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  • ddc:330  (19)
  • Competition
  • Entwicklungsländer
  • Heidelberg: Springer  (14)
  • Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Research Training Group (RTG) 1666 - GlobalFood
  • Göttingen: Ibero-Amerika-Inst. für Wirtschaftsforschung
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Keywords
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-07-18
    Description: While general equilibrium theories of trade stress the role of third-country effects, little work has been done in the empirical foreign direct investment (FDI) literature to test such spatial linkages. This paper aims to provide further insights into long-run determinants of Spanish FDI by considering not only bilateral but also spatially weighted third-country determinants. The few studies carried out so far have focused on FDI flows in a limited number of countries. However, Spanish FDI outflows have risen dramatically since 1995 and today account for a substantial part of global FDI. Therefore, we estimate recently developed spatial panel data models by maximum likelihood (ML) procedures for Spanish outflows (19932004) to top-50 host countries. After controlling for unobservable effects, we find that spatial interdependence matters and provide evidence consistent with new economic geography theories of agglomeration, mainly due to complex (vertical) FDI motivations. Spatial error models estimations also provide illuminating results regarding the transmission mechanism of shocks.
    Keywords: F21 ; F23 ; C31 ; C33 ; ddc:330 ; foreign direct investment ; spatial econometrics ; panel data ; Direktinvestition ; Allgemeines Gleichgewicht ; Maximum-Likelihood-Methode ; Schätzung ; Spanien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-07-18
    Description: We consider allocation problemswith indivisible goods when preferences are single-peaked. In this paper we identify the family of efficient, non-manipulable, consistent, and balanced solutions. We refer those solutions as Temporary Satisfaction Methods, that can be viewed as extensions to the indivisible case of the so-called uniform rule.
    Keywords: D61 ; D63 ; D74 ; ddc:330 ; allocation problem ; indivisibilities ; single-peaked preferences ; priority standard ; temporary satisfaction methods ; Allokationseffizienz ; Präferenztheorie ; Unteilbarkeit
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019-04-19
    Description: This paper analyzes the effect of competition in a dynamic contest in which agents of two types (A and B) differ in their expected performances; environments where type A outperforms type B are more frequent than those where B outperforms A. In each period, the population of agents is randomly matched in groups of n members (each group faces a particular environment), with the top k〈n performing agents from each group being the winners of the prizes. Hence, the ratio \frac{k}{n} determines the proportion of winning agents in each group. This ratio also describes the strength of competition in the group: the lower \frac{k}{n} is, the higher the level of competition is. Our results show that type A eventually dominates the entire population with moderate competition, but type B survives in the long run for high levels of competition. Hence, we obtain that no matter how low the expected success rate of a type is, if the strength of competition is high enough those agents with the lowest expected success rate survive in the long run.
    Keywords: D00 ; D23 ; C73 ; ddc:330 ; Contest ; Competition ; Strength of competition ; Selection process
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-06-07
    Description: This paper explores the impact of Spanish language proficiency on immigrant earnings in Spain using an instrumental variable quantile regression approach. The impact is on average roughly 17.2% but varies substantially across the earning distribution. The return to destination language proficiency actually ranges from zero at the bottom quantiles to 30% at the top quantile of the earning distribution. These findings suggest that the benefits derived from host language knowledge are particularly important among individuals with stronger unobserved abilities and marketable skills and that language training policies targeted at specific immigrant population categories may be ineffective from a labor market earning perspective.
    Keywords: F22 ; J24 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; Immigration ; Spanish language proficiency ; Earnings ; Instrumental variable quantile regression (IVQR)
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-12-12
    Description: We examine the impact of two important non-tariff measures presumed to simultaneously affect firms' decisions to export to the European Union (EU). As a novelty to the literature, we analyse the impacts of EU pesticide standards on African exports alongside a complementary non-tariff measure in the form of a minimum entry price control measure which aims to protect EU growers of certain fruits and vegetables against international competition. We represent these trade costs in the context of a Melitz firm heterogeneity framework using Helpman, Melitz and Rubenstein (2008) method. Analysis was based on Africa's exports of tomatoes to the EU from 2008 to 2013, using the gravity model of trade. Our results show that at both the extensive and intensive margins of trade, the high stringency of EU pesticide standard prevents new entry into the EU market, drives less productive firms away, and discourages existing exporters from expanding their market base. Furthermore, we find the EU entry price system acts like an export tax, inhibiting tomatoes export to the EU, but only at the intensive margin.
