereb-Anastasi, Angela -- Akesson, Kristina -- McGuigan, Fiona E -- Garg, Gaurav -- Olmos, Jose M -- Zarrabeitia, Maria T -- Riancho, Jose A -- Ralston, Stuart H -- Alonso, Nerea -- Jiang, Xi -- Goltzman, David -- Pastinen, Tomi -- Grundberg, Elin -- Gauguier, Dominique -- Orwoll, Eric S -- Karasik, David -- Davey-Smith, George -- AOGC Consortium -- Smith, Albert V -- Siggeirsdottir, Kristin -- Harris, Tamara B -- Zillikens, M Carola -- van Meurs, Joyce B J -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Maurano, Matthew T -- Timpson, Nicholas J -- Soranzo, Nicole -- Durbin, Richard -- Wilson, Scott G -- Ntzani, Evangelia E -- Brown, Matthew A -- Stefansson, Kari -- Hinds, David A -- Spector, Tim -- Cupples, L Adrienne -- Ohlsson, Claes -- Greenwood, Celia M T -- UK10K Consortium -- Jackson, Rebecca D -- Rowe, David W -- Loomis, Cynthia A -- Evans, David M -- Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L -- Joyner, Alexandra L -- Duncan, Emma L -- Kiel, Douglas P -- Rivadeneira, Fernando -- Richards, J Brent -- G1000143/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K01 AR062655/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- MC_UU_12013/3/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- R01 AG005394/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG005407/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG027574/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG027576/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR035582/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR035583/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- RC2 AR058973/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 AG018197/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U01 AG042140/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U01 AG042143/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U01 AR045580/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 AR045583/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 AR045614/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 AR045632/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 AR045647/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 AR045654/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 AR066160/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 1;526(7571):112-7. doi: 10.1038/nature14878. Epub 2015 Sep 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departments of Medicine, Human Genetics, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal H3A 1A2, Canada. ; Department of Medicine, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal H3T 1E2, Canada. ; Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, Massachusetts 02131, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam 3015GE, The Netherlands. ; Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane 4102, Australia. ; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Tissue Engineering, Regeneration and Repair Program, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York 10021, USA. ; Rheumatology Divison, Hospital for Special Surgery New York, New York 10021, USA. ; School of Clinical Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS10 5NB, UK. ; MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK. ; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. ; Department of Research, 23andMe, Mountain View, California 94041, USA. ; Department of Population Genomics, deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik IS-101, Iceland. ; Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg S-413 45, Sweden. ; California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Oregon Health &Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; Bone &Mineral Unit, Oregon Health &Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ; Departments of Pharmacology and Clinical Neurosciences, Umea University, Umea S-901 87, Sweden. ; Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umea University, Umea SE-901 87, Sweden. ; Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg S-413 45, Sweden. ; McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, Montreal H3A 0G1, Canada. ; Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam 3015GE, The Netherlands. ; Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute, Oregon Health &Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; Department of Medical and Clinical Informatics, Oregon Health &Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research, University College London, London NW1 2DA, UK. ; Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, UK. ; Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montreal H3A 1B1, Canada. ; Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Leiden 2300RC, The Netherlands. ; Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Goodman Cancer Research Center, McGill University, Montreal H3G 1Y6, Canada. ; Department of Computer Science, Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas 78212, USA. ; Musculoskeletal Research Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol BS10 5NB, UK. ; Department of Radiation Sciences, Umea University, Umea S-901 87, Sweden. ; School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53726, USA. ; School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK. ; Department of Statistics, deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik IS-101, Iceland. ; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and the EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam 1007 MB, The Netherlands. ; Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen 6700 EV, The Netherlands. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Section Geriatrics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam 1105, The Netherlands. ; Nordic Bioscience, Herlev 2730, Denmark. ; Cordeliers Research Centre, INSERM UMRS 1138, Paris 75006, France. ; Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition, University Pierre &Marie Curie, Paris 75013, France. ; Departments of Medicine (Cardiovascular Medicine), Centre for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA. ; Department of Genetics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain. ; U-720, Centre for Biomedical Network Research on Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Barcelona 28029, Spain. ; Department of Human Molecular Genetics, The Institute of Biomedicine of the University of Barcelona (IBUB), Barcelona 08028, Spain. ; Women's Health Center of Excellence Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California - San Diego, San Diego, California 92093, USA. ; Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Osteoporosis &Bone Biology Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney 2010, Australia. ; School of Medicine Sydney, University of Notre Dame Australia, Sydney 6959, Australia. ; St. Vincent's Hospital &Clinical School, NSW University, Sydney 2010, Australia. ; Musculoskeletal Research Group, Institut Hospital del Mar d'Investigacions Mediques, Barcelona 08003, Spain. ; Cooperative Research Network on Aging and Fragility (RETICEF), Institute of Health Carlos III, 28029, Spain. