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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW) is applied in a global scale numerical spectral model (NSM) to describe the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO) as well as the long term interannual variations that are driven by wave mean flow interactions. This model has been successful in simulating the salient features observed near the equator at altitudes above 20 km, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. The model has now been extended to describe also the mean zonal and meridional circulations of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that affect the equatorial QBO and its global scale extension. This is accomplished in part through tuning of the GW parameterization, and preliminary results lead to the following conclusions: (1) To reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer/Dobson circulation that in part is modulated in the model by the vertical component of the Coriolis force, the eddy diffusivity in the lower stratosphere had to be enhanced and the related GW spectrum modified to bring it in closer agreement with the form recommended for the DSP. (2) To compensate for the required increase in the diffusivity, the observed QBO requires a larger GW source that is closer to the middle of the range recommended for the DSP. (3) Through global scale momentum redistribution, the above developments are conducive to extending the QBO and SAO oscillations to higher latitudes. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. (4) In a 3D version of the model, wave momentum is absorbed and dissipated by tides and planetary waves. Thus, a somewhat larger GW source is required to generate realistic amplitudes for the QBO and SAO.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: 18-30 Jul. 1999; Birmingham; United Kingdom
    Format: text
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: We discuss a Numerical Spectral Mode (NSM) that extends from the ground up into the thermosphere and incorporates Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW). This model is applied to describe the seasonal variations in the mean zonal circulation, the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO), as well as the tides and planetary waves in the middle atmosphere. Initial results showed that this model can reproduce the salient features observed, including the QBO extending into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. The model has now been extended to simulate also: (a) the zonal circulation of the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere, and (b) the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer Dobsen circulation that affects the dynamics significantly as pointed out by Dunkerton. Upward vertical winds increase the period of the QBO observed from the ground. To compensate for that, one needs to increase in the model the eddy diffusivity and the GW momentum flux, bringing the latter closer to values recommended in the DSP. This development is conducive to extending the QBO and SAO to higher latitudes through global scale momentum redistribution. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. In a 3D version of the model, wave momentum is absorbed and dissipated by tides and planetary waves. A somewhat larger GW source (well within the DSP range) is then required to generate realistic QBO and SAO amplitudes. Since GW momentum is deposited in the altitude regime of increasing winds, the amplitude of the diurnal tide is amplified and its vertical wavelength is reduced at altitudes between 70 and 120 km. Wave filtering by the mean zonal circulation causes the GW flux to peak during equinox, and this produces a large semi-annual variation in the tide that has been observed on UARS. Without the diurnal tide, the semidiurnal tide would also be modulated in this way. But the diurnal tide filters out the GW preferentially during equinox, so that the semidiurnal tide tends to peak during solstice. Under the influence of GW, the tides are modulated significantly by planetary waves that are generated preferentially during solstice in part due to baroclinic instability.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: Chapman Conference; 19-23 Apr. 1999; Annapolis, MD; United States
    Format: text
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: In several papers, the solar cycle (SC) effect in the lower atmosphere has been linked to the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO), which is generated primarily by small-scale gravity waves. Salby and Callaghan (2000) analyzed the observed zonal winds of the QBO over more than 40 years and found that it contains a relatively large SC signature at 20 km. Following up on an earlier 2D study with our global-scale Numerical Spectral Model (NSM), we discuss here a 3D study with the QBO under the influence of the SC. For a SC period of 10 years, the amplitude of the relative variations of radiative forcing is taken to vary for simplicity from 0.2% at the surface to 2% at 50 km to 20% at 100 km and above. Covering a limited time span of 40 years, this model produces in the lower stratosphere a relatively large modulation of the QBO, which appears to be related to the SC and is in qualitative agreement with the observations. Some of the energy in the QBO, confined to low latitudes primarily, is redistributed globally by the meridional circulation and planetary waves presumably, so that a measurable SC modulation is generated in the tropospheric temperatures of the polar regions. Further studies are needed, (1) to determine whether the effect is real and prevails in more extensive simulations and whether the results are robust when shorter integration steps are employed, and (2) to explore the mechanism(s) that may ample the apparent SC influence of the UV radiation extending into the lower atmosphere. Quasi-decadal oscillations, generated internally by the QBO interacting with the seasonal cycles, may interfere with or aid the SC effect.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: Spring 2005 AGU Meeting; 23-27 May 2005; New Orleans, LA; United States
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