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  • Articles  (36)
  • Geosciences  (36)
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  • Articles  (36)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2004-01-01
    Description: A database containing 45 events in the Barents Sea region has been compiled and analyzed with the aim of evaluating crustal models, travel-times and attenuation relations in the context of performing regional detection threshold monitoring of this region. The 45 events are mostly located around the circumference of the study area due to the virtually aseismic nature of the Barents Sea itself. Regional P n and S n phases were observable for most events in the database, while P g and L g phases were only observable for events with raypaths that do not cross the tectonic structures in the Barents Sea. This corroborates a number of previous observations of L g -wave blockage within the Barents Sea. Three existing velocity models were evaluated, with a model having slightly lower S velocities than earlier assumed in the upper mantle giving the overall best fit to the observed arrivals. In order to estimate magnitudes, short-term average (STA) and spectral amplitude values were calculated in several frequency bands for all phase arrivals in the database. There were no significant differences between spectral and STA amplitudes, so the latter were used as this parameter is more efficient to calculate in real-time processing. An inversion was performed in order to determine an attenuation relation specific for this region. The resulting magnitudes based on P n , P g , S n and L g phases gave an internally consistent, reasonably stable set of values, which can be calibrated towards any existing global or regional scale. ©2004 Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel,
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2002-03-01
    Description:  — This second paper (Part 2) pertaining to optimized site-specific threshold monitoring addresses the application of the method to regions covered by a teleseismic or a combined regional-teleseismic network. In the first paper (Part 1) we developed the method for the general case, and demonstrated its application to an area well-covered by a regional network (the Novaya Zemlya nuclear test site). In the present paper, we apply the method to the Indian and Pakistani nuclear test sites, and show results during the periods of nuclear testing by these two countries in May 1998. Since the coverage by regional stations in these areas is poor, an optimized approach requires the use of selected, high-quality stations at teleseismic distances.¶To optimize the threshold monitoring of these test sites, we use as calibration events either one of the nuclear explosions or a nearby earthquake. From analysis of the calibration events we derive values for array beamforming steering delays, filter bands, short-term averages (STA) lengths, phase travel times ( P waves), and amplitude-magnitude relationships for each station. By applying these parameters, we obtain a monitoring capability of both test sites ranging from m b 2.8–3.0 using teleseismic stations only. When including the nearby Nilore station to monitor the Indian tests, we show that the threshold can be reduced by about 0.4 magnitude units. In particular, we demonstrate that the Indian tests on 13 May, 1998, which were not detected by any known seismic station, must have corresponded to a magnitude ( m b ) of less than 2.4.¶We also discuss the effect of a nearby aftershock sequence on the monitoring capability for the Pakistani test sites. Such an aftershock sequence occurred in fact on the day of the last Pakistani test (30 May, 1998), following a large ( m b 5.5) earthquake in Afghanistan located about 1100 km from the test site. We show that the threshold monitoring technique has sufficient resolution to suppress the signals from these interfering aftershocks without significantly affecting the true peak of the nuclear explosion on the threshold trace. ©2002 Birkhäuser Verlag Basel,
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2002-03-01
    Description:  —  Continuous seismic threshold monitoring is a technique that has been developed over the past several years to assess the upper magnitude limit of possible seismic events that might have occurred in a geographical target area. The method provides continuous time monitoring at a given confidence level, and can be applied in a site-specific, regional or global context.¶In this paper (Part 1) and a companion paper (Part 2) we address the problem of optimizing the site-specific approach in order to achieve the highest possible automatic monitoring capability of particularly interesting areas. The present paper addresses the application of the method to cases where a regional monitoring network is available. We have in particular analyzed events from the region around the Novaya Zemlya nuclear test site to develop a set of optimized processing parameters for the arrays SPITS, ARCES, FINES, and NORES. From analysis of the calibration events we have derived values for beam-forming steering delays, filter bands, short-term average (STA) lengths, phase travel times ( P and S waves), and amplitude-magnitude relationships for each array. By using these parameters for threshold monitoring of the Novaya Zemlya testing area, we obtain a monitoring capability varying between m b 2.0 and 2.5 during normal noise conditions.¶The advantage of using a network, rather than a single station or array, for monitoring purposes becomes particularly evident during intervals with high global seismic activity (aftershock sequences), high seismic noise levels (wind, water waves, ice cracks) or station outages. For the time period November-December 1997, all time intervals with network magnitude thresholds exceeding m b 2.5 were visually analyzed, and we found that all of these threshold peaks could be explained by teleseismic, regional, or local signals from events outside the Novaya Zemlya testing area. We could therefore conclude within the confidence level provided by the method, that no seismic event of magnitude exceeding 2.5 occurred at the Novaya Zemlya test site during this two-month time interval.¶As an example of particular interest in a monitoring context, we apply optimized threshold processing of the SPITS array for a time interval around 16 August 1997 m b 3.5 event in the Kara Sea. We show that this processing enables us to detect a second, smaller event from the same site ( m b 2.6), occurring about 4 hours later. This second event was not defined automatically by standard processing. ©2002 Birkhäuser Verlag Basel,