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital del Mar, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona 08193, Spain. ; Neuroepidemiology Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur IS-201, Iceland. ; Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik IS-101, Iceland. ; Genetic epidemiology unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam 3000CA, The Netherlands. ; Department of Orthopaedics, Skane University Hospital Malmo 205 02, Sweden. ; Department of Medical Sciences, University of Uppsala, Uppsala 751 85, Sweden. ; Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umea Unviersity, Umea 901 85, Sweden. ; Department of Molecular Biology, Medical Biochemistry and Pathology, Universite Laval, Quebec City G1V 0A6, Canada. ; Axe Sante des Populations et Pratiques Optimales en Sante, Centre de recherche du CHU de Quebec, Quebec City G1V 4G2, Canada. ; Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands 6009, Australia. ; Department of Medicine, University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, Australia. ; Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C 8000, Denmark. ; Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Odense C 5000, Denmark. ; Department of Endocrinology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Hvidovre 2650, Denmark. ; Clinical Gerontology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK. ; Medicine and Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK. ; Institute of Musculoskeletal Sciences, The Botnar Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LD, UK. ; Department of Applied Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Malta, Msida MSD 2080, Malta. ; Clinical and Molecular Osteoporosis Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmo, Lund University, 205 02, Sweden. ; Department of Medicine and Psychiatry, University of Cantabria, Santander 39011, Spain. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital U.M. Valdecilla- IDIVAL, Santander 39008, Spain. ; Department of Legal Medicine, University of Cantabria, Santander 39011, Spain. ; Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; Department of Reconstructive Sciences, College of Dental Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA. ; Department of Medicine and Physiology, McGill University, Montreal H4A 3J1, Canada. ; Department of Medicine, Oregon Health &Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, Safed 13010, Israel. ; Laboratory of Epidemiology, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, Australia. ; Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina 45110, Greece. ; Department of Health Services, Policy and Practice, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island 02903, USA. ; deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik IS-101, Iceland. ; Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal H3A 1A2, Canada. ; Department of Oncology, Gerald Bronfman Centre, McGill University, Montreal H2W 1S6, Canada. ; Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA. ; The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology and Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane 4029, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26367794" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bone Density/*genetics ; Bone and Bones/metabolism ; Disease Models, Animal ; Europe/ethnology ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Exome/genetics ; Female ; Fractures, Bone/*genetics ; Gene Frequency/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics ; Genetic Variation/genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genomics ; Genotype ; Homeodomain Proteins/*genetics ; Humans ; Mice ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Wnt Proteins/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2008-11-07
    Description: DNA sequence information underpins genetic research, enabling discoveries of important biological or medical benefit. Sequencing projects have traditionally used long (400-800 base pair) reads, but the existence of reference sequences for the human and many other genomes makes it possible to develop new, fast approaches to re-sequencing, whereby shorter reads are compared to a reference to identify intraspecies genetic variation. Here we report an approach that generates several billion bases of accurate nucleotide sequence per experiment at low cost. Single molecules of DNA are attached to a flat surface, amplified in situ and used as templates for synthetic sequencing with fluorescent reversible terminator deoxyribonucleotides. Images of the surface are analysed to generate high-quality sequence. We demonstrate application of this approach to human genome sequencing on flow-sorted X chromosomes and then scale the approach to determine the genome sequence of a male Yoruba from Ibadan, Nigeria. We build an accurate consensus sequence from 〉30x average depth of paired 35-base reads. We characterize four million single-nucleotide polymorphisms and four hundred thousand structural variants, many of which were previously unknown. Our approach is effective for accurate, rapid and economical whole-genome re-sequencing and many other biomedical applications.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2581791/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2581791/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bentley, David R -- Balasubramanian, Shankar -- Swerdlow, Harold P -- Smith, Geoffrey P -- Milton, John -- Brown, Clive G -- Hall, Kevin P -- Evers, Dirk J -- Barnes, Colin L -- Bignell, Helen R -- Boutell, Jonathan M -- Bryant, Jason -- Carter, Richard J -- Keira Cheetham, R -- Cox, Anthony J -- Ellis, Darren J -- Flatbush, Michael R -- Gormley, Niall A -- Humphray, Sean J -- Irving, Leslie J -- Karbelashvili, Mirian S -- Kirk, Scott M -- Li, Heng -- Liu, Xiaohai -- Maisinger, Klaus S -- Murray, Lisa J -- Obradovic, Bojan -- Ost, Tobias -- Parkinson, Michael L -- Pratt, Mark R -- Rasolonjatovo, Isabelle M J -- Reed, Mark T -- Rigatti, Roberto -- Rodighiero, Chiara -- Ross, Mark T -- Sabot, Andrea -- Sankar, Subramanian V -- Scally, Aylwyn -- Schroth, Gary P -- Smith, Mark E -- Smith, Vincent P -- Spiridou, Anastassia -- Torrance, Peta E -- Tzonev, Svilen S -- Vermaas, Eric H -- Walter, Klaudia -- Wu, Xiaolin -- Zhang, Lu -- Alam, Mohammed D -- Anastasi, Carole -- Aniebo, Ify C -- Bailey, David M D -- Bancarz, Iain R -- Banerjee, Saibal -- Barbour, Selena G -- Baybayan, Primo A -- Benoit, Vincent A -- Benson, Kevin F -- Bevis, Claire -- Black, Phillip J -- Boodhun, Asha -- Brennan, Joe S -- Bridgham, John A -- Brown, Rob C -- Brown, Andrew A -- Buermann, Dale H -- Bundu, Abass A -- Burrows, James C -- Carter, Nigel P -- Castillo, Nestor -- Chiara E Catenazzi, Maria -- Chang, Simon -- Neil Cooley, R -- Crake, Natasha R -- Dada, Olubunmi O -- Diakoumakos, Konstantinos D -- Dominguez-Fernandez, Belen -- Earnshaw, David J -- Egbujor, Ugonna C -- Elmore, David W -- Etchin, Sergey S -- Ewan, Mark R -- Fedurco, Milan -- Fraser, Louise J -- Fuentes Fajardo, Karin V -- Scott Furey, W -- George, David -- Gietzen, Kimberley J -- Goddard, Colin P -- Golda, George S -- Granieri, Philip A -- Green, David E -- Gustafson, David L -- Hansen, Nancy F -- Harnish, Kevin -- Haudenschild, Christian D -- Heyer, Narinder I -- Hims, Matthew M -- Ho, Johnny T -- Horgan, Adrian M -- Hoschler, Katya -- Hurwitz, Steve -- Ivanov, Denis V -- Johnson, Maria Q -- James, Terena -- Huw Jones, T A -- Kang, Gyoung-Dong -- Kerelska, Tzvetana H -- Kersey, Alan D -- Khrebtukova, Irina -- Kindwall, Alex P -- Kingsbury, Zoya -- Kokko-Gonzales, Paula I -- Kumar, Anil -- Laurent, Marc A -- Lawley, Cynthia T -- Lee, Sarah E -- Lee, Xavier -- Liao, Arnold K -- Loch, Jennifer A -- Lok, Mitch -- Luo, Shujun -- Mammen, Radhika M -- Martin, John W -- McCauley, Patrick G -- McNitt, Paul -- Mehta, Parul -- Moon, Keith W -- Mullens, Joe W -- Newington, Taksina -- Ning, Zemin -- Ling Ng, Bee -- Novo, Sonia M -- O'Neill, Michael J -- Osborne, Mark A -- Osnowski, Andrew -- Ostadan, Omead -- Paraschos, Lambros L -- Pickering, Lea -- Pike, Andrew C -- Pike, Alger C -- Chris Pinkard, D -- Pliskin, Daniel P -- Podhasky, Joe -- Quijano, Victor J -- Raczy, Come -- Rae, Vicki H -- Rawlings, Stephen R -- Chiva Rodriguez, Ana -- Roe, Phyllida M -- Rogers, John -- Rogert Bacigalupo, Maria C -- Romanov, Nikolai -- Romieu, Anthony -- Roth, Rithy K -- Rourke, Natalie J -- Ruediger, Silke T -- Rusman, Eli -- Sanches-Kuiper, Raquel M -- Schenker, Martin R -- Seoane, Josefina M -- Shaw, Richard J -- Shiver, Mitch K -- Short, Steven W -- Sizto, Ning L -- Sluis, Johannes P -- Smith, Melanie A -- Ernest Sohna Sohna, Jean -- Spence, Eric J -- Stevens, Kim -- Sutton, Neil -- Szajkowski, Lukasz -- Tregidgo, Carolyn L -- Turcatti, Gerardo -- Vandevondele, Stephanie -- Verhovsky, Yuli -- Virk, Selene M -- Wakelin, Suzanne -- Walcott, Gregory C -- Wang, Jingwen -- Worsley, Graham J -- Yan, Juying -- Yau, Ling -- Zuerlein, Mike -- Rogers, Jane -- Mullikin, James C -- Hurles, Matthew E -- McCooke, Nick J -- West, John S -- Oaks, Frank L -- Lundberg, Peter L -- Klenerman, David -- Durbin, Richard -- Smith, Anthony J -- B05823/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701805/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MOL04534/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Z01 HG200330-03/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2008 Nov 6;456(7218):53-9. doi: 10.1038/nature07517.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Illumina Cambridge Ltd. (Formerly Solexa Ltd), Chesterford Research Park, Little Chesterford, Nr Saffron Walden, Essex CB10 1XL, UK. dbentley@illumina.com〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18987734" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Chromosomes, Human, X/genetics ; Consensus Sequence/genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genomics/economics/*methods ; Genotype ; Humans ; Male ; Nigeria ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Sensitivity and Specificity ; Sequence Analysis, DNA/economics/*methods
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2010-06-10
    Description: The autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of conditions characterized by impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication, and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviours. Individuals with an ASD vary greatly in cognitive development, which can range from above average to intellectual disability. Although ASDs are known to be highly heritable ( approximately 90%), the underlying genetic determinants are still largely unknown. Here we analysed the genome-wide characteristics of rare (〈1% frequency) copy number variation in ASD using dense genotyping arrays. When comparing 996 ASD individuals of European ancestry to 1,287 matched controls, cases were found to carry a higher global burden of rare, genic copy number variants (CNVs) (1.19 fold, P = 0.012), especially so for loci previously implicated in either ASD and/or intellectual disability (1.69 fold, P = 3.4 x 10(-4)). Among the CNVs there were numerous de novo and inherited events, sometimes in combination in a given family, implicating many novel ASD genes such as SHANK2, SYNGAP1, DLGAP2 and the X-linked DDX53-PTCHD1 locus. We also discovered an enrichment of CNVs disrupting functional gene sets involved in cellular proliferation, projection and motility, and GTPase/Ras signalling. Our results reveal many new genetic and functional targets in ASD that may lead to final connected pathways.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3021798/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3021798/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pinto, Dalila -- Pagnamenta, Alistair T -- Klei, Lambertus -- Anney, Richard -- Merico, Daniele -- Regan, Regina -- Conroy, Judith -- Magalhaes, Tiago R -- Correia, Catarina -- Abrahams, Brett S -- Almeida, Joana -- Bacchelli, Elena -- Bader, Gary D -- Bailey, Anthony J -- Baird, Gillian -- Battaglia, Agatino -- Berney, Tom -- Bolshakova, Nadia -- Bolte, Sven -- Bolton, Patrick F -- Bourgeron, Thomas -- Brennan, Sean -- Brian, Jessica -- Bryson, Susan E -- Carson, Andrew R -- Casallo, Guillermo -- Casey, Jillian -- Chung, Brian H Y -- Cochrane, Lynne -- Corsello, Christina -- Crawford, Emily L -- Crossett, Andrew -- Cytrynbaum, Cheryl -- Dawson, Geraldine -- de Jonge, Maretha -- Delorme, Richard -- Drmic, Irene -- Duketis, Eftichia -- Duque, Frederico -- Estes, Annette -- Farrar, Penny -- Fernandez, Bridget A -- Folstein, Susan E -- Fombonne, Eric -- Freitag, Christine M -- Gilbert, John -- Gillberg, Christopher -- Glessner, Joseph T -- Goldberg, Jeremy -- Green, Andrew -- Green, Jonathan -- Guter, Stephen J -- Hakonarson, Hakon -- Heron, Elizabeth A -- Hill, Matthew -- Holt, Richard -- Howe, Jennifer L -- Hughes, Gillian -- Hus, Vanessa -- Igliozzi, Roberta -- Kim, Cecilia -- Klauck, Sabine M -- Kolevzon, Alexander -- Korvatska, Olena -- Kustanovich, Vlad -- Lajonchere, Clara M -- Lamb, Janine A -- Laskawiec, Magdalena -- Leboyer, Marion -- Le Couteur, Ann -- Leventhal, Bennett L -- Lionel, Anath C -- Liu, Xiao-Qing -- Lord, Catherine -- Lotspeich, Linda -- Lund, Sabata C -- Maestrini, Elena -- Mahoney, William -- Mantoulan, Carine -- Marshall, Christian R -- McConachie, Helen -- McDougle, Christopher J -- McGrath, Jane -- McMahon, William M -- Merikangas, Alison -- Migita, Ohsuke -- Minshew, Nancy J -- Mirza, Ghazala K -- Munson, Jeff -- Nelson, Stanley F -- Noakes, Carolyn -- Noor, Abdul -- Nygren, Gudrun -- Oliveira, Guiomar -- Papanikolaou, Katerina -- Parr, Jeremy R -- Parrini, Barbara -- Paton, Tara -- Pickles, Andrew -- Pilorge, Marion -- Piven, Joseph -- Ponting, Chris P -- Posey, David J -- Poustka, Annemarie -- Poustka, Fritz -- Prasad, Aparna -- Ragoussis, Jiannis -- Renshaw, Katy -- Rickaby, Jessica -- Roberts, Wendy -- Roeder, Kathryn -- Roge, Bernadette -- Rutter, Michael L -- Bierut, Laura J -- Rice, John P -- Salt, Jeff -- Sansom, Katherine -- Sato, Daisuke -- Segurado, Ricardo -- Sequeira, Ana F -- Senman, Lili -- Shah, Naisha -- Sheffield, Val C -- Soorya, Latha -- Sousa, Ines -- Stein, Olaf -- Sykes, Nuala -- Stoppioni, Vera -- Strawbridge, Christina -- Tancredi, Raffaella -- Tansey, Katherine -- Thiruvahindrapduram, Bhooma -- Thompson, Ann P -- Thomson, Susanne -- Tryfon, Ana -- Tsiantis, John -- Van Engeland, Herman -- Vincent, John B -- Volkmar, Fred -- Wallace, Simon -- Wang, Kai -- Wang, Zhouzhi -- Wassink, Thomas H -- Webber, Caleb -- Weksberg, Rosanna -- Wing, Kirsty -- Wittemeyer, Kerstin -- Wood, Shawn -- Wu, Jing -- Yaspan, Brian L -- Zurawiecki, Danielle -- Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie -- Buxbaum, Joseph D -- Cantor, Rita M -- Cook, Edwin H -- Coon, Hilary -- Cuccaro, Michael L -- Devlin, Bernie -- Ennis, Sean -- Gallagher, Louise -- Geschwind, Daniel H -- Gill, Michael -- Haines, Jonathan L -- Hallmayer, Joachim -- Miller, Judith -- Monaco, Anthony P -- Nurnberger, John I Jr -- Paterson, Andrew D -- Pericak-Vance, Margaret A -- Schellenberg, Gerard D -- Szatmari, Peter -- Vicente, Astrid M -- Vieland, Veronica J -- Wijsman, Ellen M -- Scherer, Stephen W -- Sutcliffe, James S -- Betancur, Catalina -- 075491/Z/04/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- AS2077/Autism Speaks/ -- AS7462/Autism Speaks/ -- G0601030/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- HD055751/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- HD055782/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- HD055784/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- HD35465/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- MC_U137761446/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MH061009/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH06359/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH066673/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH080647/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH081754/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH52708/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH55284/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH57881/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH66766/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- NS026630/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS042165/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS049261/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA089392/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA089392-08/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HD035465-01S1/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P01 NS026630/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 NS026630-15/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P50 HD055748/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P50 HD055748-01/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P50 HD055748-02/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P50 HD055748-03/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P50 HD055751/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P50 HD055751-01/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P50 HD055782/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P50 HD055782-04/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA013423/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA013423-05/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA019963/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA019963-01A2/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA019963-02/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA019963-03/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH052708-05/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH055284/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH055284-04/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH057881/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH057881-02/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH061009/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH061009-05/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH080647/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH080647-11/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH081754/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH081754-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS042165/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS042165-05/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS049261/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS049261-02/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004422/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004422-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U10 MH066766-05/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U19 HD035469/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- U19 HD035469-06/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- U19 HD035469-07/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- U19 HD035469-08/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- U19 HD035469-09/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- U19 HD035469-10/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- U54 MH066673/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54 MH066673-05/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000448/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2010 Jul 15;466(7304):368-72. doi: 10.1038/nature09146. Epub 2010 Jun 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Centre for Applied Genomics and Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20531469" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Case-Control Studies ; Cell Movement ; Child ; Child Development Disorders, Pervasive/*genetics/pathology/*physiopathology ; Cytoprotection ; DNA Copy Number Variations/*genetics ; Europe/ethnology ; Gene Dosage/*genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Humans ; Signal Transduction ; Social Behavior
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2011-08-13
