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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-10-25
    Description: Background: Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is an economically important fruit crop. Quality-determining grape components such as sugars, acids, flavors, anthocyanins, tannins, etc., accumulate in the different grape berry development stages. Thus, correlating the proteomic profiles with the biochemical and physiological changes occurring in grape is of paramount importance to advance in our understanding of berry development and ripening processes. Results: We report the developmental analysis of Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat Hamburg berries at the protein level from fruit set to full ripening. An iTRAQ-based bottom-up proteomic approach followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification and quantitation of 411 and 630 proteins in the green and ripening phases, respectively. Two key points in development relating to changes in protein level were detected: end of the first growth period (7mm-to-15mm) and onset of ripening (15mm-to-V100, V100-to-110). A functional analysis was performed using the Blast2GO software based on the enrichment of GO terms during berry growth. Conclusions: The study of the proteome contributes to decipher the biological processes and metabolic pathways involved in the development and quality traits of fruit and its derived products. These findings lie mainly in metabolism and storage of sugars and malate, energy-related pathways such as respiration, photosynthesis and fermentation, and the synthesis of polyphenolics as major secondary metabolites in grape berry. In addition, some key steps in carbohydrate and malate metabolism have been identified in this study, i.e., PFP-PFK or SuSy-INV switches among others, which may influence the final sugar and acid balance in ripe fruit. In conclusion, some proteins not reported to date have been detected to be deregulated in specific tissues and developmental stages, leading to formulate new hypotheses on the metabolic processes underlying grape berry development. These results open up new lines to decipher the processes controlling grape berry development and ripening.
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2229
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-11-24
    Description: Background: The objective was to investigate the association between BMI and single nucleotide polymorphisms previously identified of obesity-related genes in two Spanish populations. Forty SNPs in 23 obesity-related genes were evaluated in a rural population characterized by a high prevalence of obesity (869 subjects, mean age 46yr, 62% women, 36% obese) and in an urban population (1425 subjects, mean age 54yr, 50% women, 19% obese). Genotyping was assessed by using SNPlex and PLINK for the association analysis. Results: Polymorphisms of the FTO were significantly associated with BMI, in the rural population (beta 0.87, p-value
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2156
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2012-07-31
    Description: Background: It has been reported that the histone deacetylase inhibitor (iHDAc) trichostatin A (TSA) induces an increase in MDR1 gene transcription (ABCB1). This result would compromise the use of iHDACs in combination with other cytotoxic agents that are substrates of P-glycoprotein (Pgp). It has also been reported the use of alternative promoters by the ABCB1 gene and the existence of a traslational control of Pgp protein. Finally, the ABCB1 gene is located in a genetic locus with the nested gene RUNDC3B in the complementary DNA strand, raising the possibility that RUNDC3B expression could interfere with ABCB1 alternative promoter regulation. Methods: A combination of RT-PCR, real time RT-PCR, Western blot and drug accumulation assays by flow cytometry have been used in this study. Results: The iHDACs-induced increase in MDR1 mRNA levels is not followed by a subsequent increase in Pgp protein levels or activity in several pancreatic and colon carcinoma cell lines, suggesting a traslational control of Pgp in these cell lines. In addition, the MDR1 mRNA produced in these cell lines is shorter in its 5' end that the Pgp mRNA produced in cell lines expressing Pgp protein. The different size of the Pgp mRNA is due to the use of alternative promoters. We also demonstrate that these promoters are differentially regulated by TSA. The translational blockade of Pgp mRNA in the pancreatic carcinoma cell lines could be related to alterations in the 5' end of the MDR1 mRNA in the Pgp protein expressing cell lines. In addition, we demonstrate that the ABCB1 nested gene RUNDC3B expression although upregulated by TSA is independent of the ABCB1 alternative promoter used. Conclusions: The results show that the increase in MDR1 mRNA expression after iHDACs treatment is clinically irrelevant since this mRNA does not render an active Pgp protein, at least in colon and pancreatic cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that TSA in fact, differentially regulates both ABCB1 promoters, downregulating the upstream promoter that is responsible for active P-glycoprotein expression. These results suggest that iHDACs such as TSA may in fact potentiate the effects of antitumoral drugs that are substrates of Pgp. Finally, we have also demonstrate that TSA upregulates RUNDC3B mRNA independently of the ABCB1 promoter in use.
