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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We present the detection of a giant radio halo (GRH) in the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ)-selected merging galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0256.5+0006 (zeta = 0.363), observed with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 325 MHz and 610 MHz. We find this cluster to host a faint (S(sub 610) = 5.6 +/- 1.4 mJy) radio halo with an angular extent of 2.6 arcmin, corresponding to 0.8 Mpc at the cluster redshift, qualifying it as a GRH. J0256 is one of the lowest-mass systems, M(sub 500,SZ) = (5.0 +/- 1.2) x 10(sup14) solar mass foud to host a GRH. We measure the GRH at lower significance at 325 MHz (S(sub 325) = 10.3 +/- 5.3 mJy), obtaining a spectral index measurement of alpha sup 610 sub 325 = 1.0(sup +0.7)(sub 0.9). This result is consistent with the mean spectral index of the population of typical radio halos, alpha = 1.2 +/- 0.2. Adopting the latter value, we determine a 1.4 GHz radio power of P(sub 1.4GHz) = (1.0 +/- 03) x 10(sup 24) W Hz(sup -1), placing this cluster within the scatter of known scaling relations. Various lines of evidence, including the ICM morphology, suggest that ACT-CL J0256.5+0006 is composed of two subclusters. We determine a merger mass ratio of 7:4, and a line-of-sight velocity difference of perpendicular = 1880 +/- 210 km s(sup -1). We construct a simple merger model of infer relevant time-scales in the merger. From its location on the P1.4GHz-L(sub x) scaling relation, we infer that we observe ACT-CL J0256.5+0006 just before first core crossing.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN32419 , Monthly Notices Letters of the Royal Astronomical Observatory (e-ISSN 1745-3933); 459; 4; 4240-4258
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Atacama Cosmology Telescope has measured the angular power spectra of microwave fluctuations to arcminute scales at frequencies of 148 and 218 GHz, from three seasons of data. At small scales the fluctuations in the primordial Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) become increasingly obscured by extragalactic foregounds and secondary CMB signals. We present results from a nine-parameter model describing these secondary effects, including the thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ and kSZ) power; the clustered and Poisson-like power from Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) sources, and their frequency scaling; the tSZ-CIB correlation coefficient; the extragalactic radio source power; and thermal dust emission from Galactic cirrus in two different regions of the sky. In order to extract cosmological parameters, we describe a likelihood function for the ACT data, fitting this model to the multi-frequency spectra in the multipole range 500 〈 l 〈 10000. We extend the likelihood to include spectra from the South Pole Telescope at frequencies of 95, 150, and 220 GHz. Accounting for different radio source levels and Galactic cirrus emission, the same model provides an excellent fit to both datasets simultaneously, with 2/dof= 675/697 for ACT, and 96/107 for SPT. We then use the multi-frequency likelihood to estimate the CMB power spectrum from ACT in bandpowers, marginalizing over the secondary parameters. This provides a simplified 'CMB-only' likelihood in the range 500 〈 l 〈 3500 for use in cosmological parameter estimation
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN16925 , Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics; 2013; 7
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We present multiwavelength observations of the Abell 1995 galaxy cluster. From an analysis of X-ray spectroscopy and imaging data, we derive the electron temperature, cluster core radius, and central electron number density. Using optical spectroscopy of 15 cluster members, we derive an accurate cluster redshift and velocity dispersion. Finally, the interferometric imaging of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect toward Abell 1995 at 28.5 GHz provides a measure of the integrated pressure through the cluster. The X-ray and Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect observations are combined to determine the angular diameter distance to the cluster of D(sub A) = 1294(sup +294 +438, sub -283 -458) Mpc (Statistical followed by systematic uncertainty), implying a Hubble constant of H(sub 0) = 52.2(sup +11.4 +18.5, sub -11.9 -17.7) km/s.Mpc for Omega(sub M) = 0.3 and Omega(sub lambda) = 0.7. We find a best-fit H(sub 0) of 46 km/s.Mpc for the Omega(sub M) = 1 and Omega(sub lambda) = 0 cosmology, and 48 km/s.Mpc for Omega(sub M) = 0.3 and Omega(sub lambda) = 0.0. The X-ray data are also used to derive a total cluster mass of M(sup HSE, sub tot)(r(sub 500)) = 5.18(sup +0.62, sub -0.48) x 10(exp 14)/h solar mass; the optical velocity dispersion yields an independent and consistent estimate of M(sup virial, sub tot)(r(sub 500)) = 6.35(sup +1.51, sub -1.19) X 10(exp 14) /h solar mass. Both of the total mass estimates are evaluated at a fiducial radius, r(sub 500) = 830 /h kpc, where the overdensity is 500 times the critical density. The total cluster mass is then combined with gas mass measurements to determine a cluster gas mass fraction of F(sub g) = 0.056(sup +0.010, sub -0.013) /h(sup 3/2) in combination with recent baryon density constraints, the measured gas mass fraction yields an upper limit on the mass density parameter of Omega(sub M) h(sup 1/2) 〈= 0.34(sup +/0.06, sub 0.05.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; 541; 37-48