    Description: Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially increased frequency of the disease seen in the relatives of affected individuals, and systematic attempts to identify linkage in multiplex families have confirmed that variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exerts the greatest individual effect on risk. Modestly powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects have a key role in disease susceptibility. Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9,772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working in 15 different countries, we have replicated almost all of the previously suggested associations and identified at least a further 29 novel susceptibility loci. Within the MHC we have refined the identity of the HLA-DRB1 risk alleles and confirmed that variation in the HLA-A gene underlies the independent protective effect attributable to the class I region. Immunologically relevant genes are significantly overrepresented among those mapping close to the identified loci and particularly implicate T-helper-cell differentiation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3182531/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3182531/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium -- Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 -- Sawcer, Stephen -- Hellenthal, Garrett -- Pirinen, Matti -- Spencer, Chris C A -- Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A -- Moutsianas, Loukas -- Dilthey, Alexander -- Su, Zhan -- Freeman, Colin -- Hunt, Sarah E -- Edkins, Sarah -- Gray, Emma -- Booth, David R -- Potter, Simon C -- Goris, An -- Band, Gavin -- Oturai, Annette Bang -- Strange, Amy -- Saarela, Janna -- Bellenguez, Celine -- Fontaine, Bertrand -- Gillman, Matthew -- Hemmer, Bernhard -- Gwilliam, Rhian -- Zipp, Frauke -- Jayakumar, Alagurevathi -- Martin, Roland -- Leslie, Stephen -- Hawkins, Stanley -- Giannoulatou, Eleni -- D'alfonso, Sandra -- Blackburn, Hannah -- Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo -- Liddle, Jennifer -- Harbo, Hanne F -- Perez, Marc L -- Spurkland, Anne -- Waller, Matthew J -- Mycko, Marcin P -- Ricketts, Michelle -- Comabella, Manuel -- Hammond, Naomi -- Kockum, Ingrid -- McCann, Owen T -- Ban, Maria -- Whittaker, Pamela -- Kemppinen, Anu -- Weston, Paul -- Hawkins, Clive -- Widaa, Sara -- Zajicek, John -- Dronov, Serge -- Robertson, Neil -- Bumpstead, Suzannah J -- Barcellos, Lisa F -- Ravindrarajah, Rathi -- Abraham, Roby -- Alfredsson, Lars -- Ardlie, Kristin -- Aubin, Cristin -- Baker, Amie -- Baker, Katharine -- Baranzini, Sergio E -- Bergamaschi, Laura -- Bergamaschi, Roberto -- Bernstein, Allan -- Berthele, Achim -- Boggild, Mike -- Bradfield, Jonathan P -- Brassat, David -- Broadley, Simon A -- Buck, Dorothea -- Butzkueven, Helmut -- Capra, Ruggero -- Carroll, William M -- Cavalla, Paola -- Celius, Elisabeth G -- Cepok, Sabine -- Chiavacci, Rosetta -- Clerget-Darpoux, Francoise -- Clysters, Katleen -- Comi, Giancarlo -- Cossburn, Mark -- Cournu-Rebeix, Isabelle -- Cox, Mathew B -- Cozen, Wendy -- Cree, Bruce A C -- Cross, Anne H -- Cusi, Daniele -- Daly, Mark J -- Davis, Emma -- de Bakker, Paul I W -- Debouverie, Marc -- D'hooghe, Marie Beatrice -- Dixon, Katherine -- Dobosi, Rita -- Dubois, Benedicte -- Ellinghaus, David -- Elovaara, Irina -- Esposito, Federica -- Fontenille, Claire -- Foote, Simon -- Franke, Andre -- Galimberti, Daniela -- Ghezzi, Angelo -- Glessner, Joseph -- Gomez, Refujia -- Gout, Olivier -- Graham, Colin -- Grant, Struan F A -- Guerini, Franca Rosa -- Hakonarson, Hakon -- Hall, Per -- Hamsten, Anders -- Hartung, Hans-Peter -- Heard, Rob N -- Heath, Simon -- Hobart, Jeremy -- Hoshi, Muna -- Infante-Duarte, Carmen -- Ingram, Gillian -- Ingram, Wendy -- Islam, Talat -- Jagodic, Maja -- Kabesch, Michael -- Kermode, Allan G -- Kilpatrick, Trevor J -- Kim, Cecilia -- Klopp, Norman -- Koivisto, Keijo -- Larsson, Malin -- Lathrop, Mark -- Lechner-Scott, Jeannette S -- Leone, Maurizio A -- Leppa, Virpi -- Liljedahl, Ulrika -- Bomfim, Izaura Lima -- Lincoln, Robin R -- Link, Jenny -- Liu, Jianjun -- Lorentzen, Aslaug R -- Lupoli, Sara -- Macciardi, Fabio -- Mack, Thomas -- Marriott, Mark -- Martinelli, Vittorio -- Mason, Deborah -- McCauley, Jacob L -- Mentch, Frank -- Mero, Inger-Lise -- Mihalova, Tania -- Montalban, Xavier -- Mottershead, John -- Myhr, Kjell-Morten -- Naldi, Paola -- Ollier, William -- Page, Alison -- Palotie, Aarno -- Pelletier, Jean -- Piccio, Laura -- Pickersgill, Trevor -- Piehl, Fredrik -- Pobywajlo, Susan -- Quach, Hong L -- Ramsay, Patricia P -- Reunanen, Mauri -- Reynolds, Richard -- Rioux, John D -- Rodegher, Mariaemma -- Roesner, Sabine -- Rubio, Justin P -- Ruckert, Ina-Maria -- Salvetti, Marco -- Salvi, Erika -- Santaniello, Adam -- Schaefer, Catherine A -- Schreiber, Stefan -- Schulze, Christian -- Scott, Rodney J -- Sellebjerg, Finn -- Selmaj, Krzysztof W -- Sexton, David -- Shen, Ling -- Simms-Acuna, Brigid -- Skidmore, Sheila -- Sleiman, Patrick M A -- Smestad, Cathrine -- Sorensen, Per Soelberg -- Sondergaard, Helle Bach -- Stankovich, Jim -- Strange, Richard C -- Sulonen, Anna-Maija -- Sundqvist, Emilie -- Syvanen, Ann-Christine -- Taddeo, Francesca -- Taylor, Bruce -- Blackwell, Jenefer M -- Tienari, Pentti -- Bramon, Elvira -- Tourbah, Ayman -- Brown, Matthew A -- Tronczynska, Ewa -- Casas, Juan P -- Tubridy, Niall -- Corvin, Aiden -- Vickery, Jane -- Jankowski, Janusz -- Villoslada, Pablo -- Markus, Hugh S -- Wang, Kai -- Mathew, Christopher G -- Wason, James -- Palmer, Colin N A -- Wichmann, H-Erich -- Plomin, Robert -- Willoughby, Ernest -- Rautanen, Anna -- Winkelmann, Juliane -- Wittig, Michael -- Trembath, Richard C -- Yaouanq, Jacqueline -- Viswanathan, Ananth C -- Zhang, Haitao -- Wood, Nicholas W -- Zuvich, Rebecca -- Deloukas, Panos -- Langford, Cordelia -- Duncanson, Audrey -- Oksenberg, Jorge R -- Pericak-Vance, Margaret A -- Haines, Jonathan L -- Olsson, Tomas -- Hillert, Jan -- Ivinson, Adrian J -- De Jager, Philip L -- Peltonen, Leena -- Stewart, Graeme J -- Hafler, David A -- Hauser, Stephen L -- McVean, Gil -- Donnelly, Peter -- Compston, Alastair -- 068545/Z/02/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 075491/Z/04/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 084702/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085475/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085475/B/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085475/Z/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 898/Multiple Sclerosis Society/United Kingdom -- AI076544/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA104021/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- G0100594/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0400017/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700061/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0901310/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0901461/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G19/2/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K23N/S048869/PHS HHS/ -- NS032830/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS049477/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS049510/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS067305/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS19142/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS26799/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS43559/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- PDA/02/06/016/Department of Health/United Kingdom -- R01 NS026799/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS049477/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS049477-06A1/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- RR020092/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- RR024992/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000448/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Aug 10;476(7359):214-9. doi: 10.1038/nature10251.