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  • American Meteorological Society (AMS)  (34)
  • Paleontological Society  (15)
  • American Geophysical Union  (13)
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd
  • 11
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 109 (2004): C05004, doi:10.1029/2003JC002094.
    Description: Rates of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production and buoyancy flux in the region immediately seaward (~1 km) of a highly stratified estuarine front at the mouth of the Fraser River (British Columbia, Canada) are calculated using a control volume approach. The calculations are based on field data obtained from shipboard instrumentation, specifically velocity data from a ship mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), and salinity data from a towed conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) unit. The results allow for the calculation of vertical velocities in the water column, and the total vertical transport of salt and momentum. The vertical turbulent transport quantities (inline equation, inline equation) can then be estimated as the difference between the total transport and the advective transport. Estimated production is on the order of 10−3 m2 s−3, yielding a value of ɛ(νN2)−1 on the order of 104. This rate of TKE production is at the upper limit of reported values for ocean and coastal environments. Flux Richardson numbers in this highly energetic system generally range from 0.15 to 0.2, with most mixing occurring at gradient Richardson numbers slightly less than inline equation. These values compare favorably with other values in the literature that are associated with turbulence observations from regimes characterized by scales several orders of magnitude smaller than are present in the Fraser River.
    Description: This work was performed as a part of D. MacDonald’s Ph.D. thesis, and was funded by Office of Naval Research grants N000-14-97-10134 and N000-14-97- 10566, National Science Foundation grant OCE-9906787, a National Science Foundation graduate fellowship, and support from the WHOI Academic Programs Office.
    Keywords: Turbulence ; Entrainment ; Estuary
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2010. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 115 (2010): C12024, doi:10.1029/2009JC006061.
    Description: Turbulent mixing of salt is examined in a shallow salt wedge estuary with strong fluvial and tidal forcing. A numerical model of the Merrimack River estuary is used to quantify turbulent stress, shear production, and buoyancy flux. Little mixing occurs during flood tides despite strong velocities because bottom boundary layer turbulence is dislocated from stratification elevated in the water column. During ebbs, bottom salinity fronts form at a series of bathymetric transitions. At the fronts, near-bottom velocity and shear stress are low, but shear, stress, and buoyancy flux are elevated at the pycnocline. Internal shear layers provide the dominant source of mixing during the early ebb. Later in the ebb, the pycnocline broadens and moves down such that boundary layer turbulence dominates mixing. Mixing occurs primarily during ebbs, with internal shear mixing accounting for about 50% of the total buoyancy flux. Both the relative contribution of internal shear mixing and the mixing efficiency increase with discharge, with bulk mixing efficiencies between 0.02 and 0.07. Buoyancy fluxes in the estuary increase with discharge up to about 400 m3 s−1 above which a majority of the mixing occurs offshore. Observed buoyancy fluxes were more consistent with the k-ɛ turbulence closure than the Mellor-Yamada closure, and more total mixing occurred in the estuary with k-ɛ. Calculated buoyancy fluxes were sensitive to horizontal grid resolution, as a lower resolution grid yielded less integrated buoyancy flux in the estuary and exported lower salinity water but likely had greater numerical mixing.
    Description: This research was funded by National Science Foundation Grant OCE‐0452054. Ralston also received support from The Penzance Endowed Fund in Support of Assistant Scientists and The John F. and Dorothy H. Magee Fund in Support of Scientific Staff at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    Keywords: Mixing ; Turbulence ; Salt wedge estuary
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019-12-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 124(7), (2019): 4784-4802, doi: 10.1029/2019JC015006.