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2199
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2012-08-07
    Description: Background: Mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5) located in the Xp22 regionhave been shown to cause a subset of atypical Rett syndrome with infantile spasms or earlyseizures starting in the first postnatal months. Methods: We performed mutation screening of CDKL5 in 60 female patients who had been identifiedas negative for the methyl CpG-binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) mutations, but who hadcurrent or past epilepsy, regardless of the age of onset, type, and severity. All the exons in theCDKL5 gene and their neighbouring sequences were examined, and CDKL5 rearrangementswere studied by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Results: Six previously unidentified DNA changes were detected, two of which were disease-causingmutations in the catalytic domain: a frameshift mutation (c.509_510insGT;p.Glu170GlyfsX36) and a complete deletion of exon 10. Both were found in patients withseizures that started in the first month of life. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the importance of CDKL5 mutations as etiological factors inneurodevelopmental disorders, and indicated that a thorough analysis of the CDKL5 genesequence and its rearrangements should be considered in females with Rett syndrome-likephenotypes, severe encephalopathy and epilepsy with onset before 5 months of age. Thisstudy also confirmed the usefulness of MLPA as a diagnostic screening method for use inclinical practice.
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2350
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-04-27
    Description: Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is considered a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease with a prototypical oscillatory behavior, as evidenced by the presence of clinical relapses. Understanding the dynamics of immune cells governing the course of MS, therefore, has many implications for immunotherapy. Here, we used flow cytometry to analyze the time-dependent behavior of antigen-specific effector (Teff) and regulatory (Treg) T cells and microglia in mice model of MS, Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE), and compared the observations with a mathematical cross-regulation model of T-cell dynamics in autoimmune disease. Results: We found that Teff and Treg cells specific to myelin olygodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) developed coupled oscillatory dynamics with a 4- to 5-day period and decreasing amplitude that was always higher for the Teff populations, in agreement with the mathematical model. Microglia activation followed the oscillations of MOG-specific Teff cells in the secondary lymphoid organs, but they were activated before MOG-specific T-cell peaks in the CNS. Finally, we assessed the role of B-cell depletion induced by anti-CD20 therapy in the dynamics of T cells in an EAE model with more severe disease after therapy. We observed that B-cell depletion decreases Teff expansion, although its oscillatory behavior persists. However, the effect of B cell depletion was more significant in the Treg population within the CNS, which matched with activation of microglia and worsening of the disease. Mathematical modeling of T-cell cross-regulation after anti-CD20 therapy suggests that B-cell depletion may influence the dynamics of T cells by fine-tuning their activation. Conclusions: The oscillatory dynamics of T-cells have an intrinsic origin in the physiological regulation of the adaptive immune response, which influences both disease phenotype and response to immunotherapy.
    Electronic ISSN: 1752-0509
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-09-07
    Description: Rhizobia are soil bacteria that establish symbiotic relationships with legumes and fix nitrogen in root nodules. We recently reported that several nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains, belonging to Rhizobium phaseol...
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2164
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2013-04-17
    Description: Background: The prevalence and type of plasmids, resistance genes and integrons carried by two collections of multiresistant E. coli producing or not extended-spectrum beta-lactamases have been compared. Rep-PCR was used to determine the clonal relationship of the organisms. Plasmids were classified according to their incompatibility. Class 1 and Class 2 integrons and antibiotic resistance genes were analysed by PCR and sequencing. Results: Both collections of organisms contained a large diversity of unrelated strains with some clones distributed in both groups of isolates. Large plasmids were identified in the two groups of organisms. Plasmids with replicons repK and repColE were more frequent among ESBL-producing isolates, while repFIA, repFII and repA/C replicons were more frequent in isolates lacking ESBL. Conjugative plasmids with repK and repA/C replicons coded for CTX-M-14 and CMY-2 beta-lactamases, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the distribution of class 1 and class 2 integrons among multiresistant E. coli producing or not ESBL, and dfrA17-ant(3[prime][prime])-Ie was the cassette arrangement most commonly found. Conclusions: In the concrete temporal and geographical context of this study, multiresistant E. coli producing ESBL or other mechanisms of resistance were largely clonally diverse and present some differences in the types of harboured plasmids. Still, some clones were found in both ESBL-producing and --lacking isolates.