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21833088" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Cell Differentiation/immunology ; Europe/ethnology ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; HLA-A Antigens/genetics ; HLA-DR Antigens/genetics ; HLA-DRB1 Chains ; Humans ; Immunity, Cellular/genetics/*immunology ; Major Histocompatibility Complex/genetics ; Multiple Sclerosis/*genetics/*immunology ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Sample Size ; T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/cytology/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-06-01
    Description: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R(2) approximately 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for approximately 2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3751588/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3751588/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rietveld, Cornelius A -- Medland, Sarah E -- Derringer, Jaime -- Yang, Jian -- Esko, Tonu -- Martin, Nicolas W -- Westra, Harm-Jan -- Shakhbazov, Konstantin -- Abdellaoui, Abdel -- Agrawal, Arpana -- Albrecht, Eva -- Alizadeh, Behrooz Z -- Amin, Najaf -- Barnard, John -- Baumeister, Sebastian E -- Benke, Kelly S -- Bielak, Lawrence F -- Boatman, Jeffrey A -- Boyle, Patricia A -- Davies, Gail -- de Leeuw, Christiaan -- Eklund, Niina -- Evans, Daniel S -- Ferhmann, Rudolf -- Fischer, Krista -- Gieger, Christian -- Gjessing, Hakon K -- Hagg, Sara -- Harris, Jennifer R -- Hayward, Caroline -- Holzapfel, Christina -- Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A -- Ingelsson, Erik -- Jacobsson, Bo -- Joshi, Peter K -- Jugessur, Astanand -- Kaakinen, Marika -- Kanoni, Stavroula -- Karjalainen, Juha -- Kolcic, Ivana -- Kristiansson, Kati -- Kutalik, Zoltan -- Lahti, Jari -- Lee, Sang H -- Lin, Peng -- Lind, Penelope A -- Liu, Yongmei -- Lohman, Kurt -- Loitfelder, Marisa -- McMahon, George -- Vidal, Pedro Marques -- Meirelles, Osorio -- Milani, Lili -- Myhre, Ronny -- Nuotio, Marja-Liisa -- Oldmeadow, Christopher J -- Petrovic, Katja E -- Peyrot, Wouter J -- Polasek, Ozren -- Quaye, Lydia -- Reinmaa, Eva -- Rice, John P -- Rizzi, Thais S -- Schmidt, Helena -- Schmidt, Reinhold -- Smith, Albert V -- Smith, Jennifer A -- Tanaka, Toshiko -- Terracciano, Antonio -- van der Loos, Matthijs J H M -- Vitart, Veronique -- Volzke, Henry -- Wellmann, Jurgen -- Yu, Lei -- Zhao, Wei -- Allik, Juri -- Attia, John R -- Bandinelli, Stefania -- Bastardot, Francois -- Beauchamp, Jonathan -- Bennett, David A -- Berger, Klaus -- Bierut, Laura J -- Boomsma, Dorret I -- Bultmann, Ute -- Campbell, Harry -- Chabris, Christopher F -- Cherkas, Lynn -- Chung, Mina K -- Cucca, Francesco -- de Andrade, Mariza -- De Jager, Philip L -- De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel -- Deary, Ian J -- Dedoussis, George V -- Deloukas, Panos -- Dimitriou, Maria -- Eiriksdottir, Guethny -- Elderson, Martin F -- Eriksson, Johan G -- Evans, David M -- Faul, Jessica D -- Ferrucci, Luigi -- Garcia, Melissa E -- Gronberg, Henrik -- Guethnason, Vilmundur -- Hall, Per -- Harris, Juliette M -- Harris, Tamara B -- Hastie, Nicholas D -- Heath, Andrew C -- Hernandez, Dena G -- Hoffmann, Wolfgang -- Hofman, Adriaan -- Holle, Rolf -- Holliday, Elizabeth G -- Hottenga, Jouke-Jan -- Iacono, William G -- Illig, Thomas -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- Kahonen, Mika -- Kaprio, Jaakko -- Kirkpatrick, Robert M -- Kowgier, Matthew -- Latvala, Antti -- Launer, Lenore J -- Lawlor, Debbie A -- Lehtimaki, Terho -- Li, Jingmei -- Lichtenstein, Paul -- Lichtner, Peter -- Liewald, David C -- Madden, Pamela A -- Magnusson, Patrik K E -- Makinen, Tomi E -- Masala, Marco -- McGue, Matt -- Metspalu, Andres -- Mielck, Andreas -- Miller, Michael B -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Mukherjee, Sutapa -- Nyholt, Dale R -- Oostra, Ben A -- Palmer, Lyle J -- Palotie, Aarno -- Penninx, Brenda W J H -- Perola, Markus -- Peyser, Patricia A -- Preisig, Martin -- Raikkonen, Katri -- Raitakari, Olli T -- Realo, Anu -- Ring, Susan M -- Ripatti, Samuli -- Rivadeneira, Fernando -- Rudan, Igor -- Rustichini, Aldo -- Salomaa, Veikko -- Sarin, Antti-Pekka -- Schlessinger, David -- Scott, Rodney J -- Snieder, Harold -- St Pourcain, Beate -- Starr, John M -- Sul, Jae Hoon -- Surakka, Ida -- Svento, Rauli -- Teumer, Alexander -- LifeLines Cohort Study -- Tiemeier, Henning -- van Rooij, Frank J A -- Van Wagoner, David R -- Vartiainen, Erkki -- Viikari, Jorma -- Vollenweider, Peter -- Vonk, Judith M -- Waeber, Gerard -- Weir, David R -- Wichmann, H-Erich -- Widen, Elisabeth -- Willemsen, Gonneke -- Wilson, James F -- Wright, Alan F -- Conley, Dalton -- Davey-Smith, George -- Franke, Lude -- Groenen, Patrick J F -- Hofman, Albert -- Johannesson, Magnus -- Kardia, Sharon L R -- Krueger, Robert F -- Laibson, David -- Martin, Nicholas G -- Meyer, Michelle N -- Posthuma, Danielle -- Thurik, A Roy -- Timpson, Nicholas J -- Uitterlinden, Andre G -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Visscher, Peter M -- Benjamin, Daniel J -- Cesarini, David -- Koellinger, Philipp D -- AA09367/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- AA11886/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- BB/F019394/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- CZB/4/710/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- DA024417/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- DA029377/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- DA05147/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- DA13240/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- ETM/55/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- F31 DA029377/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- G0600705/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0700704/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G9815508/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K05 