    Keywords: C13 ; C33 ; F10 ; F13 ; ddc:330 ; EU food regulations ; Pesticide standards ; Entry price control ; African exports ; Gravity model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 16
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    Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Research Training Group (RTG) 1666 - GlobalFood
    Publication Date: 2019-12-12
    Description: This paper investigates the causes of rejections of African exports at the EU border as a barrier in accessing EU markets. Our results indicate that natural geographical hurdle, poor trade-related infrastructure, inefficient border procedure and a lack of technical personnel increase the incidences of rejection at the EU border and add to Africa's challenges in accessing EU markets. In addition, in line with the growing literature, this study finds empirical support for the proposition that institutions, infrastructure and logistic quality matter for increased market penetration and continuous integration into the global trading system. Thus, the barrier created by EU rejection of Africa's exports can be addressed through the strengthening of African's institutions and trade facilitation measures particularly her custom and border management including transit regimes.
    Keywords: F13 ; F14 ; L15 ; 017 ; C33 ; ddc:330 ; Non-Tariff Barrier ; Export Rejections ; Institution ; Trade Procedures ; Africa ; European Union
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Research Training Group (RTG) 1666 - GlobalFood
    Publication Date: 2019-12-12
    Description: Non-tariff measures such as food safety standards are used to achieve the non-trade objective of protecting consumers' health and safety. However, they can also be used as a trade protection tool to drive a price wedge between domestic and foreign producers. This study investigates the protectionist intent of EU food safety standards using a sample of EU food imported from African countries with a specific focus on tomatoes and citrus fruits. We formalize what protectionism is by comparing EU standards to the internationally scientific referenced benchmarks regulated jointly by both the Food and Agricultural Organization and the World Health Organization. Our results show that the EU tomato sector is less dependent on imports and is overprotected by more stringent standards relative to the international benchmarks. Conversely, we find that the EU orange and lime and lemon sectors are heavily import dependent and are under-protected relative to the international standards. These results largely support the hypothesis that heavily import dependent sectors are less protected.
    Keywords: F13 ; F14 ; L15 ; P16 ; Q17 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; Trade Protectionism ; Non-tariff barriers ; Food Safety Standards ; Food exports
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Research Training Group (RTG) 1666 - GlobalFood
    Publication Date: 2019-12-12
    Description: The issues of zero trade observations and the validity of the log linear transformation of the gravity equation have generated a number of debates in the literature with differing claims about the most suitable estimation technique. To produce unbiased and consistent estimates for policy making, we undertake a careful comparison of a number of widely used estimators to investigate if EU fish standards are protectionist following reoccurring rejection of African fish products at the EU border. Analysis was based on a dataset of Africa's fish exports to the European Union between 2007 and 2012, which contains about 63% zero trade observations. Our results from the robustness checks are in favour of only the Multinomial Poisson Maximum Likelihood (MPML) technique as the most consistent estimator in relation to the impacts of standards and other explanatory variables. In addition, we find EU standards are indeed non-protectionist in spite of the high level of African fish exports rejected since 2008 at the EU border. Thus, a deeper trade agreement between these trading partners involving a significant transfer in science and technology to the Africa could help improve their compliance rate to EU standards and ensure increased export penetration.
    Keywords: C18 ; F13 ; F14 ; L15 ; ddc:330 ; Gravity model ; Zero trade ; Estimation techniques ; Food safety standards ; European Union ; African Exports
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 19
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    Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Research Training Group (RTG) 1666 - GlobalFood
    Publication Date: 2019-12-12
    Description: The empirical evidence that institutional differences across countries affect bilateral trade is robust. The crucial question remains how countries can enhance trade amid these differences. In this paper, we measure the degree to which governance and institutions differ between countries as "governance distance". Using a sample of EU/EFTA imports, we examine how the adoption of private food standards and certifications modify the effect of governance distance on exports within a structural gravity framework. Our results show that while increasing governance distance hinders bilateral trade, the interaction of standards and the governance distance is positively associated with exports, hence partially offsetting their direct trade-inhibiting effects. GlobalGAP certified countries see the trade-inhibiting effects of governance distance on their exports reduced by about 50%, ceteris paribus.
    Keywords: F14 ; L15 ; Q17 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; Agricultural trade ; GlobalGAP ; Private food standards ; Gravity model ; Institutional quality
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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