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2180
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2015-07-28
    Description: Background: The cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory network (PKA-RN) regulates metabolism, memory, learning, development, and response to stress. Previous models of this network considered the catalytic subunits (CS) as a single entity, overlooking their functional individualities. Furthermore, PKA-RN dynamics are often measured through cAMP levels in nutrient-depleted cells shortly after being fed with glucose, dismissing downstream physiological processes. Results: Here we show that temperature stress, along with deletion of PKA-RN genes, significantly affected HSE-dependent gene expression and the dynamics of the PKA-RN in cells growing in exponential phase. Our genetic analysis revealed complex regulatory interactions between the CS that influenced the inhibition of Hsf1/Skn7 transcription factors. Accordingly, we found new roles in growth control and stress response for Hsf1/Skn7 when PKA activity was low (cdc25Δ cells). Experimental results were used to propose an interaction scheme for the PKA-RN and to build an extension of a classic synchronous discrete modeling framework. Our computational model reproduced the experimental data and predicted complex interactions between the CS and the existence of a repressor of Hsf1/Skn7 that is activated by the CS. Additional genetic analysis identified Ssa1 and Ssa2 chaperones as such repressors. Further modeling of the new data foresaw a third repressor of Hsf1/Skn7, active only in theabsence of Tpk2. By averaging the network state over all its attractors, a good quantitative agreement between computational and experimental results was obtained, as the averages reflected more accurately the population measurements. Conclusions: The assumption of PKA being one molecular entity has hindered the study of a wide range of behaviors. Additionally, the dynamics of HSE-dependent gene expression cannot be simulated accurately by considering the activity of single PKA-RN components (i.e., cAMP, individual CS, Bcy1, etc.). We show that the differential roles of the CS are essential to understand the dynamics of the PKA-RN and its targets. Our systems level approach, which combined experimental results with theoretical modeling, unveils the relevance of the interaction scheme for the CS and offers quantitative predictions for several scenarios (WT vs. mutants in PKA-RN genes and growth at optimal temperature vs. heat shock).
    Electronic ISSN: 1752-0509
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2017-12-14
    Description: © The Author(s), 2015. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in GigaScience 4 (2015): 27, doi:10.1186/s13742-015-0066-5.
    Description: Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits.
    Description: This work was supported by the Micro B3 project, which is funded from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7; Joint Call OCEAN.2011‐2: Marine microbial diversity – new insights into marine ecosystems functioning and its biotechnological potential) under the grant agreement no 287589.
    Keywords: Ocean sampling day ; OSD ; Biodiversity ; Genomics ; Health index ; Bacteria ; Microorganism ; Metagenomics ; Marine ; Micro B3 ; Standards
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-12-08
    Description: © The Author(s), 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in GigaScience 5 (2016): 14, doi:10.1186/s13742-016-0118-5.
    Description: Systems biology promises to revolutionize medicine, yet human wellbeing is also inherently linked to healthy societies and environments (sustainability). The IDEA Consortium is a systems ecology open science initiative to conduct the basic scientific research needed to build use-oriented simulations (avatars) of entire social-ecological systems. Islands are the most scientifically tractable places for these studies and we begin with one of the best known: Moorea, French Polynesia. The Moorea IDEA will be a sustainability simulator modeling links and feedbacks between climate, environment, biodiversity, and human activities across a coupled marine–terrestrial landscape. As a model system, the resulting knowledge and tools will improve our ability to predict human and natural change on Moorea and elsewhere at scales relevant to management/conservation actions.
    Description: Work was supported in part by: the Institute of Theoretical Physics and the Pauli Center at ETH Zurich; the US National Science Foundation (NSF Moorea Coral Reef Long Term Ecological Research Site, OCE-1236905; Socio-Ecosystem Dynamics of Natural-Human Networks on Model Islands, CNH-1313830; Coastal SEES: Adaptive Capacity, Resilience, and Coral Reef State Shifts in Social-ecological Systems, OCE-1325652, OCE-1325554); the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (Berkeley Initiative in Global Change Biology; Genomic Standards Consortium); Courtney Ross and the Ross Institute; UC Berkeley Vice Chancellor for Research; CRIOBE; and the France Berkeley Fund (FBF 2014-0015).
    Keywords: Computational ecology ; Biodiversity ; Genomics ; Biocode ; Earth observations ; Social-ecological system ; Ecosystem dynamics ; Climate change scenarios ; Predictive modeling
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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