AA017688/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- MC_PC_U127561128/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12013/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12013/3/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UU_12013/5/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MH016880/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH066140/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MR/K026992/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P01 AG005842/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA089392/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 GM099568/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P01-AG005842/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01-AG005842-20S2/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P30 AG012810/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P30-AG012810/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AA009367/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AA011886/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA013240/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL090620/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL105756/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL111314/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH066140/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R37 DA005147/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- T32 AG000186/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- T32 MH016880/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- T32-AG000186-23/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U01 AG009740/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U01 DA024417/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- Z01 AG001050-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZIA AG000196-03/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZIA AG000196-04/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jun 21;340(6139):1467-71. doi: 10.1126/science.1235488. Epub 2013 May 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Applied Economics, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23722424" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cognition ; *Educational Status ; Endophenotypes ; Female ; Genetic Loci ; *Genome-Wide Association Study ; Humans ; Male ; Multifactorial Inheritance ; *Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2001-02-22
    Description: A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five individuals. Two assembly strategies-a whole-genome assembly and a regional chromosome assembly-were used, each combining sequence data from Celera and the publicly funded genome effort. The public data were shredded into 550-bp segments to create a 2.9-fold coverage of those genome regions that had been sequenced, without including biases inherent in the cloning and assembly procedure used by the publicly funded group. This brought the effective coverage in the assemblies to eightfold, reducing the number and size of gaps in the final assembly over what would be obtained with 5.11-fold coverage. The two assembly strategies yielded very similar results that largely agree with independent mapping data. The assemblies effectively cover the euchromatic regions of the human chromosomes. More than 90% of the genome is in scaffold assemblies of 100,000 bp or more, and 25% of the genome is in scaffolds of 10 million bp or larger. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed 26,588 protein-encoding transcripts for which there was strong corroborating evidence and an additional approximately 12,000 computationally derived genes with mouse matches or other weak supporting evidence. Although gene-dense clusters are obvious, almost half the genes are dispersed in low G+C sequence separated by large tracts of apparently noncoding sequence. Only 1.1% of the genome is spanned by exons, whereas 24% is in introns, with 75% of the genome being intergenic DNA. Duplications of segmental blocks, ranging in size up to chromosomal lengths, are abundant throughout the genome and reveal a complex evolutionary history. Comparative genomic analysis indicates vertebrate expansions of genes associated with neuronal function, with tissue-specific developmental regulation, and with the hemostasis and immune systems. DNA sequence comparisons between the consensus sequence and publicly funded genome data provided locations of 2.1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A random pair of human haploid genomes differed at a rate of 1 bp per 1250 on average, but there was marked heterogeneity in the level of polymorphism across the genome. Less than 1% of all SNPs resulted in variation in proteins, but the task of determining which SNPs have functional consequences remains an open challenge.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Venter, J C -- Adams, M D -- Myers, E W -- Li, P W -- Mural, R J -- Sutton, G G -- Smith, H O -- Yandell, M -- Evans, C A -- Holt, R A -- Gocayne, J D -- Amanatides, P -- Ballew, R M -- Huson, D H -- Wortman, J R -- Zhang, Q -- Kodira, C D -- Zheng, X H -- Chen, L -- Skupski, M -- Subramanian, G -- Thomas, P D -- Zhang, J -- Gabor Miklos, G L -- Nelson, C -- Broder, S -- Clark, A G -- Nadeau, J -- McKusick, V A -- Zinder, N -- Levine, A J -- Roberts, R J -- Simon, M -- Slayman, C -- Hunkapiller, M -- Bolanos, R -- Delcher, A -- Dew, I -- Fasulo, D -- Flanigan, M -- Florea, L -- Halpern, A -- Hannenhalli, S -- Kravitz, S -- Levy, S -- Mobarry, C -- Reinert, K -- Remington, K -- Abu-Threideh, J -- Beasley, E -- Biddick, K -- Bonazzi, V -- Brandon, R -- Cargill, M -- Chandramouliswaran, I -- Charlab, R -- Chaturvedi, K -- Deng, Z -- Di Francesco, V -- Dunn, P -- Eilbeck, K -- Evangelista, C -- Gabrielian, A E -- Gan, W -- Ge, W -- Gong, F -- Gu, Z -- Guan, P -- Heiman, T J -- Higgins, M E -- Ji, R R -- Ke, Z -- Ketchum, K A -- Lai, Z -- Lei, Y -- Li, Z -- Li, J -- Liang, Y -- Lin, X -- Lu, F -- Merkulov, G V -- Milshina, N -- Moore, H M -- Naik, A K -- Narayan, V A -- Neelam, B -- Nusskern, D -- Rusch, D B -- Salzberg, S -- Shao, W -- Shue, B -- Sun, J -- Wang, Z -- Wang, A -- Wang, X -- Wang, J -- Wei, M -- Wides, R -- Xiao, C -- Yan, C -- Yao, A -- Ye, J -- Zhan, M -- Zhang, W -- Zhang, H -- Zhao, Q -- Zheng, L -- Zhong, F -- Zhong, W -- Zhu, S -- Zhao, S -- Gilbert, D -- Baumhueter, S -- Spier, G -- Carter, C -- Cravchik, A -- Woodage, T -- Ali, F -- An, H -- Awe, A -- Baldwin, D -- Baden, H -- Barnstead, M -- Barrow, I -- Beeson, K -- Busam, D -- Carver, A -- Center, A -- Cheng, M L -- Curry, L -- Danaher, S -- Davenport, L -- Desilets, R -- Dietz, S -- Dodson, K -- Doup, L -- Ferriera, S -- Garg, N -- Gluecksmann, A -- Hart, B -- Haynes, J -- Haynes, C -- Heiner, C -- Hladun, S -- Hostin, D -- Houck, J -- Howland, T -- Ibegwam, C -- Johnson, J -- Kalush, F -- Kline, L -- Koduru, S -- Love, A -- Mann, F -- May, D -- McCawley, S -- McIntosh, T -- McMullen, I -- Moy, M -- Moy, L -- Murphy, B -- Nelson, K -- Pfannkoch, C -- Pratts, E -- Puri, V -- Qureshi, H -- Reardon, M -- Rodriguez, R -- Rogers, Y H -- Romblad, D -- Ruhfel, B -- Scott, R -- Sitter, C -- Smallwood, M -- Stewart, E -- Strong, R -- Suh, E -- Thomas, R -- Tint, N N -- Tse, S -- Vech, C -- Wang, G -- Wetter, J -- Williams, S -- Williams, M -- Windsor, S -- Winn-Deen, E -- Wolfe, K -- Zaveri, J -- Zaveri, K -- Abril, J F -- Guigo, R -- Campbell, M J -- Sjolander, K V -- Karlak, B -- Kejariwal, A -- Mi, H -- Lazareva, B -- Hatton, T -- Narechania, A -- Diemer, K -- Muruganujan, A -- Guo, N -- Sato, S -- Bafna, V -- Istrail, S -- Lippert, R -- Schwartz, R -- Walenz, B -- Yooseph, S -- Allen, D -- Basu, A -- Baxendale, J -- Blick, L -- Caminha, M -- Carnes-Stine, J -- Caulk, P -- Chiang, Y H -- Coyne, M -- Dahlke, C -- Mays, A -- Dombroski, M -- Donnelly, M -- Ely, D -- Esparham, S -- Fosler, C -- Gire, H -- Glanowski, S -- Glasser, K -- Glodek, A -- Gorokhov, M -- Graham, K -- Gropman, B -- Harris, M -- Heil, J -- Henderson, S -- Hoover, J -- Jennings, D -- Jordan, C -- Jordan, J -- Kasha, J -- Kagan, L -- Kraft, C -- Levitsky, A -- Lewis, M -- Liu, X -- Lopez, J -- Ma, D -- Majoros, W -- McDaniel, J -- Murphy, S -- Newman, M -- Nguyen, T -- Nguyen, N -- Nodell, M -- Pan, S -- Peck, J -- Peterson, M -- Rowe, W -- Sanders, R -- Scott, J -- Simpson, M -- Smith, T -- Sprague, A -- Stockwell, T -- Turner, R -- Venter, E -- Wang, M -- Wen, M -- Wu, D -- Wu, M -- Xia, A -- Zandieh, A -- Zhu, X -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2001 Feb 16;291(5507):1304-51.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Celera Genomics, 45 West Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA. humangenome@celera.com〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11181995" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Algorithms ; Animals ; Chromosome Banding ; Chromosome Mapping ; Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial ; Computational Biology ; Consensus Sequence ; CpG Islands ; DNA, Intergenic ; Databases, Factual ; Evolution, Molecular ; Exons ; Female ; Gene Duplication ; Genes ; Genetic Variation ; *Genome, Human ; *Human Genome Project ; Humans ; Introns ; Male ; Phenotype ; Physical Chromosome Mapping ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Proteins/genetics/physiology ; Pseudogenes ; Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid ; Retroelements ; *Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods ; Species Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2005-09-06
    Description: This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and polyadenylation. There are 16,247 new mouse protein-coding transcripts, including 5154 encoding previously unidentified proteins. Genomic mapping of the transcriptome reveals transcriptional forests, with overlapping transcription on both strands, separated by deserts in which few transcripts are observed. The data provide a comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of mammalian transcriptional regulation in differentiation and development.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Carninci, P -- Kasukawa, T -- Katayama, S -- Gough, J -- Frith, M C -- Maeda, N -- Oyama, R -- Ravasi, T -- Lenhard, B -- Wells, C -- Kodzius, R -- Shimokawa, K -- Bajic, V B -- Brenner, S E -- Batalov, S -- Forrest, A R R -- Zavolan, M -- Davis, M J -- Wilming, L G -- Aidinis, V -- Allen, J E -- Ambesi-Impiombato, A -- Apweiler, R -- Aturaliya, R N -- Bailey, T L -- Bansal, M -- Baxter, L -- Beisel, K W -- Bersano, T -- Bono, H -- Chalk, A M -- Chiu, K P -- Choudhary, V -- Christoffels, A -- Clutterbuck, D R -- Crowe, M L -- Dalla, E -- Dalrymple, B P -- de Bono, B -- Della Gatta, G -- di Bernardo, D -- Down, T -- Engstrom, P -- Fagiolini, M -- Faulkner, G -- Fletcher, C F -- Fukushima, T -- Furuno, M -- Futaki, S -- Gariboldi, M -- Georgii-Hemming, P -- Gingeras, T R -- Gojobori, T -- Green, R E -- Gustincich, S -- Harbers, M -- Hayashi, Y -- Hensch, T K -- Hirokawa, N -- Hill, D -- Huminiecki, L -- Iacono, M -- Ikeo, K -- Iwama, A -- Ishikawa, T -- Jakt, M -- Kanapin, A -- Katoh, M -- Kawasawa, Y -- Kelso, J -- Kitamura, H -- Kitano, H -- Kollias, G -- Krishnan, S P T -- Kruger, A -- Kummerfeld, S K -- Kurochkin, I V -- Lareau, L F -- Lazarevic, D -- Lipovich, L -- Liu, J -- Liuni, S -- McWilliam, S -- Madan Babu, M -- Madera, M -- Marchionni, L -- Matsuda, H -- Matsuzawa, S -- Miki, H -- Mignone, F -- Miyake, S -- Morris, K -- Mottagui-Tabar, S -- Mulder, N -- Nakano, N -- Nakauchi, H -- Ng, P -- Nilsson, R -- Nishiguchi, S -- Nishikawa, S -- Nori, F -- Ohara, O -- Okazaki, Y -- Orlando, V -- Pang, K C -- Pavan, W J -- Pavesi, G -- Pesole, G -- Petrovsky, N -- Piazza, S -- Reed, J -- Reid, J F -- Ring, B Z -- Ringwald, M -- Rost, B -- Ruan, Y -- Salzberg, S L -- Sandelin, A -- Schneider, C -- Schonbach, C -- Sekiguchi, K -- Semple, C A M -- Seno, S -- Sessa, L -- Sheng, Y -- Shibata, Y -- Shimada, H -- Shimada, K -- Silva, D -- Sinclair, B -- Sperling, S -- Stupka, E -- Sugiura, K -- Sultana, R -- Takenaka, Y -- Taki, K -- Tammoja, K -- Tan, S L -- Tang, S -- Taylor, M S -- Tegner, J -- Teichmann, S A -- Ueda, H R -- van Nimwegen, E -- Verardo, R -- Wei, C L -- Yagi, K -- Yamanishi, H -- Zabarovsky, E -- Zhu, S -- Zimmer, A -- Hide, W -- Bult, C -- Grimmond, S M -- Teasdale, R D -- Liu, E T -- Brusic, V -- Quackenbush, J -- Wahlestedt, C -- Mattick, J S -- Hume, D A -- Kai, C -- Sasaki, D -- Tomaru, Y -- Fukuda, S -- Kanamori-Katayama, M -- Suzuki, M -- Aoki, J -- Arakawa, T -- Iida, J -- Imamura, K -- Itoh, M -- Kato, T -- Kawaji, H -- Kawagashira, N -- Kawashima, T -- Kojima, M -- Kondo, S -- Konno, H -- Nakano, K -- Ninomiya, N -- Nishio, T -- Okada, M -- Plessy, C -- Shibata, K -- Shiraki, T -- Suzuki, S -- Tagami, M -- Waki, K -- Watahiki, A -- Okamura-Oho, Y -- Suzuki, H -- Kawai, J -- Hayashizaki, Y -- FANTOM Consortium -- RIKEN Genome Exploration Research Group and Genome Science Group (Genome Network Project Core Group) -- TGM03P17/Telethon/Italy -- TGM06S01/Telethon/Italy -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2005 Sep 2;309(5740):1559-63.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16141072" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3' Untranslated Regions ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Conserved Sequence ; DNA, Complementary/chemistry ; *Genome ; Genome, Human ; Genomics ; Humans ; Mice/*genetics ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Proteins/genetics ; RNA/chemistry/classification ; RNA Splicing ; RNA, Untranslated/chemistry ; Regulatory Sequences, Ribonucleic Acid ; *Terminator Regions, Genetic ; *Transcription Initiation Site ; *Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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