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The dust properties in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are studied using the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project photometric data in five bands from 100 to 500 micromillimeters. Three simple models of dust emission were fit to the observations: a single temperature blackbody modified by a powerlaw emissivity (SMBB), a single temperature blackbody modified by a broken power-law emissivity (BEMBB), and two blackbodies with different temperatures, both modified by the same power-law emissivity (TTMBB). Using these models we investigate the origin of the submillimeter excess; defined as the submillimeter (submm) emission above that expected from SMBB models fit to observations 〈 200 micromillimeters. We find that the BEMBB model produces the lowest fit residuals with pixel-averaged 500 micromillimeters submillimeter excesses of 27% and 43% for the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, respectively. Adopting gas masses from previous works, the gas-to-dust ratios calculated from our fitting results show that the TTMBB fits require significantly more dust than are available even if all the metals present in the interstellar medium (ISM) were condensed into dust. This indicates that the submillimeter excess is more likely to be due to emissivity variations than a second population of colder dust. We derive integrated dust masses of (7.3 plus or minus 1.7) x 10 (sup 5) and (8.3 plus or minus 2.1) x 10 (sup 4) solar masses for the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, respectively. We find significant correlations between the submillimeter excess and other dust properties; further work is needed to determine the relative contributions of fitting noise and ISM physics to the correlations.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN19477
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: We present a statistical analysis of the millimeter-wavelength properties of 1.4 GHz-selected sources and a detection of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect associated with the halos that host them. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) has conducted a survey at 148 GHz, 218 GHz and 277 GHz along the celestial equator. Using samples of radio sources selected at 1.4 GHz from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters (FIRST) Survey and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory Very Large Array Sky Survey (NVSS), we measure the stacked 148, 218 and 277 GHz flux densities for sources with 1.4 GHz flux densities ranging from 5 to 200 mJy. At these flux densities, the radio source population is dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN), with both steep and at spectrum populations, which have combined radio-to-millimeter spectral indices ranging from 0.5 to 0.95, reecting the prevalence of steep spectrum sources at high flux densities and the presence of at spectrum sources at lower flux densities. The thermal Sunyaev-Zelapos;dovich (SZ) eect associated with the halos that host the AGN is detected at the 5 level through its spectral signature. When we compare the SZ eect with weak lensing measurements of radio galaxies, we find that the relation between the two is consistent with that measured by Planck for local bright galaxies. We present a detection of the SZ eect in some of the lowest mass halos (average M(sub 200) approx. equals 10(exp 13) solar M h(sup-1) (sub 70) ) studied to date. This detection is particularly important in the context of galaxy evolution models, as it confirms that galaxies with radio AGN also typically support hot gaseous halos. With Herschel* observations, we show that the SZ detection is not significantly contaminated by dusty galaxies or by dust associated with the AGN or galaxies hosting the AGN. We show that 5 mJy 〈 S(sub 1:4) 〈 200 mJy radio sources contribute l(l +1)C(sub l)/(2 pi ) = 0:37+/- 0:03 micro K(exp 2) to the angular power spectrum at l = 3000 at 148 GHz, after accounting for the SZ effect associated with their host halos.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN11939
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Using high-resolution microwave sky maps made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, we for the first time detect motions of galaxy clusters and groups via microwave background .temperature distortions due to the kinematic Sunyaev.Zel'dovich effect. Galaxy clusters are identified by their constituent luminous galaxies observed by the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III. The mean pairwise momentum of clusters is measured. at a statistical. significance of 3.8 sigma, and the signal is consistent with the growth of cosmic structure in the standard model of cosmology
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC.JA.01046.2012