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2002-02-01
    Description:  — In this paper, we use data from seismic stations operated by NORSAR, the Kola Regional Seismological Centre (KRSC) and IRIS to study the characteristics of regional phases in the European Arctic, with emphasis on the P / S ratio discriminant. While the detection and location capability of the regional station network is outstanding, source classification of small seismic events has proved very difficult. For example, the m b  = 3.5 seismic event near Novaya Zemlya on 16 August, 1997 has been the subject of extensive analysis in order to locate it reliably and to classify the source type. We consider the application of the P / S discriminant in the context of this event and other events observed at regional distances in the European Arctic. We show that the P / S ratios of Novaya Zemlya nuclear explosions measured in the 1–3 Hz filter band scale with magnitude, indicating a need for caution and further research when applying P / S discriminants. Using mainly data from the large NORSAR array, we note that observed P / S amplitude ratios in the European Arctic show large variability for the same source type and similar propagation paths, even when considering closely spaced observation points. This effect is most pronounced at far regional distances and relatively low frequencies (typically 1–3 Hz), but it is also significant on closer recordings (around 10 degrees) and at higher frequencies (up to about 8 Hz). Our conclusion from this study is that the P / S ratio at high frequencies (e.g., 6–8 Hz) shows promise as a discriminant between low-magnitude earthquakes and explosions in the European Arctic, but its application will require further research, including extensive regional calibration and detailed station-source corrections. Such research should also focus on combining the P / S ratio with other short-period discriminants, such as complexity and spectral ratios. ©2002 Birkhäuser Verlag Basel,
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2007-09-01
    Print ISSN: 0895-0695
    Electronic ISSN: 1938-2057
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 1995-07-01
    Description: This paper reports on a joint meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society's Joint Association for Geophysics and VERTIC (the Verification Technology Information Centre) held in London in 1992. The topics presented focused on the detection and recognition of underground nuclear explosions. The objective of the meeting was to emphasize the multi-methodological approach that is important in verifying compliance with test-ban treaties. An overview of seismological monitoring was followed by a discussion of the technical and scientific aspects of a global seismic monitoring network, and in particular of the 1991 experiment to test the large-scale international exchange of seismic data between recording stations and data centres world-wide. The current capabilities of satellite remote-sensing were presented, and their use explained in terms of both the provision of information for monitoring the development of foreign nuclear testing programmes and also for providing sufficient information for the evaluation of treaty compliance. A review of radio-isotope sampling showed how the isotopic signature of both air and ground based sampling programmes can be diagnostic of the nuclear source. Finally, previously classified research on the ionospheric effects of underground nuclear explosions was presented, the generated acoustic waves disturbing the ionosphere and producing detectable changes in the reflection of radio and radar signals which have potential as a monitoring technique. ©1995 Kluwer Academic Publishers
    Print ISSN: 0169-3298
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-0956
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2002-02-01
    Description:  — Accurate discrimination of seismic events with a regional network requires detailed knowledge of the propagation characteristics of seismic waves in the region. At present, such propagation characteristics are reasonably well known for P and S waves in the European Arctic, however much work remains to be done regarding surface wave propagation and magnitude estimation.¶Regional long-period or broadband seismic data in digital form has been available in the European Arctic for only a few years. In order to assess regional surface wave propagation, and in particular to evaluate the M s : m b discriminant at regional distances, it is therefore necessary to take advantage of the historic analog recordings. The station APA in Apatity forms a unique source of such data, with high-quality long-period seismic recordings of regional earthquakes and nuclear explosions dating back about 30 years.¶This paper presents initial results from a project to digitize APA surface waves of selected regional events. The recordings for recent years have been compared to a colocated broadband Guralp three-component seismometer in order to verify the response characteristics and the quality of the digitization process. It turns out that the quality of the digitized records is excellent, and can be used over a spectral band ranging from 5 seconds to at least 30 seconds period.¶We demonstrate the capabilities of the APA surface wave recordings to provide a promising separation of earthquakes and explosions in the European Arctic over a range of frequencies using the M s : m b discriminant, although we note that additional work is required in regionalization of the propagation paths to take into account the major tectonic features in the region. We also note that the body-wave magnitudes provided by international agencies are not always reliable for events in this region, and must be reassessed in order to make full use of the earthquake-explosion discrimination potential. ©2002 Birkhäuser Verlag Basel,
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2005-07-01
