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  • 11
    ISSN: 0959-8103
    Keywords: polyaniline ; pernigraniline oxidation state ; copolymer ; synthesis ; electrochemistry ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Polyaniline was electrochemically synthesized in the emeraldine oxidation state and then converted to the pernigraniline oxidation state by applying an electric potential under optimized conditions. The stability/reactivity of polyaniline in the pernigraniline oxidation state was evaluated in various aqueous media. The products of the reduction of the pernigraniline oxidation state by o-toluidine were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography, ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectroscopies, and cyclic voltammetry. The results are consistent with the synthesis of a diblock copolymer of polyaniline/poly(o-toluidine) and also of some poly(o-toluidine) homopolymer in the emeraldine oxidation state as a side product.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 34 (1988), S. 1568-1572 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The influence of fiber type and fiber-surface properties on matrix flow behavior was investigated using structural reaction injection-molding (SRIM). The influence of fiber type, fiber-surface properties, and matrix type on strength properties in elastomeric composites reinforced with nonwoven fibrous structures was investigated using tensile tests on elastomer composite samples from SRIM and latex coagulation (LC) fabrication methods and the microbond strength method on individual fibers. The fibers used were PET, LLDPE, and p-aramid. Fibers were treated with epoxy, styrene, and isocyanate derivatives, which make the surface chemically reactive. Treatments were also made with NaOH and a copolymer of polyester and polyol ether, causing a change in the fiber surface energy. The matrix types were polyurethane elastomer and natural rubber. The results show that the surface treatments which produced a change in the surface energy influenced the flow rate of the matrix polymer during the composite fabrication process. The treatments resulted in chemically reactive fiber surfaces which improved the fiber-matrix bond strength without affecting the Young's modulus of the composite material. Good correlation was found between bond strength and surface energy including the dispersive component of surface energy in the case of polyurethane elastomer and surface-modified PET fibers. The age of the polyurethane matrix has a marked influence on the bond strength. The fiber volume fraction in composites has a strong influence on the Young's modulus of the elastomer composite. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 22 (1982), S. 549-555 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Slow crack growth behavior of medium-density polyethylene pipe samples has been investigated by applying standard and nonstandard fracture mechanics test methods. Slow crack growth rate varied by several orders of magnitude among the PE2306 materials from different manufacturers. Slow crack generated surfaces exhibit fibrous textures of varying degrees of coarseness when examined under the scanning electron microscope. When the measured fiber heights, δ/2, of these samples were plotted against the applied stress intensity factor, KI, they showed a simple power law relationship (of exponent 2). Assuming that the pulled-out fibers transmit almost uniform tensile stresses across the crazed zone at the crack front, the Dugdale-Barenblatt model was introduced to predict the fiber height. Although the model needs further modification, it provides a general power law relationship between the fiber height and the applied stress intensity factor.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biopolymers 18 (1979), S. 765-788 
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Exact solutions are obtained for the time dependence of the extent of irreversible binding of ligands that cover more than one lattice site to a homogeneous one-dimensional lattice. The binding may be cooperative or noncooperative and the lattice either finite or infinite. Although the form of the solution is most convenient when the ligand concentration is buffered, exact numerical or approximate analytical solutions, including upper and lower bounds, can be derived for the case of variable ligand concentration as well. The physical reason behind the relative simplicity of the kinetics of irreversible as opposed to reversible binding in such systems is discussed.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Many ligands, including basic polypeptides, histones, and other proteins bind nonspecifically to DNA in such a way as to render unavailable for further binding several contiguous sites (generally bases or base pairs). An accurate description of the kinetics of such large ligand binding requires a more complex theoretical analysis than does the study of the binding of small ligands to DNA. An exact analytical solution of the problem does not appear feasible. Instead, a Monte Carlo approach is developed which provides an essentially exact numerical solution by simulating the binding experiment using a model one-dimensional lattice to represent the DNA molecule. For the limiting cases of totally irreversible binding and of instantaneous redistribution of bound ligands along the lattice, relatively simple equations can be written and solved for the binding kinetics. These solutions and their realms of applicability are discussed in some detail.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biopolymers 29 (1990), S. 1331-1349 
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We obtain an analytical solution for the binding of 2-site ligands to a heterogeneous lattice. The model also describes the kinetics of chemical reactions between adjacent pendant groups of a copolymer. Our analysis is based on the principle of independence, as formulated by Gonzalez and Hemmer. Several special cases are solved in closed form; a power series solution is developed for the general problem. The results may be modified to take into account fixed total ligand. We also analyze competition between 1-site and 2-site ligands. As an illustration of the results, we examine in detail the kinetics and final extent of binding for two special cases.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 3 (1957), S. 242-248 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Heat transfer and friction measurements were made for air flow through a smooth copper pipe and six other commercial pipes, with a ratio of diameter to equivalent sand roughness varying from 640 to 64. The Reynolds number range was 10,000 to 80,000. Though some increase in heat transfer coefficients with roughness was found, the heat transmission per unit power loss always decreased.The momentum-heat-transfer anlogies of Reynolds and Colburn are shown to be inadequate for handling the experimental data. Those of Prandtl and Taylor, von Kármán, and Pinkel fail to show a required Reynolds number dependence of jh when friction factor has become independent of Reynolds number for a rough pipe. Martinelli's equation shows such dependence and, even in approximate form, gives good prediction of the experimental results.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 678-687 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Growth and dissolution rates of nickel sulfate α-hexahydrate were measured as functions of the concentration driving force in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed crystallizer for the temperature range 35° to 50°C and the crystal size range 0.5 to 4.0 mm.Dissolution rates at a given temperature and crystal size were first order in the concentration driving force. Growth rates were about one-quarter of dissolution rates and depended on a higher exponent (around 1.3) of the concentration driving force. This exponent was not significantly affected by variations in crystal size, but decreased as temperature increased. The apparent variation of growth rate itself with crystal size at constant temperature was slight. Growth rates were found to be insensitive to solids concentration.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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