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We determine the distances to the z approximately equals 0.55 galaxy clusters MS 0451.6 - 0305 and Cl 0016 + 16 from a maximum-likelihood joint fit to interferometric Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) and X-ray observations. We model the intracluster medium (ICM) using a spherical isothermal beta model. We quantify the statistical and systematic uncertainties inherent to these direct distance measurements, and we determine constraints on the Hubble parameter for three different cosmologies. For an Omega(sub M) = 0.3, Omega(sub lambda) = 0.7 cosmology, these distances imply a Hubble constant of 63(sup +12) (sub -9) (sup + 21) (sub -21) km/s Mp/c, where the uncertainties correspond to statistical followed by systematic at 68% confidence. The best-fit H(sub 0) is 57 km/s Mp/c for an open (Omega(sub M) = 0.3) universe and 52 km/s Mp/c for a flat (Omega(sub M) = 1) universe.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; 533; 38-49
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We report on our ASCA, Keck, and ROSAT observations of MS 1137.5+6625, the second most distant cluster of galaxies in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS), at redshift 0.78. We now have a full set of X-ray temperatures, optical velocity dispersions, and X-ray images for a complete, high-redshift sample of clusters of galaxies drawn from the EMSS. Our ASCA observations of MS 1137.5 +6625 yield a temperature of 5.7 (+2.1)(-1.1) keV and a metallicity of 0.43 (+40)(-3.7) solar, with 90% confidence limits. Keck II spectroscopy of 22 cluster members reveals a velocity dispersion of 884 (+185)(-124) km 24/s. This cluster is the most distant in the sample with a detected iron line. We also derive a mean abundance at z = 0.8 by simultaneously fitting X-ray data for the two z = 0.8 clusters, and obtain an abundance of Z(sub Fe) = 0.33 (+.26)(-.23). Our ROSAT observations show that MS 1137.5+6625 is regular and highly centrally concentrated. Fitting of a Beta model to the X-ray surface brightness yields a core radius of only 71/h kpc (q(sub o) = 0.1) with Beta = 0.70(+.45)(-.15) The gas mass interior to 0.5/h Mpc is thus 1.2 (+0.2)(-0.3) X 10(exp 13) h(exp - 5/2) Solar Mass (q(sub o) = 0.1). If the cluster's gas is nearly isothermal and in hydrostatic equilibrium with the cluster potential, the total mass of the cluster within this same region is 2.1(+1.5)(-0.8) X 10exp 14)/h Solar Mass, giving a gas fraction of 0.06 +/-0.04 h (exp -3/2). This cluster is the highest redshift EMSS cluster showing evidence for a possible cooling flow (about 20-400 Solar Mass/yr). The velocity dispersion, temperature, gas fraction, and iron abundance of MS 1137.5+6625 are all statistically the same as those properties in lower red- shift clusters of similar luminosity. With this cluster's temperature now in hand, we derive a high-redshift temperature function for EMSS clusters at 0.5 〈 z 〈 0.9 and compare it with temperature functions at lower redshifts, showing that the evolution of the temperature function is relatively modest. Supplementing our high-redshift sample with other data from the literature, we demonstrate that neither the cluster luminosity-temperature relation, nor cluster metallicities, nor the cluster gas evolved with redshift. The very modest degree of evolution in the luminosity-temperature relation inferred from these data is inconsistent with the absence of evolution in the X-ray luminosity functions derived from ROSAT cluster surveys if a critical density structure formation model is assumed.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal; 527; 525-534
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The following publications are included and serve as the final report: The X-ray Spectrum of Abell 665; Clusters of Galaxies; Ginga Observation of an Oxygen-rich Supernova Remnant; Ginga Observations of the Coma Cluster and Studies of the Spatial Distribution of Iron; A Measurement of the Hubble Constant from the X-ray Properties and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect of Abell 2218; Non-polytropic Model for the Coma Cluster; and Abundance Gradients in Cooling Flow Clusters: Ginga LAC (Large Area Counter) and Einstein SSS (Solid State Spectrometer) Spectra of A496, A1795, A2142, and A2199.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: NASA-CR-200597 , NAS 1.26:200597
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We measure the cross-correlation of Atacama cosmology telescope cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing convergence maps with quasar maps made from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8 SDSS-XDQSO photometric catalog. The CMB lensing quasar cross-power spectrum is detected for the first time at a significance of 3.8 sigma, which directly confirms that the quasar distribution traces the mass distribution at high redshifts z 〉 1. Our detection passes a number of null tests and systematic checks. Using this cross-power spectrum, we measure the amplitude of the linear quasar bias assuming a template for its redshift dependence, and find the amplitude to be consistent with an earlier measurement from clustering; at redshift z ap 1.4, the peak of the distribution of quasars in our maps, our measurement corresponds to a bias of b = 2.5 +/- 0.6. With the signal-to-noise ratio on CMB lensing measurements likely to improve by an order of magnitude over the next few years, our results demonstrate the potential of CMB lensing crosscorrelations to probe astrophysics at high redshifts.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN9467 , Physical Review-D; 86; 8; 083006-1-083006-8
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