    Description: In the monitoring of earthquakes and nuclear explosions using a sparse worldwide network of seismic stations, it is frequently necessary to make reliable location estimates using a single seismic array. It is also desirable to screen out routine industrial explosions automatically in order that analyst resources are not wasted upon detections which can, with a high level of confidence, be associated with such a source. The Kovdor mine on the Kola Peninsula of NW Russia is the site of frequent industrial blasts which are well recorded by the ARCES regional seismic array at a distance of approximately 300 km. We describe here an automatic procedure for identifying signals which are likely to result from blasts at the Kovdor mine and, wherever possible, for obtaining single array locations for such events. Carefully calibrated processing parameters were chosen using measurements from confirmed events at the mine over a one-year period for which the operators supplied Ground Truth information. Phase arrival times are estimated using an autoregressive method and slowness and azimuth are estimated using broadband f {-} k analysis in fixed frequency bands and time-windows fixed relative to the initial P-onset time. We demonstrate the improvement to slowness estimates resulting from the use of fixed frequency bands. Events can be located using a single array if, in addition to the P-phase, at least one secondary phase is found with both an acceptable slowness estimate and valid onset-time estimate. We evaluate the on-line system over a twelve month period; every event known to have occured at the mine is detected by the process and 32 out of 53 confirmed events were located automatically. The remaining events were classified as “very likely” Kovdor events and were subsequently located by an analyst. The false alarm rate is low; only 84 very likely Kovdor events were identified during the whole of 2003 and none of these were subsequently located at a large distance from the mine. The location accuracy achieved automatically by the single-array process is remarkably good, and is comparable to that obtained interactively by an experienced analyst using two-array observations. The greatest problem encountered in the single array location procedure is the difficulty in determining arrival times for secondary phases, given the weak Sn phase and the complexity of the P-coda. The method described here could be applied to a wide range of locations and sources for which the monitoring of seismic activity is desirable. The effectiveness will depend upon the distance between source and receiver, the nature of the seismic sources and the level of regional seismicity. ©2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.
    Print ISSN: 1383-4649
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-157X
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-03-22
    Description: We have investigated the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the International Data Center (IDC) for the time period 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2011 in order to quantify the event detection capability of individual seismic stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). In order to obtain regionalized detection thresholds, we divide the events into a binned global grid system and investigate three estimation algorithms applied to each specific target area. Our preferred algorithm is to consider the ensemble of REB reported events in the area, and downscale each event magnitude with the observed signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the station. In this process, it is necessary to take into account events not detected by the station, in order to avoid a bias in the threshold estimate. We address this problem by using a maximum-likelihood estimation procedure whenever information on nondetections is available in the REB and correct for an estimated bias in other cases. A major result of this study is quantification and ranking of the IMS primary and auxiliary seismic stations based on their capability to detect events within regional and teleseismic distance ranges. We note that for each station, source regions with noticeable signal amplitude focusing effects (bright spots) and defocusing effects can be identified and quantified. We apply the results of this study to calculate updated global detection capability maps for the IMS primary seismic network.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-12-01
    Description: The detectability of low magnitude seismic events in the European Arctic is determined primarily by the small-aperture International Monitoring System arrays ARCES and SPITS. In August 2004, the SPITS array was upgraded to a broadband array with an increase in the sampling rate from 40 to 80 Hz. Most important, however, for the detection and location of small-magnitude seismic events was the deployment of three-component instruments at six of the nine sites. Detection and correct classification of secondary phases are of paramount importance for events observed by only a small number of stations at regional distances; and, in the absence of the strong Lg phases typically observed for continental propagation paths, multiple three-component stations were deemed necessary to exploit the higher S-phase amplitudes anticipated on the horizontal sensors. We demonstrate improved signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for S phases on horizontal beams for several events close to Novaya Zemlya. Horizontal component f-k analysis improves direction estimates and phase classification for low-SNR signals. We demonstrate secondary phases that are misidentified by vertical-only f-k analysis but which are correctly classified by three-component array processing. A significant problem with array processing at SPITS is the overlap in slowness space of regional P and S phases. Phase identification is improved greatly by comparing the coherence between vertical traces with the coherence between horizontal traces. Considerations in the routine array processing of SPITS data are reviewed, including the need for elevation corrections in slowness estimation and the need to take into account azimuth-dependent variation of apparent velocity estimates for regional phases.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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