    Description: Modifications for navigation since the late 1800s have increased channel depth (H) in the lower Hudson River estuary by 10–30%, and at the mouth the depth has more than doubled. Observations along the lower estuary show that both salinity and stratification have increased over the past century. Model results comparing predredging bathymetry from the 1860s with modern conditions indicate an increase in the salinity intrusion of about 30%, which is roughly consistent with the H5/3 scaling expected from theory for salt flux dominated by steady exchange. While modifications including a recent deepening project have been concentrated near the mouth, the changes increase salinity and threaten drinking water supplies more than 100 km landward. The deepening has not changed the responses to river discharge (Qr) of the salinity intrusion (~Qr−1/3) or mean stratification (Qr2/3). Surprisingly, the increase in salinity intrusion with channel deepening results in almost no change in the estuarine circulation. This contrasts sharply with local scaling based on local dynamics of an H2 dependence, but it is consistent with a steady state salt balance that allows scaling of the estuarine circulation based on external forcing factors and is independent of depth. In contrast, the observed and modeled increases in stratification are opposite of expectations from the steady state balance, which could be due to reduction in mixing with loss of shallow subtidal regions. Overall, the mean shift in estuarine parameter space due to channel deepening has been modest compared with the monthly‐to‐seasonal variability due to tides and river discharge.
    Description: Funding was provided by NSF Coastal SEES (OCE 1325136). Data supporting this study are posted to Zenodo (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2551285) or are available by contacting the author.
    Description: 2019-12-07
    Keywords: estuarine circulation ; salinity intrusion ; stratification ; dredging ; Hudson River
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Geophysical prospecting 20 (1972), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Recent improvements in instrumentation and field techniques have made time domain electromagnetic methods more acceptable. This acceptance has prompted further theoretical work for use in the interpretation of field data.The asymptotic solutions for the transient electromagnetic field components in the vicinity of a fault zone separating two media of high resistivity contrast are obtained for low frequency or late time. Excitation is by normally incident plane waves at the earth's surface. Because of the slow convergence of the asymptotic time series expansions, a numerical polygonal inversion is performed on the real part, or in-phase term, of the time-harmonic surface expressions for the electric and magnetic field components.For both impulsive and step excitation the transient electric field normal to the contact is more sensitive to changes in the structural attitude of the fault plane than the transient electric field parallel to the contact. The transient anomalous vertical magnetic field for either impulsive or step excitation appears to be most diagnostic of dip angle, although waveform shape does not seem to be significantly dependent on the slope of the fault. For dip angles greater than 90 degrees, as measured on the poorly conducting side of the contact, all field components become more insensitive as indicators of the structural attitude. The results presented here should be useful in obtaining several geologic parameters descriptive of a fault zone or lateral resistivity inhomogeneity from transient electromagnetic soundings; they should also provide an aid to differentiating with available geological information between layering effects on transient electromagnetic responses and effects largely due to lateral changes in resistivity.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: SYNOPSIS A lipogenic toxin produced by the amoeba Hartmannella rhysodes, Fernald strain, made mammalian cells in culture round up and fill with fat droplets. From this toxin an enzyme was obtained with lecithinase and lysolecithinase activities. This enzyme is different from any isolated elsewhere. When purified enzyme was added to strain L mouse fibroblasts in culture, the cells rounded up and became fatty. Much of the lipogenic activity of the original toxin can be ascribed to this enzyme.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Physiologia plantarum 57 (1983), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The contribution of cytochrome and alternative pathways to respiration during soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Chippewa 64] seed formation and maturation was measured by oxygen consumption of embryonic axis and cotyledon tissues and of mitochondria isolated from immature seeds. Respiration rates (dry weight basis) declined duing the last month of seed maturation. Cyanide sensitive respiration (cytochrome pathway) accounted for 80 to 90% of total oxygen consumption throughout seed formation and maturation. The proportion of the total respiration resistant to 1 mM cyanide and inhibited by 1 mM salicylhydroxamic acid (alternative pathway) did not exceed 6%. A residual oxygen consumption, accounting for 5 to 15% of total respiration, persisted in the presence of both inhibitors. Likewise, virtually no alternative respiration was found in mitochondria prepared from immature seeds. The alternative respiratory pathway seems absent during soybean seed formation and maturation regardless of whether grown in the greenhouse or field.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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